European Access

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Languange : en
Publisher by :
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Total Read : 97
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European Access To Space Business And Policy Perspectives On Micro Launchers

Author by : Matteo Tugnoli
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 60
Total Download : 265
File Size : 45,9 Mb
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Description : The book provides an analysis of the dynamics of the global launch service market associated with small satellites, by placing a particular focus on its unfolding trends and future outlook. From an economic perspective, the emergence of numerous micro launcher initiatives on top of already existing launch solutions for small satellites raises questions about the specific nature and size of the small satellite market that will - or could - be addressed by these emerging launch services offerings. Identifying the specific features of such market by characterizing customers' expectations and providing a competitive analysis of the different launch solutions for small satellites is the second objective of this report. Finally, and from a policy perspective, the book reflects on whether such market could and should be handled on a purely private basis in the European context, or on the contrary generates relevant stakes that compels European institutional actors to become more actively involved in this domain.


European Access

Author by :
Languange : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 52
Total Download : 229
File Size : 48,5 Mb
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Licensing And Access To Content In The European Union

Author by : Sebastian Felix Schwemer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
Total Download : 700
File Size : 53,5 Mb
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Description : Explores the complex European regulatory landscape for multi-territorial access to and licensing of copyrighted works such as music and audiovisual works.


The Politics Of Justice In European Private Law

Author by : Hans-W Micklitz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 63
Total Download : 155
File Size : 53,9 Mb
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Description : The Politics of Justice in European Private Law intends to highlight the differences between the Member States' concepts of social justice, which have developed historically, and the distinct European concept of access justice. Contrary to the emerging critique of Europe's justice deficit in the aftermath of the Euro crisis, this book argues that beneath the larger picture of the Monetary Union, a more positive and more promising European concept of justice is developing. European access justice is thinner than national social justice, but access justice represents a distinct conception of justice nevertheless. Member States or nation states remain free to complement European access justice and bring to bear their own pattern of social justice.


Public Access To Documents In The Eu

Author by : Leonor Rossi
Languange : en
Publisher by : Bloomsbury Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 70
Total Download : 129
File Size : 45,6 Mb
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Description : All litigants before the General Court of the EU (GC), the Court of Justice of the EU (ECJ) or indeed before any EU body or agency will need to have full access to the documents held by the European Union. Though the legislation regulating the field, Regulation 1049/2001, has been in force for some time, it is a complex field for all would-be litigants. In this book the authors, both experienced practitioners in the area, clearly set out the documentation, access requirements and processes. They include a helpful glossary of terms, tables and appendices setting out the relevant legislation. This will be the seminal text for all practitioners who need to access documentation held by the EU.


European Access Plus

Author by :
Languange : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 57
Total Download : 946
File Size : 42,8 Mb
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Description : Presents European Access Plus, an online information service that offers access to European Union information. Offers access to various types of searches, news, bibliographies, and related resources. Includes instructions on how to use the service.


European Consumer Access To Justice Revisited

Author by : Stefan Wrbka
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 54
Total Download : 446
File Size : 50,7 Mb
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Description : What is European consumer access to justice, and how can we improve it by means of procedural and substantive laws?


Free Movement Of Persons Within The European Community

Author by : A. Pieter Van der Mei
Languange : en
Publisher by : Hart Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 58
Total Download : 154
File Size : 46,7 Mb
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Description : This book explores the extent to which European Community law confers upon individuals the right to gain access to public services in other Member States. Are European citizens and third country nationals who have moved to other Member States entitled to claim minimum subsistence benefits,to receive medical care or to be admitted to education? Does Community law provide for a freedom of movement for patients, students and persons in need of social welfare benefits? If so, to what extent does Community law have regard for the Member States' fears for, and concerns about, welfare tourism? Besides addressing numerous detailed questions on the precise degree to which Community law allows for cross-border access to public services, the author analyses how Community law, and the Court of Justice in particular, have sought to reconcile the Community's objectives of realising freedom of movement and ensuring equality of treatment with the need to develop and maintain adequate social services within the Community. In addition, the book contains a detailed analysis of United States constitutional law on cross-border access to public services, exploring the question whether the European Community can possibly learn from the American experience.


Eu Regulation Of Access To Labour Markets

Author by : Elise Muir
Languange : en
Publisher by : Kluwer Law International B.V.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 22
Total Download : 697
File Size : 47,5 Mb
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Description : With a focus on how directly the conditions of access to employment are modified by EU legislation and case law, this important book critically analyses the mandate by which the EU constrains domestic competences to regulate access to labour markets. The author identifies an ‘EU public-social order approach’ – a set of norms imposed by EU institutions on domestic authorities in the performance of a task with social implications. In the area of access to labour markets, this approach is characterized by the following measures and objectives: prohibition of certain forms of discrimination in access to employment, which enhances the protection of individuals; facilitation of the cross-border allocation of workforce among Member States, which requires domestic decision-makers to give equal chances to all EU citizens; and promotion of the economic competitiveness of domestic labour markets, which affects the rights of third country nationals. The presentation assesses the effectiveness of this public-social order approach – in particular as revealed in ECJ case law – as a tool to increase economic efficiency, advance distributive justice, and ensure protection of dignity. By way of detailed example, the author examines reforms of employment contract law and economic migration law in France, and for purposes of comparison illustrates parallel movements in defining the principle of equality as manifested in U.S. law. Thorough and incisive, this analysis of the constraints imposed by EU law on the exercise by domestic institutions of their competence in regulating labour markets is valuable not only to lawyers and academics in employment law, but also of great interest to jurists and policymakers in the wider field of European law as an accurate overview of the tensions between EU constraints and the tools used by national policy makers.


Copyright In The Age Of Online Access

Author by : João Pedro Quintais
Languange : en
Publisher by : Kluwer Law International B.V.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 29
Total Download : 652
File Size : 53,9 Mb
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Description : " In addition to proving virtually impossible, online enforcement of copyright may be undesirable because it risks encroaching upon fundamental rights and freedoms. However, the problem remains that creators are often not fairly remunerated for the online use of their works. This book addresses the urgent need to study pragmatic legal solutions that enable Internet users to access works in the digital environment, while assuring remuneration to rights holders and promoting the development of the information society. This study examines legalisation schemes that favour remunerated access over exclusivity and enforcement for large-scale online use by individuals. It investigates whether and to what extent these schemes (referred to as alternative compensation systems) are admissible under EU copyright law and consistent with its objectives, responding to such questions as the following in depth: - What existing copyright schemes provide an alternative to the exclusive right in copyright law? - What online rights apply to the activities of Internet users? - What types of models exist for the legalisation of online use of copyright works? - How can the public interest shape the scope of protection of copyright? - Can and should we legalise non-commercial file sharing and online use in EU copyright law? The book carefully examines these questions in light of EU primary law, relevant directives (with a focus on the InfoSoc Directive), case law (especially that of the CJEU), and legal literature in the field of copyright. The analysis culminates with a proposed blueprint for a compensated limitation for non-commercial individual use that is consistent with EU copyright law. As a thoroughly researched and balanced response to the urgent need to rethink EU copyright law in light of its lack of social acceptance and technological adequacy, this book will be of inestimable value to lawyers, policymakers, and scholars in the field, as well as to interest groups involved in discussions for reform and modernisation of EU digital copyright law. "


Implementing The Nagoya Protocol

Author by : Brendan Coolsaet
Languange : en
Publisher by : Hotei Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 43
Total Download : 286
File Size : 54,6 Mb
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Description : Implementing the Nagoya Protocol compares existing ABS regimes in ten European countries, including one non-EU member and one EU candidate country, and critically explores several cross-cutting issues related to the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol in the EU.


Access To Social Rights In Europe

Author by : Mary E. Daly
Languange : en
Publisher by : Council of Europe
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 32
Total Download : 118
File Size : 53,5 Mb
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Description : The Council of Europe is convinced of the need to improve access to social rights as a key means of combating poverty and social exclusion and in promoting social cohesion. The report on access to social rights in Europe is mainly based on the results of the activities related to access to employment, social protection and housing, as well as relevant work carried out within the Council of Europe in the fields of health and education. This report analyses the obstacles impeding access to different social rights within and across a range of fields. It also gives examples of how obstacles are being overcome, examines integrated measures implemented in the member states of the Council of Europe and identifies the principles on which measures to improve access to social rights should be based. Finally, the report develops cross-sectoral policy guidelines aimed at facilitating access to social rights.


Access To Housing

Author by : William McLenachen Edgar
Languange : en
Publisher by : The Policy Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 9
Total Download : 420
File Size : 43,8 Mb
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Description : This book seeks an understanding of the situation through a detailed analysis of the European housing market in both the private and state spheres. It offers the first EU-wide examination of housing provision, its changing nature and impact on homelessness. The book identifies the institutional changes and policy prescriptions that are necessary to manage the demands of homelessness and inadequate housing among Europe's most vulnerable people. Access to Housing will be invaluable reading for practitioners looking for guidance on best practice, policy makers who need to be aware of institutional weaknesses and governance issues, and researchers, academics and students who wish to keep up to date with policy-relevant research in the fields of housing, poverty and social exclusion.


Access To Social Rights For People With Disabilities In Europe

Author by :
Languange : en
Publisher by : Council of Europe
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 64
Total Download : 197
File Size : 54,9 Mb
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Description : Despite the progress made in the social rights field in Europe, many fundamental social rights are still not fully accessible to people with disabilities. This report examines key measures and identifies obstacles to full participation, particularly in the areas of education, vocational training and employment, the built environment and transport, information and communication, healthcare and social protection. It provides examples of good practice and makes cross-sectoral recommendations for integrated policy actions.


Beyond Market Access For Economic Development

Author by : Gerrit Faber
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 13
Total Download : 772
File Size : 48,5 Mb
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Description : The Economic Partnership Agreements between the European Union and the Africa, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries have drastically restructured Europe’s trade architecture towards the third world. This volume examines the consequences of EPAs for development in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Starting from the observation that the establishment of free trade as such will substantially impact upon economic development, the different contributions focus on the potential contribution of non-traditional aspects of EPAs. More specifically, the authors analyze the role of Aid for Trade schemes, regulatory integration issues and broader foreign policy considerations. How can these non-market access aspects stimulate development in Africa, and how have they been addressed in the EPAs? In short, this brings us to the question whether the ‘light version EPAs’ as they currently stand are a missed chance or a blessing in disguise?


Access To Information In The European Union

Author by : Herke Kranenborg
Languange : en
Publisher by : ISBS
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 82
Total Download : 383
File Size : 45,9 Mb
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Description : In the last 15 years, transparency has been one of the central themes in the European integration process. By providing more openness about its activities, the European Union tries to bring itself closer to its citizens. Transparency is considered one of the main methods to relieve the 'democratic deficit'. One way of increasing transparency is to grant citizens a right to access information. Another way is to actively publish information. Transparency is not an exclusive feature of European integration. On the contrary, inspiration for policies on access to information is mostly drawn from the sometimes longstanding experiences of the member states. Access to Information in the European Union provides for a detailed and useful overview of EC and member state legislation in the field of access to information, highlighting the similarities and differences between national legislation of different member states.


The Impact Of The European Union Grant On Access To Credit And Production In Smallholder Sugarcane Agriculture In Siphofaneni Eswatini

Author by : Sikhanyiso Angel Maziya
Languange : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 80
Total Download : 599
File Size : 40,7 Mb
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Description : Credit is important because it enables farmers to increase agricultural production. Access to credit from commercial banks for smallholder farmers enhances productivity and promotes farmer development. It plays an important role in alleviating poverty and creating an economically stable life. However, access to credit for rural smallholder sugarcane farmers in Eswatini is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a European Union (EU) grant on access to credit from commercial banks and farming activities for smallholder sugarcane farmers in Eswatini. The study determined whether smallholder sugarcane farmers had access to credit from commercial banks and other formal financial institutions. It also determined whether being a participant in an EU grant funding led to increased access to credit and to higher production for smallholder sugarcane farmers. The study determined the extent to which an EU grant funding contributed to eliminating constraints faced by smallholder sugarcane farmers. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Descriptive and econometric analyses were performed to identify the factors that influence access to credit and farming activities for smallholder sugarcane farmers. The Propensity Score Matching (PSM) was applied to identify the impact of the EU grant funding on access to credit from commercial banks and farm activities. The matching compared beneficiaries to non-beneficiaries of the EU grant funding in terms of the independent variables hypothesised to have an effect on access to credit. After the application of PSM, the average treatment effect on the treated was used to measure the appropriateness of the intervention of the EU grant funding on smallholder sugarcane farmers in Eswatini. Descriptive statistics show that 55% of the smallholder sugarcane farmers are male and their average age is 58 years. It also shows that about 37% of the smallholder farmers are illiterate, with only 32% attending primary school and only 31% attending high school. Lastly, it shows that, the major source of income for smallholder farmers is the sugarcane farming enterprise and that about 37.5 % of smallholder sugarcane farmers in Siphofaneni have been beneficiaries of EU grant funding. For the logistic regression for access to credit, five of the variables used in the study were statistically significant. These variables included education, land size; grant funding, off-farm income and extension services. The variables had an effect on farmers℗þ access to credit from commercial banks. The other variables were not significant at any level; consequently, they did not have an effect on farmers℗þ access to credit. The logistic regression for farming activities shows that only four variables had an effect on farmers℗þ production. These variables included farmers℗þ experience, grant funding, off-farm income of the farmer and extension services. The results suggest that EU grant funding increases the chances that smallholder farmers can access credit from commercial banks. Therefore, farmers that are beneficiaries of EU grant funding are presumed to have more access to credit than their counterparts who are not beneficiaries. The average treatment effect on the treated also showed that beneficiaries of EU grant funding had a higher chance of access to credit than non-beneficiaries of EU grant funding. Overall, the EU grant has contributed to eliminating credit constraints faced by smallholder farmers. However, it has not affected full elimination of production constraints faced by smallholder sugarcane farmers in Eswatini. About 90% of the farmers pointed out that electricity and water were the major constraints they faced. The power rates are high because farmers use more electricity for water pumping directed at their fields. Further, water is another constraint because drought has hit Eswatini and therefore water from the dam in the study area has been rationed to ensure availability in the future. This has a negative effect on farmers℗þ production, as lack of water for sugarcane production reduces the sucrose level, resulting in lower returns for the farmers.


The Unaccountable State Of Surveillance

Author by : Clive Norris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 67
Total Download : 762
File Size : 40,6 Mb
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Description : This book examines the ability of citizens across ten European countries to exercise their democratic rights to access their personal data. It presents a socio-legal research project, with the researchers acting as citizens, or data subjects, and using ethnographic data collection methods. The research presented here evidences a myriad of strategies and discourses employed by a range of public and private sector organizations as they obstruct and restrict citizens' attempts to exercise their informational rights. The book also provides an up-to-date legal analysis of legal frameworks across Europe concerning access rights and makes several policy recommendations in the area of informational rights. It provides a unique and unparalleled study of the law in action which uncovered the obstacles that citizens encounter if they try to find out what personal data public and private sector organisations collect and store about them, how they process it, and with whom they share it. These are simple questions to ask, and the right to do so is enshrined in law, but getting answers to these questions was met by a raft of strategies which effectively denied citizens their rights. The book documents in rich ethnographic detail the manner in which these discourses of denial played out in the ten countries involved, and explores in depth the implications for policy and regulatory reform.


Access To Social Europe

Author by : Nicolas Moussis
Languange : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 38
Total Download : 768
File Size : 45,7 Mb
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Description : The third edition of this invaluable publication will guide you through the many facets of this wide-ranging policy that has significant repercussions for EU citizens and businesses alike.


An Introduction To Nineteenth Century European History 1815 1914

Author by : Alan Farmer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Hodder Murray
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 18
Total Download : 936
File Size : 51,5 Mb
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Description : This title assesses the key areas of nineteenth-century European history in an accessible and progressive way. The author examines the key political, economic and social developments in Italy, Germany, France, Russia and Austria-Hungary. Issues and events such as the 1848 Revolutions, Italian and German Unification and the origins of the First World War are analysed and explained through an up-to-date narrative and carefully structured activities. The Access to History Context series covers core periods of European and American history. Each book covers a period of at least one hundred years, charting the key political, social, economic, religious and cultural themes and issues of that time. All texts include activities with comprehensive advice on tackling essay questions.


Human Rights In Business

Author by : Juan José Álvarez Rubio
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 65
Total Download : 911
File Size : 55,9 Mb
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Description : The capacity to abuse, or in general affect the enjoyment of human, labour and environmental rights has risen with the increased social and economic power that multinational companies wield in the global economy. At the same time, it appears that it is difficult to regulate the activities of multinational companies in such a way that they conform to international human, labour and environmental rights standards. This has partially to do with the organization of companies into groups of separate legal persons, incorporated in different states, as well as with the complexity of the corporate supply chain. Absent a business and human rights treaty, a more coherent legal and policy approach is required. Faced with the challenge of how to effectively access the right to remedy in the European Union for human rights abuses committed by EU companies in non-EU states, a diverse research consortium of academic and legal institutions was formed. The consortium, coordinated by the Globernance Institute for Democratic Governance, became the recipient of a 2013 Civil Justice Action Grant from the European Commission Directorate General for Justice. A mandate was thus issued for research, training and dissemination so as to bring visibility to the challenge posed and moreover, to provide some solutions for the removal of barriers to judicial and non-judicial remedy for victims of business-related human rights abuses in non-EU states. The project commenced in September 2014 and over the course of two years the consortium conducted research along four specific lines in parallel with various training sessions across EU Member States. The research conducted focused primarily on judicial remedies, both jurisdictional barriers and applicable law barriers; non-judicial remedies, both to company-based grievance. The results of this research endeavour make up the content of this report whose aim is to provide a scholarly foundation for policy proposals by identifying specific challenges relevant to access to justice in the European Union and to provide recommendations on how to remove legal and practical barriers so as to provide access to remedy for victims of business-related human rights abuses in non-EU states.


British Withdrawal From The European Union

Author by : Lewis Abbott
Languange : en
Publisher by : Industrial Systems Research
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 57
Total Download : 898
File Size : 49,6 Mb
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Description : In 1992, Britain benefited considerably by withdrawing from the European Union¿s Exchange Rate Mechanism and programme of Economic and Monetary Union. This study provides a detailed review of the economic and political case for British withdrawal from the EU bloc as a whole. Major general arguments for withdrawal are that (a) the economic costs of EU membership substantially exceed the benefits, and (b) withdrawal is necessary to restore democracy, business and market freedom, the rule of law, and other basic features of a modern liberal social order. ¿Clear and thorough ¿. Examining many of the key aspects of EU membership ¿. students of European business or politics will find this guide useful and interesting reading.¿ (European Access, and European Access Plus online) CONTENTS 1. THE CASE FOR BRITAIN¿S WITHDRAWAL FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION: AN OVERVIEW 2. THE MAIN NON-EU SOURCES OF BRITISH WEALTH 3. THE ECONOMIC COSTS OF EU MEMBERSHIP 4. THE POLITICAL CONSTITUTIONAL CASE FOR EU WITHDRAWAL 5. THE FREE TRADE CASE FOR EU WITHDRAWAL 6. THE REMOVAL OF EU REGULATORY BURDENS 7. THE BENEFITS OF MONETARY & ECONOMIC POLICY INDEPENDENCE 8. THE CASE FOR FISCAL INDEPENDENCE