Ethnic Politics In Burma

Author by : Ashley South
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 52
Total Download : 709
File Size : 52,8 Mb
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Description : This book examines the ideas which have structured half a century of civil war in Burma, and the roles which political elites and foreign networks - from colonial missionaries to aid worker activists - have played in mediating understandings of ethnic conflict in the country. The book includes a brief overview of precolonial and colonial Burma, and the emergence ethnic identity as a politically salient characteristic. It describes the struggle for independence and the parliamentary era (1948-62), and the quarter century of military-socialist rule that followed (1962-88). The book analyses the causes, dynamics and impacts of on-going armed conflict in Burma, since the 1988 'democracy uprising' through to the 2007 'saffron revolution' (when monks and ordinary people took to the streets in protest against the military regime). There is a special focus on the plight of displaced people, and the ways in which local and international agencies have responded. The book also examines one of the most significant, but least well-understood, political developments in Burma over the last twenty years: the series of ceasefires agreed since 1989 between the military government and most armed ethnic groups. The positive and negative impacts of the ceasefires are analysed, including a study of civil society among ethnic nationality communities. This analysis leads to a discussion of the nature of social and political change in Burma, and a re-examination of some commonly held assumptions regarding the country, including issues of ethnicity and federalism. The book concludes with a brief Epilogue, taking account of Cyclone Nargis, which struck Burma on 2 and 3 May 2008, resulting in a massive humanitarian crisis.


Ethnic Politics In Burma

Author by : Transnational Institute (TNI) (Amsterdam)
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 54
Total Download : 947
File Size : 45,8 Mb
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Ethnic Politics In Burma Myanmar

Author by : Tim Paul Schroeder
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 77
Total Download : 768
File Size : 46,9 Mb
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Description :


Burma

Author by : Martin Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : Zed Books
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 85
Total Download : 712
File Size : 46,7 Mb
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Description : Revised and Updated


Beyond Armed Resistance

Author by : Ardeth Maung Thawnghmung
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 78
Total Download : 461
File Size : 53,7 Mb
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Description : This paper sheds light on the activities of non-armed members of ethnic minorities in Burma, insufficiently studied actors in the conventional study of ethnic politics in Burma that has long been dominated by a focus on ethnonational armed resistance groups and ceasefire groups. Focusing on the Kachin, Karen, Mon, and Shan ethnic groups, the study describes nine major economic, political, and geographical categories of civilian experience, followed by four contributions that non-armed members of ethnic minority groups may make to the political system: (1) supporting the status quo, (2) transforming or undermining the status quo, (3) promoting collective identity and culture and addressing humanitarian needs, and (4) helping to mediate ceasefire agreements. The study demonstrates the need to be aware of the full range of nonviolent political actions that exist among ethnic minority populations and argues that policy responses must look beyond the role of armed groups and become more sensitive to the needs of the diverse members of ethnic communities.


The Other Karen In Myanmar

Author by : Ardeth Maung Thawnghmung
Languange : en
Publisher by : Lexington Books
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 97
Total Download : 800
File Size : 53,6 Mb
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Description : "This book is the first study to an offer insight into non-armed, non-insurgent members of ethnic groups that are associated with well-known armed organizations. It analyzes the nature of the relationships between the "quiet" minorities and their "rebel" counterparts and assesses how these intra-ethnic differences and divisions affect the armed resistance movement, negotiation with state authorities, conflict resolution, and political reform. This field-based study of the Karen in Burma also provides theoretical and policy implications for other ethnically polarized countries."--Publisher's description.


The State And Ethnic Politics In Southeast Asia

Author by : David Brown
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 47
Total Download : 511
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Description : Ethnic tensions in Southeast Asia represent a clear threat to the future stability of the region. David Brown's clear and systematic study outlines the patterns of ethnic politics in: * Burma * Singapore * Indonesia * Malaysia * Thailand The study considers the influence of the State on the formation of ethnic groups and investigates why some countries are more successful in 'managing' their ethnic politics than others.


The Problem Of Ethnic Insurgencies And Its Impact On State Building In Myanmar

Author by : Cornelius Streit
Languange : en
Publisher by : GRIN Verlag
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 27
Total Download : 437
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Description : Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: South Asia, grade: 2,0, Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies Nanyang Technological University (Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies, Singapore), course: Government and Politics of Southeast Asia, 21 entries in the bibliography, language: English, comment: In this research paper, the reasons for the ethnic insurgency movements will be analyzed, as well as how the military regime has dealt with this conflicts. At the end, the state building process in Myanmar will be examined with the help of the 'State in Society' approach by Joel Migdal., abstract: Since more than 40 years, Myanmar is ruled by a military junta, calling itself the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). It is today the last military regime of its kind in Southeast Asia. Due to disastrous economic policies initiated by the government, Myanmar belongs to the world's Least Developed Countries (LCD's), the majority of its population living below poverty line. Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party, the National League for Democracy (NLD), winning a landslide victory, the ruling junta refused to hand over power. Therefore, the military regime lacks the legitimacy to rule, but nevertheless they do so by using force to suppress oppositional movements. Myanmar is one of the ethnically most diverse countries in the world, consisting of more than 100 different ethnic groups with their own history. Since its independence from Britain in 1948, Myanmar has experienced numerous conflicts between the central government and ethnic minority groups seeking autonomy. In this research paper, the reasons for the ethnic insurgency movements will be analyzed, as well as how the military regime has dealt with this conflicts. At the end, the state building process in Myanmar will be examined with the help of the State in Society" approach by Joel Migdal."


Burma In 2010

Author by : Transnational Institute
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 30
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Assessing Burma S Ceasefire Accords

Author by : Zaw Oo
Languange : en
Publisher by : Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 56
Total Download : 153
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Description : The Burmese military government and numerous ethnic minority armed groups have entered a series of ceasefires since 1989 in spite of the fact that most previous talks between 1949 and 1983 failed. Why did the parties enter into ceasefire accords? What is the nature of the accords? What have been the consequences? What are the future scenarios? Written by two Burmese researchers, this study investigates the underlying factors behind the ceasefires, explores the nature of the secretive agreements, and identifies the consequences affecting stakeholders in the larger context of peacebuilding, political settlement, democratization, and the state-building process. The study concludes that recent ceasefires present a significant first step in solving the sixty-year old civil war. However after more than 17 years, they have not brought about peace or political settlement. The government-initiated ceasefires carry a heavy military focus, primarily seeking to reduce military threats and gain better control over the borderlands while placing greater emphasis on state building than on peacebuilding. Nevertheless, the accords have allowed many ceasefire groups to maintain or increase their strength, develop their areas, and more importantly, ceasefires have resulted in the local ethnic population having relatively better lives. Many ethnic armed groups will continue to pursue their goals through political means, but if at least some of their objectives are not met, a resumption of violence cannot be ruled out.


The Politics Of Aid To Burma

Author by : Anne Decobert
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 21
Total Download : 840
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Description : For over sixty years, conflict between state forces and armed ethnic groups was ongoing in parts of the borderlands of Burma. Ethnic minority communities were subjected to systematic and widespread abuses by an increasingly complex patchwork of armed state and non-state actors. Populations in more remote and disputed border areas typically had little to no access to even basic healthcare and education services. As part of its counter-insurgency campaign, the military state also historically restricted international humanitarian access to civilian populations in unstable border areas. It was in this context that "cross-border aid" to Burma had developed, as an alternative mechanism for channelling assistance to populations denied aid through more conventional systems. Yet by the late 2000s, national and international changes had significant impacts on an aid debate, which had important political and ethical implications. Through an ethnographic study of a cross-border aid organisation working on the Thailand-Burma border, this book focuses on the political and ethical dilemmas of "humanitarian government". It explores the ways in which aid systems come to be defined as legitimate or illegitimate, humanitarian or "un-humanitarian", in an international context that has witnessed the multiplication of often-conflicting humanitarian systems and models. It examines how an "embodied history" of violence can shape the worldviews and actions of local humanitarian actors, as well as institutions created to mitigate human suffering. It goes on to look at the complex and often-invisible webs of local organisations, international NGOs, donors, armed groups and other actors, which can develop in a cross-border and extra-legal context – a context where competing constructions of systems as legitimate or illegitimate are highlighted. Exploring the history of humanitarianism from the local aid perspective of Burma, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of Southeast Asian Studies, Anthropology of Humanitarian Aid and Development Studies.


Ethnicity And Insurgency In Myanmar Burma

Author by : TS Letkhosei Haokip
Languange : en
Publisher by : Educreation Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 508
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Description : Ethnic Kukis are one of the indigenous Hill tribes of present day India, Myanmar /Burma and Bangladesh inhabiting their territory known as 'ZALENGAM' (land of freedom) who fought the mighty British Empire for consecutive three years (1917-1919), who encroached their territory and later trifurcated Kuki territory into three international boundaries as India, Burma now Myanmar and East Pakistan now Bangladesh. Now this subjugated community is known as CHIN in Myanmar/Burma, MIZO in Mizoram state and KUKI in Northeast India. They are neglected and assimilated in Bangladesh. About 10 Kuki tribes in the state of Manipur are politically subjugated into NAGA polity since late 1960s. Ethnic KARENS are indigenous Hill tribes of Burma now Myanmar and Thailand. They are the most educated ethnic group in the country who are being subjugated and hatred since pre-British Era till date in Myanmar/Burma. Data source from Karen Organizations revealed that they are the most populated ethnic groups in the country which the majority ethnic Bamar authorities never recognized. The author/ researcher elaborates the pitiful political situation of the stated two separate ethnic groups for autonomy and world recognition in their relentless insurgency struggle towards their respective political ambition and a comparative study of the two thereof in this research work/ book.


Ethnic Politics And The 2015 Elections In Myanmar

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 14
Total Download : 481
File Size : 49,7 Mb
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Description : Myanmar is heading to the polls in November 2015, with an expected shift in power from the old elite to the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD). However it remains unclear whether the new political space created by the transition away from military rule will bring significant legislative power to ethnic nationality-based parties.


Mon Nationalism And Civil War In Burma

Author by : Mr Ashley South
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 94
Total Download : 534
File Size : 43,5 Mb
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Description : A major contribution to the literature of Burmese history and politics, this book traces the rich and tragic history of the Mon people of Burma and Thailand, from the pre-colonial era to the present day. This vivid account of ethnic politics and civil war situates the story of Mon nationalism within the 'big picture' of developments in Burma, Thailand and the region. Primarily an empirical study, it also addresses issues of identity and anticipates Burmese politics in the new millennium. A particular feature of the book is its first-hand descriptions of insurgency and displacement, drawn from the author's experiences as an aid worker in the war zone.


Prisms On The Golden Pagoda

Author by : Thamarr Taman
Languange : en
Publisher by : NUS Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 33
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Description : Just as the prismatic effects of glass mosaics or mirrors produce the spectrums of colour that give Myanmar’s pagodas their glittering iridescence, Prisms on the Golden Pagoda offers a spectrum of views on the country’s national reconciliation process. Because many of Myanmar’s outlying ethnic groups straddle the country’s borders with neighbouring countries in South and Southeast Asia and with China, the outcome of this process is crucial not only for the country’s current domestic liberalization but also for regional geopolitics. The editor of this volume, Kyaw Yin Hlaing is a US-trained academic who currently serves as an advisor to Myanmar's President. He has assembled contributions from veteran activists such as the Shan leader U Shwe Ohn, the Chin politician Lian H. Sakhong, Widura Thakin Chit Maung, once leader of Burma's "Red Socialists", and Thamarr Taman, formerly a senior civil servant. Commentary by the editor, and by Robert H Taylor and British diplomat-turned activist Derek Tonkin, explains the context and significance of these materials. By showing how the national reconciliation effort has been viewed inside the country, the contributors provide an important insider’s perspective on Myanmar’s difficult legacies of violence and separatism.


Citizenship In Myanmar

Author by : Ashley South
Languange : en
Publisher by : Flipside Digital Content Company Inc.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 98
Total Download : 719
File Size : 45,5 Mb
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Description : Myanmar is going through a period of profound - and contested - transition. The country has experienced widespread if sometimes uneven reforms, including the start of a peace process between the government and Myanmar Army, and some two dozen ethnic armed organizations, which had long been fighting for greater autonomy from the militarized and Burman-dominated state. This book brings together chapters by Burmese and foreign experts, and contributions from community and political leaders, who discuss the meaning of citizenship in Myanmar/Burma. The book explores citizenship in relation to three broad categories: issues of identity and conflict; debates around concepts and practices of citizenship; and inter- and intra-community issues, including Buddhist-Muslim relations. This is the first volume to address these issues, understanding and resolving which will be central to Myanmar's continued transition away from violence and authoritarianism.


State Of Strife

Author by : Martin Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 36
Total Download : 810
File Size : 51,5 Mb
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Description : Since independence in 1948, Burma has been the scene of some of the most-sustained and diverse ethnic insurgencies in the contemporary world. This study examines the dynamics of conflict that have caused internal wars to become so uniquely entrenched in one of Asia's most troubled lands. Against a backdrop of conflict, different nationality movements have been able to adapt and survive, utilizing the changing political, economic, and international conditions in the country. In the process, armed opposition became a way of life in the borderlands, while the central state became increasingly militarized. Burma's conflicts, however, have not been static. This study identifies five major cycles of conflict that have seen the national government transform from a parliamentary democracy at independence through Gen. Ne Win's "Burmese Way to Socialism" to the current military State Peace and Development Council. As the political impasse continues, ethnic ceasefires and open-door economic policies are changing the structures of conflict. In an overview of humanitarian and international dilemmas, the study concludes that conflict resolution-with integrated support from the international community-remains a primary need if Burma and its peoples are to achieve peace, democracy, and a stable nation-state.


The Politics Of Silence

Author by : Loïs Desaine
Languange : en
Publisher by : Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 58
Total Download : 123
File Size : 45,6 Mb
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Description : The political regime in Myanmar used to be a seemingly monopolistic structure where power was exclusively in the Army’s hands. A marginal external influence was exercised by businessmen with close ties to the regime while the country is also exposed to the influence of powerful regional states. Since the General Elections in November 2010, the establishment of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar with a parliamentary democracy (which remains under some control of the Army, but with notable civilian representation) is the most noticeable change in Myanmar politics for decades as it may shift the state away from the Army monopoly, although concrete changes remain to be demonstrated.


Ethnic Politics In Burma

Author by : Ashley South
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 74
Total Download : 290
File Size : 55,5 Mb
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Description : This book examines the ideas which have structured half a century of civil war in Burma, and the roles which political elites and foreign networks - from colonial missionaries to aid worker activists - have played in mediating understandings of ethnic conflict in the country. The book includes a brief overview of precolonial and colonial Burma, and the emergence ethnic identity as a politically salient characteristic. It describes the struggle for independence and the parliamentary era (1948-62), and the quarter century of military-socialist rule that followed (1962-88). The book analyses the causes, dynamics and impacts of on-going armed conflict in Burma, since the 1988 'democracy uprising' through to the 2007 'saffron revolution' (when monks and ordinary people took to the streets in protest against the military regime). There is a special focus on the plight of displaced people, and the ways in which local and international agencies have responded. The book also examines one of the most significant, but least well-understood, political developments in Burma over the last twenty years: the series of ceasefires agreed since 1989 between the military government and most armed ethnic groups. The positive and negative impacts of the ceasefires are analysed, including a study of civil society among ethnic nationality communities. This analysis leads to a discussion of the nature of social and political change in Burma, and a re-examination of some commonly held assumptions regarding the country, including issues of ethnicity and federalism. The book concludes with a brief Epilogue, taking account of Cyclone Nargis, which struck Burma on 2 and 3 May 2008, resulting in a massive humanitarian crisis.


A Fool S Paradise Ethnicity Military And Prospects For Democratisation In Myanmar

Author by : Findley Penn-Hughes
Languange : en
Publisher by : GRIN Verlag
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 37
Total Download : 648
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Description : Bachelor Thesis from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Far East, grade: 68, Durham University (School of Government & International Affairs), course: Politics, language: English, abstract: State and military power have been formally fused in Myanmar since the military coup of 1962. Colonial and pre-colonial experiences prior to this had ensured the creation of a national narrative that emphasised unity and the survival of the regime above all else. This led to the slow infiltration of military rule in the years following independence in 1948 and ultimately to the decades of authoritarian rule and economic mismanagement, exacerbated by economic sanctions. As the rest of the region began its post-colonial transition towards democracy and prosperity, brutal military crackdowns and reprisals following populist uprisings in 1988 and 2007 seemed only to confirm Myanmar’s resilience. Following the suppression of the 2007 uprising, it appeared that the hold of the military junta was absolute. The announcement in 2008 by the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) of wide-ranging reforms as part of the ‘roadmap to democracy’ thus represented the greatest hope of democratic reform for half a century. Following the enactment of constitutional reforms and trumpeted elections in 2010, the state now represents an ostensibly democratic, constitutional system. Throughout early 2011 the newly formed ‘civilian’ government released over 700 political prisoners, oversaw a relaxation of media censorship and legalised the right to unionisation in conjunction with a re-emergence of opposition politics. This essay examines how the cross over between the issues of 'ethnicity' in Myanmar and the perceived role of the military among the military establishment as the sole protectors of the unity of the Union of Myanmar act to create political stagnation in the country. By conducting the political process on their terms, the military is ensuring that opposition politics is robbed of the political space with which to address the ethnic nationalities head on. The NLD is now the only group that has the cultural and political capacity to do this. In its continuous failure to do so it may yet plunge Myanmar into a period of political instability once again.


Metamorphosis

Author by : Renaud Egreteau
Languange : en
Publisher by : NUS Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 11
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Description : With a young population of more than 52 million, an ambitious roadmap for political reform, and on the cusp of rapid economic development, since 2010 the world’s attention has been drawn to Myanmar or Burma. But underlying recent political transitions are other wrenching social changes and shocks, a set of transformations less clearly mapped out. Relations between ethnic and religious groups, in the context of Burma’s political model of a state composed of ethnic groups, are a particularly important “unsolved equation”. The editors use the notion of metamorphosis to look at Myanmar today and tomorrow—a term that accommodates linear change, stubborn persistence and the possibility of dramatic transformation. Divided into four sections, on politics, identity and ethnic relations, social change in fields like education and medicine, and the evolutions of religious institutions, the volume takes a broad view, combining an anthropological approach with views from political scientists and historians. This volume is an essential guide to the political and social challenges ahead for Myanmar.


Nationalism As Political Paranoia In Burma

Author by : Michael Gravers
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 40
Total Download : 701
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Description : This study probes the complex relationship between nationalism, violence and Buddhism in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Burma. Gravers' study brings us to present-day Burma and the struggle by Nobel Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi for a new Burmese identity. The present volume is a substantially revised and expanded version of the study originally published by the Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.


Exploring Ethnic Diversity In Burma

Author by : Mikael Gravers
Languange : en
Publisher by : Nordic Inst of Asian Studies
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 98
Total Download : 496
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Description : While the image of modern Myanmar/Burma tends to be couched in human rights terms - and especially of a heroic Aung San Suu Kyi opposing and oppressive military regime - in reality there are several conflicts with ethnic and religious dimensions, as well as political and ideological differences between the opposition and the ruling military regime. This is not surprising in a country where 30% of the population and much of the land area are non-Burman, and where contradictory tendencies towards regional separatism versus unitary rule have divided the people since before independence. In what is probably the most comprehensive study of Burma's ethnic minorities to date, this volume discusses the historical formation of ethnic identity and its complexities in relation to British colonial rule as well as the modern state, the present situation of military rule, and its policy of myanmarification. Changes of identity in exile due to religious conversion are analyzed and discussed. Finally the book deals with relevant and recent anthropological and sociological theoretical discussions on the ethnic identity, boundaries, and space of all the main ethnic groups in Burma.


Asymmetrical Neighbors

Author by : Enze Han
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 12
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Description : Is the process of state building a unilateral, national venture, or is it something more collaborative, taking place in the interstices between adjoining countries? To answer this question, Asymmetrical Neighbors takes a comparative look at the state building process along China, Myanmar, and Thailand's common borderland area. It shows that the variations in state building among these neighboring countries are the result of an interactive process that occurs across national boundaries. Departing from existing approaches that look at such processes from the angle of singular, bounded territorial states, the book argues that a more fruitful method is to examine how state and nation building in one country can influence, and be influenced by, the same processes across borders. It argues that the success or failure of one country's state building is a process that extends beyond domestic factors such as war preparation, political institutions, and geographic and demographic variables. Rather, it shows that we should conceptualize state building as an interactive process heavily influenced by a "neighborhood effect." Furthermore, the book moves beyond the academic boundaries that divide arbitrarily China studies and Southeast Asian studies by providing an analysis that ties the state and nation building processes in China with those of Southeast Asia.


Myanmar

Author by : Adam Simpson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 49
Total Download : 727
File Size : 54,7 Mb
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Description : This book provides a sophisticated, yet accessible, overview of the key political, economic and social challenges facing contemporary Myanmar and explains the complex historical and ethnic dynamics that have shaped the country. With clear and incisive contributions from the world’s leading Myanmar scholars, this book assesses the policies and political reforms that have provoked contestation in Myanmar’s recent history and driven both economic and social change. In this context, questions of economic ownership and control and the distribution of natural resources are shown to be deeply informed by long-standing fractures among ethnic and civil-military relations. The chapters analyse the key issues that constrain or expedite societal development in Myanmar and place recent events of national and international significance in the context of its complex history and social relations. In doing so, the book demonstrates that ethnic and cultural diversity is at the core of Myanmar’s society and heavily influences all aspects of life in the country. Filling a gap in the market, this research textbook and primer will be of interest to upper undergraduates, postgraduates and scholars of Southeast Asian politics, economics and society and to journalists and professionals working within governments, companies and other organisations.


By Force Of Arms

Author by : Paul Keenan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Vij Books India Pvt Ltd
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
Total Download : 903
File Size : 54,6 Mb
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Description : Burma has been racked by extensive ethnic conflict. As numerous groups sought to secure their individual ethnic rights, successive Burmese governments sought to destroy them through numerous counter-insurgency measures, negotiated ceasefires, and by integrating them into Burma Army controlled Border Guard Forces or militias. ‘By Force of Arms' provides background information on the numerous armed ethnic groups that have emerged in the country since independence. It highlights the various reasons for conflict and argues that while military force has been successfully used in preserving ethnic rights, as the country moves forward, new methods have to be explored. It states that for genuine peace to be attained, armed ethnic groups need to reassess their methodologies and motivations and both the Government and Non-State Armed Actors need to hold substantive political dialogue before there can be genuine peace.


Ethnic And Religious Diversity In Myanmar

Author by : Perry Schmidt-Leukel
Languange : en
Publisher by : Bloomsbury Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 83
Total Download : 340
File Size : 42,8 Mb
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Description : One of the most comprehensive volumes on Myanmar's identity politics to date, this book discusses the entanglement of ethnic and religious identities in Myanmar and the challenges presented by its extensive ethnic-religious diversity. Religious and ethnic conjunctions are treated from historical, political, religious and ethnic minority perspectives through both case studies and overview chapters. The book addresses the thorny issue of Buddhist supremacy, Burmese nationalism and ethnic-religious hierarchy, along with reflections on Buddhist, Christian and Muslim communities. Bringing together international scholars and Burmese scholars, this book combines the perspectives of academic observers with those of political activists and religious leaders from different faiths. Through the breadth of its disciplinary approach, its focus on identity issues and its inclusion of insider and outsider perspectives, this book provides new insights into the complex religious situation of Myanmar.


The United Wa State Party

Author by : Tom Kramer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 20
Total Download : 292
File Size : 54,9 Mb
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Description : This monograph argues that although the United Wa State Party (UWSP) has been branded by the international community as a "narco-trafficking army," the organization has an ethnic nationalist agenda whose aim is to build a Wa state within Burma. The UWSP is not innocent of narcotics-related crimes, but few conflict parties in Burma can claim to have clean hands. The weak capacity of the UWSP leadership has prevented it from developing a clear vision of how to develop a Wa state. Although the UWSP has promoted Wa nationalism, the population under its control is not mono-ethnic. The UWSP has implemented a ban on opium cultivation to comply with international pressure. It has called for international aid to offset the impact of the ban, but so far not enough assistance has come through. The organization has relocated thousands of Wa villagers to the Thai border area, displacing part of the original Lahu, Akha, and Shan populations and aggravating ethnic tensions. Relations with the government remain tense, and peace has not been achieved. It is unlikely the UWSP will agree to disarm until some of its basic demands have been met. The United States has indicted eight UWSP leaders on drug trafficking charges. Thailand sees the UWSP as a security threat and accuses it of producing amphetamines. China has a better relationship with the UWSP and has given support and technical advice to the organization. The drug trade is controlled by powerful ethnic Chinese syndicates that have no interest in conflict resolution and state building. Demonizing and isolating the UWSP will make the organization more dependent on them, and will obstruct reconciliation efforts in Burma.


In Search Of Chin Identity

Author by : Lian H. Sakhong
Languange : en
Publisher by : Nordic Inst of Asian Studies
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 21
Total Download : 108
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Description : "Chinram was once an independent land ruled by local chieftains and following traditional Chin religion. This world was abruptly transformed in the early twentieth century, however, by British annexation and the arrival of Christian missionaries. As the Chin became increasingly related to Burmese independence movements, they began to articulate their own Christian traditions of democracy and assert a burgeoning self-awareness of their own national identity. In short, Christianity provided the Chin people with a means of preserving their national identity in the midst of multi-racial and multi-religious environments."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved