Eukaryotic Transcription Factors

Eukaryotic Transcription Factors
Author: David Latchman,David S. Latchman
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 488
Release: 2010-07-28
ISBN: 9780080561035
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Eukaryotic Transcription Factors Book Excerpt:

Transcription, or the process by which DNA produces RNA, is a central aspect of gene expression. Transcription factors regulate transcription during development and in disease states. As such, it is critical for researchers to gain a good understanding of the relationship between the structure of various families of transcription factors and their function, as well as roles in human disease. Since publication of the Fourth Edition, there have been major advances, notably in the areas of chromatin remodeling and genome-scale analyses. This complete update includes all new coverage of the latest developments, from enabling genomic technologies to studies on the importance of post-translational modifications beyond phosphorylation events. Potential of transcription factors as therapeutic targets in human disease Importance of histone modifications Use of genome-based sequence analysis and high-throughput methods Applications of the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay Transcriptional elongation Regulation by post-translational modifications Regulatory networks and bioinformatics

Transcription Factors in Eukaryotes

Transcription Factors in Eukaryotes
Author: Athanasios Papavassiliou
Publsiher: International Thomson Publishing Services
Total Pages: 354
Release: 1997
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transcription Factors in Eukaryotes Book Excerpt:

Transcription Factors

Transcription Factors
Author: Joseph Locker
Publsiher: Garland Science
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2003-12-16
ISBN: 1135323623
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transcription Factors Book Excerpt:

Transcription factors are important in regulating gene expression, and their analysis is of paramount interest to molecular biologists studying this area. This book looks at the basic machinery of the cell involved in transcription in eukaryotes and factors that control transcription in eukaryotic cells. It examines the regulatory systems that modulate gene expression in all cells,a s well as the more specialized systems that regulate localized gene expression throughout the mammalian organism. Transcription Factors updates classical knowledge with recent advances to provide a full and comprehensive coverage of the field for postgraduates and researchers in molecular biology involved in the study of gene regulation.

Mechanisms of Gene Expression

Mechanisms of Gene Expression
Author: Robert O J Weinzierl
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 436
Release: 1999-08-10
ISBN: 1783262257
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mechanisms of Gene Expression Book Excerpt:

A detailed knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional control of gene expression is of fundamental importance to many areas of contemporary biomedical research, ranging from understanding basic issues (such as control of embryonic development) to practical applications in industry and medicine. Although elementary concepts of gene expression are described in all general molecular biology textbooks, the depth of coverage is often rather limited and recent discoveries are sometimes not adequately taken into consideration. This book presents much of the current thinking concerning molecular mechanisms of transcriptional control in a form easily accessible to undergraduates with an understanding of basic molecular biology concepts. It contains detailed information about the various pro- and eukaryotic transcriptional machineries that has recently become available through the combined efforts of geneticists, biochemists and structural biologists. The book will thus not only serve as an undergraduate text but also offer something new and interesting to more advanced readers and professional scientists who want to keep up to date with rapid advances in this field. Contents:RNA PolymerasesBasal Factors Recognize Promoters and Assemble the Pre-Initiation Transcription ComplexesGene-Specific Transcription FactorsCoactivators: Interface between Gene-Specific and Basal Transcription FactorsControl of RNA Elongation and TerminationRNAPI and RNAPIII Transcriptional MachineriesChromatinNuclear Matrix, Chromosome Scaffolds and Transcriptional FactoriesGene Expression Dynamics and Global Genome Transcription PatternsAppearing on the Horizon: Medical Applications Focusing on Transcriptional Control Mechanisms Readership: Undergraduate and graduate students in molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics. Keywords:Gene Expression;Genetics;Mechanisms;Basal Transcriptional Machinery

Proteins in Eukaryotic Transcription

Proteins in Eukaryotic Transcription
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2004-03-19
ISBN: 9780080522418
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proteins in Eukaryotic Transcription Book Excerpt:

Protein Transcription is a key element of cellular and organ regulation. Proteins in Eukaryotic Transcription covers structure and function of all major elements associated with transcription. Mechanism of RNA polymerase I Transcription Structure and function of RNA Polymerase II Structure and function of the TFIID complex Functional properties of Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes Posttranslational modification

Regulation of Eukaryotic Transcription by BHLH PAS Transcription Factors AhR and Arnt

Regulation of Eukaryotic Transcription by BHLH PAS Transcription Factors AhR and Arnt
Author: Nan Hao
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 78
Release: 2012
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Genetic transcription
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Regulation of Eukaryotic Transcription by BHLH PAS Transcription Factors AhR and Arnt Book Excerpt:

The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is a Class I basic Helix-Loop-Helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH/PAS) transcription factor essential for adaptive response to xenobiotics. As for all bHLH/PAS proteins, it has a uniform molecular design that is composed of three functional domains, including a highly conserved N-terminal bHLH domain, a pair of degenerate PAS repeats (designated PAS.A and PAS.B), and a poorly conserved C-terminal transactivation domain. However, in contrast to the other proteins in the family, AhR is the only member known to bind xenobiotic ligand found in nature. The ligand binding domain (LBD) of AhR resides in its PAS.B region. Structure activity relationship analysis suggested that the ligand binding pocket of AhR is promiscuous, which can accommodate a large number of planar and hydrophobic compounds. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Halogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons (HAHs) are by far the most common classes of AhR ligands. In addition, pharmaceutical compounds such as the hepatoprotective agent YH439 that fall outside the aromatic classification, have also been shown to activate AhR, presumably by functioning as AhR agonists. To better characterize the LBD of mouse AhR (mAhR), rational site-directed mutagenesis was performed based on the LBD sequences of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Unexpectedly, the mAhR H285Y mutant as well as previously identified A375I mutant were found to discriminate between ligands, suggesting that in contrast to the PAH/HAH ligands, the atypical ligand YH439 has a novel mode of interaction that does not require full access of the ligand binding cavity. All bHLH/PAS proteins function as obligate dimers. In order to form an active, DNA binding complex, the AhR have to dimerize with Class II bHLH/PAS protein Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt). This is mediated primarily via the N terminal bHLH and PAS.A domains. Furthermore, the data presented in this thesis suggest that both the [alpha]-helical connector and [beta]-strand structure of the PAS.A domains are required for AhR/Arnt heterodimerization, which is distinct from the [beta]-scaffold surfaces proposed for dimerization between the PAS.B domains of HIF-2[alpha] (Hypoxia Inducible Factor-2[alpha]) and Arnt. Intriguingly, interaction between Arnt and other Class I bHLH/PAS proteins were found to occur via the same dimerization interface, suggesting that the dimerization selectivity of common partner factor Arnt resides on a small number of key amino acids within a single dimerization interface of Arnt. In addition to the canonical AhR activation by xenobiotics, switching cells from adherent to suspension culture also activates the AhR, representing a non-xenobiotic, physiological activation of AhR signaling. This is further supported by the observation that AhR is recruited to the xenobiotic response element (XRE) of prototypical AhR target genes Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Tiparp following both xenobiotic and suspension culture induced AhR activation. However, genome wide microarray analysis revealed significant differences between the two activation mechanisms in modulating target gene expression, implying the existence of a fine-tuning control to define the target gene specificity of AhR. Taken together, the work presented in this thesis explores the various mechanisms underlying AhR regulation with a special emphasis on specificity, which not only advances our current understanding on the non-canonical pathways of AhR activation, but also lends novel insights into how eukaryotic genes are regulated at the transcriptional level.

Mechanisms of Transcription

Mechanisms of Transcription
Author: Fritz Eckstein,David M.J. Lilley
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 327
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 3642606911
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mechanisms of Transcription Book Excerpt:

Mechanisms of Transcription presents a unique perspective on the fundamental processes of transcription. A collection of distinguished authors draws together the underlying mechanisms involved in the process of transcription. This includes RNA polymerase function and its interaction with promoter sequences, and the structures of the various components on the transcriptional machinery. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, NMR and crystallographic structures of a number of important eukaryotic transcription factors are discussed, as well as the role of chromatin structure.

Eukaryotic Transcription Factors

Eukaryotic Transcription Factors
Author: Oleg L. Polyanovsky,Alexander G. Stepchenko
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 6
Release: 1990
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Eukaryotic Transcription Factors Book Excerpt:

Structure function Analysis of the Eukaryotic Transcription Factor SPT5

Structure function Analysis of the Eukaryotic Transcription Factor SPT5
Author: Christine Emigh-Hutton
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 88
Release: 2006
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Structure function Analysis of the Eukaryotic Transcription Factor SPT5 Book Excerpt:

Large scale Analysis of Nonconcensus Protein DNA Binding of Eukaryotic Transcription Factors

Large scale Analysis of Nonconcensus Protein DNA Binding of Eukaryotic Transcription Factors
Author: Hila Cohen
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 56
Release: 2016
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: DNA-binding proteins
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Large scale Analysis of Nonconcensus Protein DNA Binding of Eukaryotic Transcription Factors Book Excerpt:

Gene Control

Gene Control
Author: David Latchman
Publsiher: Garland Science
Total Pages: 448
Release: 2018-03-29
ISBN: 1136844201
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Gene Control Book Excerpt:

Gene Control offers a current description of how gene expression is controlled in eukaryotes, reviewing and summarizing the extensive primary literature into an easily accessible format. Gene Control is a comprehensively restructured and expanded edition of Latchman’s Gene Regulation: A Eukaryotic Perspective, Fifth Edition. The first part of the book deals with the fundamental processes of gene control at the levels of chromatin structure, transcription, and post-transcriptional processes. Three pairs of chapters deal with each of these aspects, first describing the basic process itself, followed by the manner in which it is involved in controlling gene expression. The second part of the book deals with the role of gene control in specific biological processes. Certain chapters deal with the importance of gene control in cellular signaling processes and for normal development of the embryo. Another chapter discusses the key roles played by gene-regulatory processes in the specification of differentiated cell types such as muscle cells and neurons. The final chapters discuss the consequences of errors in gene control; the relationship between gene misregulation and human diseases, especially cancer; and potential therapies designed specifically to target particular levels of gene control. Gene Control will be of value to students in biological sciences, as well as to scientists and clinicians interested in how genes are regulated in health and disease.

Transcription Factor Target Search in Live Eukaryotic Cells

Transcription Factor Target Search in Live Eukaryotic Cells
Author: Lydia Boudarène
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 594
Release: 2013
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transcription Factor Target Search in Live Eukaryotic Cells Book Excerpt:

Gene regulation is a tightly controlled mechanism throughout evolution. At the core of this process, transcription factors play a major role in transcription initiation by binding and inducing transcriptional machinery recruitment at gene regulatory sequences. To execute their function, transcription factors have to find and bind on their -10 base pair target sequence within a genome of billions of base pairs in timing consistent with biological processes. In the last 40 years, target search process has been widely studied theoretically as well as in vitro and in vivo in bacteria and yeast, but not in high eukaryotes. In the work presented in this thesis, we show the eukaryotic live cell observations of an exogenously introduced bacterial Tetracycline Repressor System binding on an artificial gene array of Tetracycline Operator target sites. The target search mechanism of the Tetracycline Repressor exhibits diffusion in the nucleus by combining a free three-dimensional local and global diffusion, non-specific binding and one-dimensional sliding on the DNA. The binding efficiency on the target was found to be orders of magnitude lower than expected, suggesting that parameters such as local protein concentration or chromatin organization have to be considered for a global understanding of gene expression regulation.

Novel Optical Techniques for Exploring the DNA Binding Affinity and Specificity of Eukaryotic Transcription Factors and Transcription Factor Complexes

Novel Optical Techniques for Exploring the DNA Binding Affinity and Specificity of Eukaryotic Transcription Factors and Transcription Factor Complexes
Author: Andrew James Bonham
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 300
Release: 2010
ISBN: 9781109727548
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Novel Optical Techniques for Exploring the DNA Binding Affinity and Specificity of Eukaryotic Transcription Factors and Transcription Factor Complexes Book Excerpt:

Together, these techniques provide a novel and extendible platform for observing and understanding transcription factor complexes during transcriptional regulation, enabling previously difficult-to-approach biochemical investigations.

Structural Basis of DNA Binding and Autoinhibition for the Eukaryotic Transcription Factor ETS 1

Structural Basis of DNA Binding and Autoinhibition for the Eukaryotic Transcription Factor ETS 1
Author: Jeannine Marie Petersen
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 300
Release: 1996
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: DNA-protein interactions
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Structural Basis of DNA Binding and Autoinhibition for the Eukaryotic Transcription Factor ETS 1 Book Excerpt:

Eukaryotic Transcription

Eukaryotic Transcription
Author: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 200
Release: 1985
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Eukaryotic cells
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Eukaryotic Transcription Book Excerpt:

Structure function Analysis of the Eukaryotic Transcription Elongation Factor TFIIS

Structure function Analysis of the Eukaryotic Transcription Elongation Factor  TFIIS
Author: Nell Belinda Shimasaki
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 484
Release: 1999
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Structure function Analysis of the Eukaryotic Transcription Elongation Factor TFIIS Book Excerpt:

Gene Control

Gene Control
Author: David S. Latchman
Publsiher: Garland Pub
Total Pages: 430
Release: 2010
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Gene Control Book Excerpt:

Levels of gene control -- Structure of chromatin -- Role of chromatin structure in gene control -- The process of transcription -- Transcription factors and transcriptional control -- Post-transcriptional processes -- Post-transcriptional regulation -- Gene control and cellular signaling pathways -- Gene control in embryonic development -- Control of cell-type-specific gene expression -- Gene regulation and cancer -- Gene regulation and human disease -- Conclusions and future prospects.

Eukaryotic Transcriptional Regulation

Eukaryotic Transcriptional Regulation
Author: Xochitl Chamorro Morgan
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 242
Release: 2008
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Eukaryotic Transcriptional Regulation Book Excerpt:

Survival of cells and organisms requires that each of thousands of genes is expressed at the correct time in development, in the correct tissue, and under the correct conditions. Transcription is the primary point of gene regulation. Genes are activated and repressed by transcription factors, which are proteins that become active through signaling, bind, sometimes cooperatively, to regulatory regions of DNA, and interact with other proteins such as chromatin remodelers. Yeast has nearly six thousand genes, several hundred of which are transcription factors; transcription factors comprise around 2000 of the 22,000 genes in the human genome. When and how these transcription factors are activated, as well as which subsets of genes they regulate, is a current, active area of research essential to understanding the transcriptional regulatory programs of organisms. We approached this problem in two divergent ways: first, an in silico study of human transcription factor combinations, and second, an experimental study of the transcriptional response of yeast mutants deficient in DNA repair. First, in order to better understand the combinatorial nature of transcription factor binding, we developed a data mining approach to assess whether transcription factors whose binding motifs were frequently proximal in the human genome were more likely to interact. We found many instances in the literature in which over-represented transcription factor pairs co-regulated the same gene, so we used co-citation to assess the utility of this method on a larger scale. We determined that over-represented pairs were more likely to be co-cited than would be expected by chance. Because proper repair of DNA is an essential and highly-conserved process in all eukaryotes, we next used cDNA microarrays to measure differentially expressed genes in eighteen yeast deletion strains with sensitivity to the DNA cross-linking agent methyl methane sulfonate (MMS); many of these mutants were transcription factors or DNA-binding proteins. Combining this data with tools such as chromatin immunoprecipitation, gene ontology analysis, expression profile similarity, and motif analysis allowed us to propose a model for the roles of Iki3 and of YML081W, a poorly-characterized gene, in DNA repair.

The Role of Promoter Architecture in Eukaryotic Transcription Regulation

The Role of Promoter Architecture in Eukaryotic Transcription Regulation
Author: Branden S. Wolner
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2000
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Role of Promoter Architecture in Eukaryotic Transcription Regulation Book Excerpt:

Eukaryotic Transcription Factor Binding Kinetics

Eukaryotic Transcription Factor Binding Kinetics
Author: Andrea Callegari
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 163
Release: 2016
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Eukaryotic Transcription Factor Binding Kinetics Book Excerpt:

Mots-clés de l'auteur: Transcription factor ; Binding kinetics ; Transcriptional activity ; Mitotic chromosome binding.