Enzyme Catalysis And Regulation

Author by : Gorden Hammes
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : Enzyme Catalysis and Regulation is an introduction to enzyme catalysis and regulation and covers topics ranging from protein structure and dynamics to steady-state enzyme kinetics, multienzyme complexes, and membrane-bound enzymes. Case studies of selected enzyme mechanisms are also presented. This book consists of 11 chapters and begins with a brief overview of enzyme structure, followed by a discussion on methods of probing enzyme structure such as X-ray crystallography and optical spectroscopy. Kinetic methods are then described, with emphasis on the general principles of steady-state and transient kinetics. The chemical principles involved in enzyme catalysis are also discussed, and case studies of a few well-documented enzymes are presented. The regulation of enzyme activity is analyzed from a nongenetic viewpoint, with particular reference to binding isotherms and models for allosterism. Two particular enzymes, aspartate transcarbamoylase and phosphofructokinase, are used as examples of well-studied regulatory enzymes. The last two chapters focus on multienzyme complexes and membrane-bound enzymes. This monograph is intended for graduate students, advanced undergraduates, and research workers in molecular biology and biochemistry.


Enzyme Catalysis And Regulation

Author by : Gordon G. Hammes
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Enzyme Catalysis And Regulation

Author by : Ruth J. P. Williams
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Allosteric Regulatory Enzymes

Author by : Thomas W. Traut
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : This book covers the most recent developments in the analysis of allosteric enzymes and provides a logical introduction to the limits for enzyme function as dictated by the factors that are limits for life. The book presents a complete description of all the mechanisms used for changing enzyme activity. It is extensively illustrated to clarify kinetic and regulatory properties. Eight enzymes are used as model systems after extensive study of their mechanisms. Wherever possible, the human form of the enzyme is used to illustrate the regulatory features.


Structural And Functional Aspects Of Enzyme Catalysis

Author by : H. Eggerer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : Enzymes perform the executive role in growth, energy conversion, and repair of a living organism. Their activity is adjusted to their en vironment within the cell, being turned off, switched on, or finely tuned by specific metabolites according to demands at the physiologi cal level. Each enzyme discovered in the long history of enzymology has revealed its own individuality. Even closely related members of a family differ in specificity, stability or regulatory properties. Despite these, at first sight overwhelming aspects of individuality, common factors of enzymic reactions have been recognized. Enzymes are stereospecific catalysts even when a nonspecific process would yield the same product. Knowledge of the detailed stereochemistry of an enzymic reaction helps to deduce reaction mechanisms and to ob tain insight into the specific binding of substrates at the active site. This binding close to catalytically competent groups is related to the enormous speed of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The physical ba sis of rate-enhancement is understood in principle and further exploit ed in the design of small organic receptor molecules as model enzymes. These aspects of enzyme catalysis are discussed in Session 1. Session 2 emphasizes the dynamic aspects of enzyme substrate inter action. Substrate must diffuse from solution space to the enzyme's surface. This process is influenced and can be greatly facilitated by certain electrostatic propterties of enzymes. The dynamic events during catalysis are studied by relaxation kinetics or NMR techniques.


Enzyme Kinetics And Mechanism Part D Developments In Enzyme Dynamics

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
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Description : General Description of the Volume: This volume, as do the other Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism volumes in the Methods in Enzymology series, provides treatment of dynamic and chemical approaches for investigating enzyme catalysis and regulation, as well as designing metabolic inhibitors. It will greatly interest those involved in enzyme chemistry, metabolic control, and drug design. It should also interest those developing commercial applications for enzymes whose properties have been re-engineered using recombinant DNA technology and site-directed mutagenesis. General Description of the Series: The critically acclaimed laboratory standard for more than forty years, Methods in Enzymology is one of the most highly respected publications in the field of biochemistry. Since 1955, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. Now with more than 300 volumes (all of them still in print), the series contains much material still relevant today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of life sciences. Mechanisms of enzyme catalysis and inhibition Enzyme structure and function Regulatory control of enzymes Action of catalytic antibodies and ribozymes


Enzymes Catalysis Kinetics And Mechanisms

Author by : N.S. Punekar
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Description : This enzymology textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students covers the syllabi of most universities where this subject is regularly taught. It focuses on the synchrony between the two broad mechanistic facets of enzymology: the chemical and the kinetic, and also highlights the synergy between enzyme structure and mechanism. Designed for self-study, it explains how to plan enzyme experiments and subsequently analyze the data collected. The book is divided into five major sections: 1] Introduction to enzymes, 2] Practical aspects, 3] Kinetic Mechanisms, 4] Chemical Mechanisms, and 5] Enzymology Frontiers. Individual concepts are treated as stand-alone chapters; readers can explore any single concept with minimal cross-referencing to the rest of the book. Further, complex approaches requiring specialized techniques and involved experimentation (beyond the reach of an average laboratory) are covered in theory with suitable references to guide readers. The book provides students, researchers and academics in the broad area of biology with a sound theoretical and practical knowledge of enzymes. It also caters to those who do not have a practicing enzymologist to teach them the subject.


Contemporary Enzyme Kinetics And Mechanism

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
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Description : Kinetic studies of enzyme action provide powerful insights into the underlying mechanisms of catalysis and regulation. These approaches are equally useful in examining the action of newly discovered enzymes and therapeutic agents. Contemporary Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism, Second Edition presents key articles from Volumes 63, 64, 87, 249, 308 and 354 of Methods in Enzymology. The chapters describe the most essential and widely applied strategies. A set of exercises and problems is included to facilitate mastery of these topics. The book will aid the reader to design, execute, and analyze kinetic experiments on enzymes. Its emphasis on enzyme inhibition will also make it attractive to pharmacologists and pharmaceutical chemists interested in rational drug design. Of the seventeen chapters presented in this new edition, ten did not previously appear in the first edition. Transient kinetic approaches to enzyme mechanisms Designing initial rate enzyme assay Deriving initial velocity and isotope exchange rate equations Plotting and statistical methods for analyzing rate data Cooperativity in enzyme function Reversible enzyme inhibitors as mechanistic probes Transition-state and multisubstrate inhibitors Affinity labeling to probe enzyme structure and function Mechanism-based enzyme inactivators Isotope exchange methods for elucidating enzymatic catalysis Kinetic isotope effects in enzyme catalysis Site-directed mutagenesis in studies of enzyme catalysis


Enzyme Catalysis And Control

Author by : Marlene Deluca
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : Current Topics in Cellular Regulation: Volume 24, Enzyme Catalysis and Control is a compendium of papers that discusses phosphoryl transfer reactions, the role of water on the free energy of hydrolysis of pyrophosphate, and the hormonal actions of vitamin D. Other papers describe the regulation lipid metabolism by a lipid-carrying protein, the GABA, and taurine enzymes in mammalian brain. One paper examines the role of vitamin D in the metabolism of cells, as well as in the whole animal. Upon absorption in the body, the vitamin undergoes various metabolic transformations before interacting with specific receptors, and then inducting the genome in the target tissues to generate biological and hormonal responses. Another paper notes the possibility of a genetic defect in cancer cells that results in the abnormal accumulation of sterol carrier protein (SCP) and cholesterol in vivo; and also in the inability to maintain levels of SCP or cholesterol in vitro. One paper shows that tartrate, or other organic acids, secreted into the medium by the penicillia keeps the pH in an optimal range for acid protease degradation of proteins and glycoproteins. This mechanism helps the fungus to survive in a nutrient environment (which is unbalanced with respect to an optimum C/N ratio and at a pH unfavorable to many bacteria and other life forms). Another paper proposes a model for the modulation of ATP synthetase activities and medium exchange reactions by energy input, substrate concentration, or others that affect the microenvironment of the enzyme under certain conditions. The compendium will prove beneficial to molecular biologists, general biologists, microbiologists, and biochemists.


Contemporary Enzyme Kinetics And Mechanism

Author by : Daniel L. Purich
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
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Description : Kinetic studies of enzyme action provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of catalysis and regulation. This volume presents key articles from Volumes 63, 64, 87 and 249 of "Methods in Enzymology". The chapters describe the most essential and widely applied strategies.


Essentials Of Enzymology

Author by : Rufus O. Okotore
Languange : en
Publisher by : Xlibris Corporation
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Description : Essentials of Enzymology provides concise information on an important area of the subject, Biochemistry. This may serve as course material for an advanced treatise in Enzymology designed for undergraduate science degree programs, especially B.Sc. (Hons ) Biochemistry and Chemistry. The book is in 12 chapters which has been divided into four distinct sections, thus (1) Basic enzyme chemistry and physiology. (2) Enzyme Kinetics, (3) Enzyme catalysis, Mechanisms and Regulation,(4)Applications of Enzymology. The Part 1 consists of four chapters that deal with the nature of enzymes- (history, properties and classifi cation), enzyme physiology; structure of enzymes, and analytical enzymology. Part 2 deals with Enzyme Kinetics which is treated in three chapters, and Part 3, made up of three chapters discuss Enzyme catalysis, mechanisms and regulation. Lastly, Part 4 consisting of two chapters deal with the applications of enzymology. Signifi cantly, the kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions in diverse experimental conditions, and also under various inhibition types are presented in a simple, mathematical lucid approach. The mechanisms of action for two atypical proteins-chymotrypsin and lysozyme, so also the identifi cation of active sites of enzymes by specifi c labels are discussed concisely. Lastly, the specifi c applications of enzymes in diagnostic medicine, industry, and also the new emerging area of enzyme biotechnology and enzyme bioinformatics are presented


The Molecular Basis Of Substrate Recognition Catalysis And Regulation In Sortase Enzymes

Author by : Alex William Jacobitz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : The Molecular Basis of Substrate Recognition, Catalysis, and Regulation in Sortase Enzymes By Alex William Jacobitz Doctor of Philosophy in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology University of California, Los Angeles, 2015 Professor Robert T. Clubb, Chair Gram-positive bacteria utilize sortase enzymes to catalyze a transpeptidation reaction that covalently links protein substrates to the cell wall or polymerizes proteinaceous pili. Sortase enzymes are membrane anchored cysteine transpeptidases that recognize a cell wall sorting signal motif at the C-terminus of their primary protein substrate and covalently attach it to an amino-nucleophile located in their secondary substrate. For cell wall anchoring sortases, this secondary substrate is the cell wall precursor lipid II, while for pilin polymerizing sortases it is a lysine sidechain within their pilin protein substrate. A number of major questions have remained unanswered concerning the binding interactions that govern the substrate specificity of these enzymes, their catalytic mechanism, and the mechanism through which appendages that contact the active site regulate their activity. This dissertation advances the understanding of the sortase mechanism through the elucidation of new sortase structures, and the characterization of their dynamic behavior. Chapter three of this thesis describes the solution structure of the class D sortase from Bacillus anthracis by NMR. Class D enzymes anchor proteins involved in bacterial sporulation to the cell wall, and this is the first structure of a class D sortase to ever be determined. NMR analysis of the enzyme uncovered a rigid substrate binding pocket and a novel dimerization interface. Chapter four describes the crystal structure of the class B sortase from Staphylococcus aureus bound to a substrate analog. This work provided new insight into the biophysical basis of substrate recognition. The structure combined with computational modeling and molecular dynamics simulations led to the discovery of a substrate-stabilized oxyanion hole that is used to stabilize tetrahedral reaction intermediates. Molecular dynamics simulations and the high degree of sequence conservation inherent in these enzymes suggest that all members of the sortase superfamily will stabilize high energy reaction intermediates in a similar manner. Chapter five investigates the additional structural features some sortases use to regulate access to their active site, focusing on sortase C-1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae as a model. Using NMR, mutagenesis, and biochemical experiments this work demonstrated that the enzyme utilizes a rigid N-terminal appendage, termed the "lid," to maintain the enzyme in an inactive state. The results of in vitro biochemical assays indicate that the lid prevents cleavage of the primary substrate by preventing access to the catalytic cysteine residue. Both in vitro activity and access to the active site cysteine could be increased by the incorporation of mutations which were shown by NMR to destabilize the lid and increase its flexibility. Based on these results we propose that on the cell surface, lid containing class C enzymes exist in a dormant state and are only activated during pilus biogenesis by interactions with either their substrate or other factors on the cell surface. The results of these experiments have provided new insight into substrate binding, catalysis, and regulation in sortase enzymes.


From Regulation To Catalysis

Author by : Jeremiah Benjamin Frueauf
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Structure And Mechanism In Protein Science

Author by : Alan Fersht
Languange : en
Publisher by : World Scientific Publishing Company
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Total Read : 13
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Description : This book is a guide for advanced undergraduates, post-graduates and researchers to the fundamental principles in studying kinetics and mechanism of processes concerning proteins. It provides a rare broad overview that concentrates on fundamental principles and understanding underlying the physics and chemistry. It is a single author text by someone who has direct experience in all of the areas covered.


Enzyme Kinetics

Author by : Daniel L. Purich
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier Science Limited
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Description : Far more than a comprehensive treatise on initial-rate and fast-reaction kinetics, this one-of-a-kind desk reference places enzyme science in the fuller context of the organic, inorganic, and physical chemical processes occurring within enzyme active sites. Drawing on 2600 references, Enzyme Kinetics: Catalysis & Control develops all the kinetic tools needed to define enzyme catalysis, spanning the entire spectrum (from the basics of chemical kinetics and practical advice on rate measurement, to the very latest work on single-molecule kinetics and mechanoenzyme force generation), while also focusing on the persuasive power of kinetic isotope effects, the design of high-potency drugs, and the behavior of regulatory enzymes. - Historical analysis of kinetic principles including advanced enzyme science - Provides both theoretical and practical measurements tools - Coverage of single molecular kinetics - Examination of force generation mechanisms - Discussion of organic and inorganic enzyme reactions


Enzyme Dynamics And Regulation

Author by : P. Boon Chock
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : Recent developments in concepts and techniques have brought enzyme research to a changing yet exciting stage. Enzymes have served as indispensable tools in the phenomenal rise of molecular biology, and the resultant biotechnology thrusts enzymes to new heights and territories. This volume, the proceedings of a recent symposium on the Dynamics of Soluble and Immobilized Enzyme Systems, provides a current overview of the field to help scientists utilize long-established and newly acquired information.


Physical Chemistry For The Biological Sciences

Author by : Gordon G. Hammes
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Description : Gain a practical, working knowledge of the physical chemistry essential for the biological sciences Physical Chemistry for the Biological Sciences is an excellent resource for biochemistry and biology/health science professionals and students who need a basic understanding of thermodynamics, kinetics, hydrodynamics of macromolecules, and spectroscopy in order to explore molecular structure and chemical reactions. Approachable, yet thorough, the book presents physical chemistry in conceptual terms with a minimum of mathematics. Providing the basic knowledge and tools that every biologist should have to understand the quantitative interpretation of biological phenomena, it covers: Fundamentals of thermodynamics and chemical kinetics Fundamentals of spectroscopy and structure determination Ligand binding to macromolecules, hydrodynamics, and mass spectrometry All techniques and concepts are clearly illustrated with relevant applications and examples from the biological sciences. Problems at the end of each chapter reinforce the principles. This is a succinct reference for practitioners, including bioorganic chemists, medicinal chemists, biochemists, pharmaceutical chemists, biologists, and professionals in fields such as pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and biotechnology. It's also an excellent textbook for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in biochemistry, biology, and related fields.


Physical Organic Chemistry Ii

Author by : Th. J. De Boer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : Physical Organic Chemistry—II provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of physical organic chemistry. This book discusses the common phenomenon in ionic organic chemistry. Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrochemical methods to obtain thermodynamic information on unstable species. This text then presents a brief summary of the experimental method in low temperature photochemical studies. Other chapters consider the general approach to understanding the molecular basis of enzyme catalysis and regulation. This book discusses as well the reactivity model for concerted cycloaddition reactions, which allows a systematization of substituent effects. The final chapter deals with the relative stabilities of phosphoranes in terms of the relative apicophilicities of groups, ring strain and steric factors, and experiments. This book is a valuable resource for organic and inorganic chemists. Postdoctoral students and scientists who are interested in physical organic chemistry will also find this book extremely useful.


A Study Of Enzymes

Author by : Stephen A. Kuby
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
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Description : This comprehensive monograph consists of two parts: Volume I, entitled Enzyme Catalysis, Kinetics, and Substrate Binding; and Volume II, entitled Mechanism of Enzyme Action. Volume I focuses on several aspects of enzyme catalytic behavior, their steady-state and transient-state kinetics, and the thermodynamic properties of substrate binding. Packed with figures, tables, schemes, and photographs, this volume contains over 1,000 references, including references regarding enzymology's fascinating history. This comprehensive book is of particular interest to enzymology students, teachers, and researchers. Volume II presents selected "cutting edge" examples of techniques and approaches being pursued in biochemistry. This up-to-date resource includes 11 chapters, which illustrate important theoretical and practical aspects of enzyme mechanisms. It also features selected examples in which today's most important techniques, ideas, and theories are used to elaborate on the intricate nature of enzyme action mechanisms. This particular volume provides important information for both the novice and the seasoned investigator.


Organized Multienzyme Systems Catalytic Properties

Author by : G. Rickey Welch
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : Organized Multienzyme Systems: Catalytic Properties describes the kinetic and catalytic properties of organized enzyme systems. This book is composed of nine chapters that specifically cover both immobilized and naturally occurring systems. The first two chapters examine the nature and function of enzyme organization in the mitochondrion, as well as the structural/functional coupling of the components in energy-transducing membrane systems. These topics are followed by discussions on ""dynamic compartmentation"" in soluble multienzyme systems; the allosteric enzyme systems; and allosterism in reversibly adsorptive enzyme systems. Other chapters explore model studies with specific immobilized multienzyme sequences, as regards the analysis of microenvironmental effects, and the mathematical exposition on the kinetic analysis of multienzyme systems in homogeneous solution. The last chapters present some theoretical and experimental studies on the behavior of immobilized systems. These chapters also provide a speculative integrative view of the kind of functional coherence that may be operative in organized states in vivo. This book is of great value to cell biologists, biochemists, and enzyme scientists and researchers.


Advances In Enzymology And Related Areas Of Molecular Biology Part A

Author by : Daniel L. Purich
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Description : Biological catalysis plays a dominant role both in fermentation and industrial process chemistry. This collection of chapters, written by a well-known biochemist and enzymologist, should serve as an invaluable reference to those investigators seeking to optimize the application of enzymatic catalysis for commercial purposes.


Enzyme Catalysis And Control

Author by : Marlene A. DeLuca
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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The Bioorganic Chemisty Of Enzymatic Catalysis

Author by : Myron L. Bender
Languange : en
Publisher by : Wiley-Interscience
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Description : Reactive Molecules The Neutral Reactive Intermediates in Organic Chemistry Curt Wentrup A unique, pedagogically sound text and monograph describing the formation, detection, and chemistry of neutral reactive intermediates (free radicals, diradicals, carbenes, nitrenes, strained rings, and antiaromatics). Starting from first principles, it brings the reader up-to-date on the current state of research on these intermediates. Chapters end with a problems section, with some bearing directly on the main theme of each chapter, and others extending the range of reactions covered. 1984 Enzyme Kinetics Behavior and Analysis of Rapid Equilibrium and Steady-State Enzyme Systems Irwin H. Segel Thorough coverage of enzyme kinetics from its most elementary aspects to steady-state kinetics and isotope exchange. Offers a basic understanding of the behavior of enzyme systems and the diagnostic tools used to characterize enzymes and determine enzyme mechanisms. Explains the basis of coupled enzyme assays, regulation by "energy charge," cumulative, concerted, and cooperative feedback inhibition, and metal ion activation. 1975