Description : Melanie Klein's writings, particularly on infant development and psychosis, have been crucial both to theoretical work and to clinical practice. Envy and Gratitude collects her writings from 1946 until her death in 1960, including two papers published posthumously. Klein's major paper, 'Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms', introduces the concept of the paranoid-schizoid position, in which the infant ego splits, projects and introjects its objects - most particularly the mother - during the first few months of life. 'Envy and Gratitude' her last major work, introduces her theory of primary envy.
Description : Cultures of the Death Drive is a comprehensive guide to the work of pioneering psychoanalyst Melanie Klein (1882–1960) and to developments in Kleinian theory to date. It is also an analysis and a demonstration of the distinctive usefulness of Klein’s thought for understanding modernist literature and visual art. Esther Sánchez-Pardo examines the issues that the seminal discourses of psychoanalysis and artistic modernism brought to the fore in the early twentieth century and points toward the uses of Kleinian thinking for reconceptualizing the complexities of identity and social relations today. Sánchez-Pardo argues that the troubled political atmosphere leading to both world wars created a melancholia fueled by “cultures of the death drive” and the related specters of object loss—loss of coherent and autonomous selves, of social orders where stability reigned, of metaphysical guarantees, and, in some cases, loss and fragmentation of empire. This melancholia permeated, and even propelled, modernist artistic discourses. Sánchez-Pardo shows how the work of Melanie Klein, the theorist of melancholia par excellence, uniquely illuminates modernist texts, particularly their representations of gender and sexualities. She offers a number of readings—of works by Virginia Woolf, René Magritte, Lytton Strachey, Djuna Barnes, and Countee Cullen—that reveal the problems melancholia posed for verbal and visual communication and the narrative and rhetorical strategies modernist artists derived to either express or overcome them. In her afterword, Sánchez-Pardo explicates the connections between modernist and contemporary melancholia. A valuable contribution to psychoanalytic theory, gender and sexuality studies, and the study of representation in literature and the visual arts, Cultures of the Death Drive is a necessary resource for those interested in the work of Melanie Klein.
Description : This book is a comprehensive revision of the notion of envy, suggesting that envy is not innate and proposing some fresh ideas about its relation to psychopathology. Its argument is that envy is not simply attributable to constitutional forces, as Melanie Klein proposed, but the outcome of a complex process that includes a disturbance in symbolic functioning. This is the first time a critical review has been undertaken in book from of this cornerstone of British psychoanalysis.As the concept of envy needs to be explored in the light of attachment theory, an important aim of this book is in bridging attachment theory and classic psychoanalytic understanding of severe psychopathology. It also offers, for the first time, not only a reconceptualisation of the notion of envy, but a working model of development which is highly relevant to clinical practice. This model incorporates recent findings from neuroscience, which indicate that environmental influences are of prime importance to infantile development, and that disturbed attachments result in anatomical, physiological and psychological developmental disturbances. The model will be particularly useful in furthering our understanding of the influence on later mental health of an infant's healthy attachment to its mother. From direct clinical experience in the forensic field of psychotherapy, and general practice, the author describes how psychosis and criminal behaviour represent a fundamentally acute failure in the capacity for social interdependence and altruism in human nature that is taken for granted in the psychologically well.Conducting her own research, the author was enabled to examine further the underlying causal mechanisms of aggression and destructiveness in relation to envy. A substantial amount of clinical material in this book supports the author's argument that innate destructiveness is not the primary problem: survival needs are primary, with aggression a secondary reaction when libidinal needs are frustrated. Fight and flight responses in psychopathology, including psychoses, dissociative disorders and perverse activities, are therefore seen as self preservative and not death wishes.The result is a useful paradigm of mental health which does not rely on omnipotent phantasy and which does justice to the importance of human interdependence on the one hand, and adaptability and inventiveness on the other.
Description : In this brilliant contribution to psychoanlaytic theory and practice, Ogden has once again challenged psychoanalytic clinicians to expand the conceptual envelope that confines and constricts their work. Sounding the death knell for the positivist view of the patient and analyst as discrete subject and object, he forges a contemporary, decentred entity - the analytic third.
Description : A cloth-bound four-volume set including Melanie Klein's best-known works. This is a facsimile edition of the 1975 Hogarth Press four-volume set with a limited print-run of 300. Volume I - “Love, Guilt and Reparation” and Other Works 1921-1945 1. The Development of a Child (1921) 2. Inhibitions and Difficulties at Puberty (1922) 3. The Role of the School in the Libidinal Development of the Child (1923) 4. Early Analysis (1923) 5. A Contribution to the Psychogenesis of Tics (1925) 6. The Psychological Principles of Early Analysis (1926) 7. Symposium on Child-Analysis (1927) 8. Criminal Tendencies in Normal Children (1927) 9. Early Stages of the Oedipus Conflict (1928) 10. Personification in the Play of Children (1929) 11. Infantile Anxiety Situations Reflected in a Work of Art and in the Creative Impulse (1929) 12. The Importance ofSymbol-Formation in the Development of the Ego (1930) 13. The Psychotherapy of the Psychoses (1930) 14. A Contribution to the Theory of Intellectual Inhibition (I931) 15. The Early Development of Conscience in the Child (1933) 16. On Criminality (I934) 17. A Contribution to the Psychogenesis of Manic-Depressive States (1935) 18. Weaning (1936) 19. Love, Guilt and Reparation (I937) 20. Mourning and its Relation to Manic-Depressive States (1940) 21. The Oedipus Complex in the Light of Early Anxieties (1945) Volume II - The Psycho-Analysis of Children Part I THE TECHNIQUE OF CHILD ANALYSIS 1. The Psychological Foundations of Child Analysis 2. The Technique of Early Analysis 3· An Obsessional Neurosis in a Six-Year-Old Girl 4· The Technique of Analysis in the Latency Period 5· The Technique of Analysis in Puberty 6. Neurosis in Children 7. The Sexual Activities of Children Part II EARLY ANXIETY-SITUATIONS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD 8. Early Stages of the Oedipus Conflict and of Super-Ego Formation 9. The Relations Between Obsessional Neurosis and the Early Stages of the Super-Ego 10. The Significance of Early Anxiety-Situations in the Development of the Ego 11. The Effects of Early Anxiety-Situations on the Sexual Development of the Girl 12. The Effects of Early Anxiety-Situations on the Sexual Development of the Boy Volume III - “Envy and Gratitude” and Other Works 1946-1963 1. Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms (1946) 2. On the Theory of Anxiety and Guilt (1948) 3. On the Criteria for the Termination of a Psycho-Analysis (1950) 4· The Origins of Transference (1952) 5· The Mutual Influences in the Development of Ego and Id (1952) 6. Some Theoretical Conclusions Regarding the Emotional Life of the Infant (1952) 7. On Observing the Behaviour ofYoung Infants (1952) 8. The Psycho-Analytic Play Technique: Its History and Significance (1955) 9. On Identification (1955) 10. Envy and Gratitude (1957) 11. On the Development of Mental Functioning (1958) 12. Our Adult World and its Roots in Infancy (1959) 13. A Note on Depression in the Schizophrenic (1960o) 14. On Mental Health (1960) 15. Some Reflections on The Oresteia (1963) 16. On the Sense of Loneliness (1963) Short Contributions The Importance of Words in Early Analysis (1927) Note on 'A Dream of Forensic Interest' (1928) Theoretical Deductions from an Analysis of Dementia Praecox in Early Infancy (1929) Review of Woman's Periodicity by Mary Chadwick (1933) Some Psychological Considerations: A comment (1942) Volume IV - Narrative of a Child Analysis Sessions 1-93.
Description : One of therapy's greatest challenges is the moment of transference, when a patient unconsciously transfers emotion or desire to a new and present object in some cases the therapist. During the course of treatment, a patient's projections and the analyst's struggle to divert them can stress, distort, or contaminate the therapeutic relationship. It may lead to various forms of enactment, in which the therapist unconsciously colludes with the client in interpretation and treatment, or it can lead to projective identification, in which the client imposes negative feelings and behaviors onto the therapist, further interfering with analysis and intervention. Drawing on decades of clinical case experience, Robert Waska leads practitioners through the steps of phantasy and transference mechanisms and their ability to increase, oppose, embrace, or neutralize analytic contact. Operating from a psychoanalytic perspective, he explains how to cope professionally with moments of transference and maintain an objective interpretive stance within the ongoing matrix of projective identification, countertransference, and enactment. Each chapter discusses a wide spectrum of cases and clinical situations, describing in detail the processes that invite a playing out of the patient's phantasies and the work required to reestablish balance. Refreshingly candid, Waska recognizes the imperfections of analysis yet reaffirms its potential for greater psychological integration and stability for the patient. He acknowledges the limits and frequent roadblocks of working with difficult patients, such as those who suffer from psychic retreat, paranoid phantasies, and depressive anxieties, yet he indicates an effective path for resetting the clinical moment and redirecting the course for treatment.
Description : Collected in this anthology are pivotal papers that elaborate the psychoanalytic and psychodynamic approach to a basic mechanism which was elaborated by both Sigmund and Anna Freud. Other classical references to this mechanism have been included, and it is hoped that theorists and scholars will find them useful. The modern psychotherapist must be sensitive to identification not only as a means of reflecting past internalizations but also of coping with current stresses predicated on what had been useful in the past. There are defenses against identification; there are hidden identifications; there are combined identifications; there are, as well, the more traditional considerations of identification with the aggressor. The clinical and theoretical implications of this will become apparent as the classic papers included in this volume are reviewed and understood.
Description : This study of La Regenta by Alas draws both on psychoanalytic theory and on an understanding of the social, sexual and medical norms of the period in which the novel was written. It proposes that the novel be understood as a coded summary of desire fantasied, dislocated, repudiated and thwarted.