Evaluating Evidence In Biological Anthropology

Author by : Cathy Willermet
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : A critical assessment of how evidence in biological anthropology is discovered, collected and interpreted.


Biological Anthropology

Author by : Craig Stanford
Languange : en
Publisher by : Pearson Higher Ed
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Total Read : 75
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Description : This is the eBook of the printed book and may not include any media, website access codes, or print supplements that may come packaged with the bound book. Discover the Best of Biological Anthropology: From its Earliest Foundations to its Most Current Innovations Biological Anthropology, 3/e is written to appeal to a wide range of students. It continues to build upon the strength and success of its first and second editions by integrating the foundations of the field with the most current innovations happening today. Over the past 40 years, biological anthropology has rapidly evolved from the study of physical anthropology into biological anthropology. Biological anthropology is now an integrative combination of information from the fossil record and the human skeleton, genetics of individuals and of populations, our primate relatives, human adaptation, and human behavior. The third edition of Biological Anthropology combines the most up-to-date, comprehensive coverage of the foundations of the field with modern innovations and discoveries. Teaching and Learning Experience Personalize Learning – MyAnthroLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals. Improve Critical Thinking - Visual summaries, critical thinking questions, Insights and Advances boxes and author suggested readings found within each chapter encourage students to examine assumptions, discern hidden values, evaluate evidence, assess conclusions, and more! Engage Students - Woven into each chapter, student-oriented pedagogy, art, photos, and maps help students gain a better understanding of key material. Support Instructors – Teaching your course just got easier! You can Create a Customized Text or use our author reviewed Instructor’s Manual, Electronic “MyTest” Test Bank or PowerPoint Presentation Slides. Additionally, we offer fantastic bundling options for the lab portion of your course with our Method & Practice in Biological Anthropology: A Workbook and Laboratory Manual for Introductory Courses, or our Atlas of Anthropology. (Both able to be packaged at a significant discount!) Note: MyAnthroLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MyAnthroLab, please visit: www.myanthrolab.com or you can purchase a valuepack of the text + MyAnthroLab (at no additional cost): VP ISBN-10: 0205179304 / VP ISBN-13: 9780205179305


The Evolutionary Biology Of The Human Pelvis

Author by : Cara M. Wall-Scheffler
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 74
Total Download : 101
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Description : Synthesizes and re-examines the evolution of the human pelvis, which sits at the interface between locomotion and childbirth.


Biological Anthropology Books A La Carte Edition

Author by : Craig Stanford
Languange : en
Publisher by : Prentice Hall
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 89
Total Download : 527
File Size : 44,6 Mb
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Description : From Foundation to Innovation: The Best of Biological Anthropology Biological Anthropology, 3/e is written as accessibly as possible to be useful to students at community colleges to research-oriented university levels. It continues to build upon the strength and success of its first and second editions by integrating the foundations and the most current innovations in the field from the ground up. Over the past 40 years, this field has rapidly evolved from the study of physical anthropology into biological anthropology. Biological anthropology is now an integrative combination of information from the fossil record and the human skeleton, genetics of individuals and of populations, our primate relatives, human adaptation, and human behavior. The third edition of Biological Anthropology combines the most up-to-date, comprehensive coverage of the foundations of the field with modern innovations and discoveries. Teaching and Learning Experience Personalize Learning -- MyAnthroLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals. Improve Critical Thinking - Visual summaries, critical thinking questions, Insights and Advances boxes and author suggested readings found within each chapter encourage students to examine assumptions, discern hidden values, evaluate evidence, assess conclusions, and more! Engage Students - Woven into each chapter, student-oriented pedagogy, art, photos, and maps help students gain a better understanding of key material. Support Instructors -- Teaching your course just got easier! You can Create a Customized Text or use our author reviewed Instructor's Manual, Electronic "MyTest" Test Bank or PowerPoint Presentation Slides. Additionally, we offer fantastic bundling options for the lab portion of your course with our Method & Practice in Biological Anthropology: A Workbook and Laboratory Manual for Introductory Courses, or our Atlas of Anthropology. (Both able to be packaged at a significant discount!) Note: MyAnthroLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MyAnthroLab, please visit: www.myanthrolab.com or you can purchase a valuepack of the text + MyAnthroLab (at no additional cost): VP ISBN-10: 0205179304 / VP ISBN-13: 9780205179305


Patterns Of Human Growth

Author by : Barry Bogin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 84
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Description : This completely revised edition provides a synthesis of the forces that shaped the evolution of the human growth pattern, the biocultural factors that direct its expression, the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that regulate individual development, and the biomathematical approaches needed to analyze and interpret human growth. After covering the history, philosophy and biological principles of human development, the book turns to the evolution of the human life cycle. Later chapters explore the physiological, environmental and cultural reasons for population variation in growth, and the genetic and endocrine factors that regulate individual development. Using numerous historical and cultural examples, social-economic-political-economic forces are also discussed. A new chapter introduces controversial concepts of community effects and strategic growth adjustments, and the author then integrates all this information into a truly interactive biocultural model of human development. This remains the primary text for students of human growth in anthropology, psychology, public health and education.


The Biodemography Of Subsistence Farming

Author by : James W. Wood
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 50
Total Download : 348
File Size : 42,5 Mb
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Description : Viewing the subsistence farm as primarily a 'demographic enterprise' to create and support a family, this book offers an integrated view of the demography and ecology of preindustrial farming. Taking an interdisciplinary perspective, it examines how traditional farming practices interact with demographic processes such as childbearing, death, and family formation. It includes topics such as household nutrition, physiological work capacity, health and resistance to infectious diseases, as well as reproductive performance and mortality. The book argues that the farming household is the most informative scale at which to study the biodemography and physiological ecology of preindustrial, non-commercial agriculture. It offers a balanced appraisal of the farming system, considering its strengths and limitations, as well as the implications of viewing it as a 'demographic enterprise' rather than an economic one. A valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in biological and physical anthropology, cultural anthropology, natural resource management, agriculture and ecology.


Evolution Ecology And Conservation Of Lorises And Pottos

Author by : K. A. I. Nekaris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 61
Total Download : 731
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Description : The first book to present the latest discoveries on the behaviour, ecology and evolutionary biology of lorises and pottos.


The Colobines

Author by : Ikki Matsuda
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 37
Total Download : 470
File Size : 46,7 Mb
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Description : The Colobines are a group of Afroeurasian monkeys that exhibit extraordinary behavioural and ecological diversity. With long tails and diverse colourations, they are medium-sized primates, mostly arboreal, that are found in many different habitats, from rain forests and mountain forests to mangroves and savannah. Over the last two decades, our understanding of this group of primates has increased dramatically. This volume presents a comprehensive overview of the current research on colobine populations, including the range of biological, ecological, behavioural and societal traits they exhibit. It highlights areas where our knowledge is still lacking, and outlines the current conservation status of colobine populations, exploring the threats to their survival. Bringing together international experts, this volume will aid future conservation efforts and encourage further empirical studies. It will be of interest to researchers and graduate students in primatology, biological anthropology and conservation science. Additional online resources can be found at www.cambridge.org/colobines.


The Genetics Of African Populations In Health And Disease

Author by : Muntaser E. Ibrahim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 89
Total Download : 733
File Size : 53,6 Mb
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Description : A pioneering work that focuses on the unique diversity of African genetics, offering insights into human biology and genetic approaches.


Children In Antiquity

Author by : Lesley A. Beaumont
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 28
Total Download : 709
File Size : 46,6 Mb
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Description : This collection employs a multi-disciplinary approach treating ancient childhood in a holistic manner according to diachronic, regional and thematic perspectives. This multi-disciplinary approach encompasses classical studies, Egyptology, ancient history and the broad spectrum of archaeology, including iconography and bioarchaeology. With a chronological range of the Bronze Age to Byzantium and regional coverage of Egypt, Greece, and Italy this is the largest survey of childhood yet undertaken for the ancient world. Within this chronological and regional framework both the social construction of childhood and the child’s life experience are explored through the key topics of the definition of childhood, daily life, religion and ritual, death, and the information provided by bioarchaeology. No other volume to date provides such a comprehensive, systematic and cross-cultural study of childhood in the ancient Mediterranean world. In particular, its focus on the identification of society-specific definitions of childhood and the incorporation of the bioarchaeological perspective makes this work a unique and innovative study. Children in Antiquity provides an invaluable and unrivalled resource for anyone working on all aspects of the lives and deaths of children in the ancient Mediterranean world.


Human Adult Odontometrics

Author by : Julius A. Kieser
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 81
Total Download : 778
File Size : 43,9 Mb
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Description : This book has an important role in demonstrating to students the diverse practical applications of odontometrics.


Social Bioarchaeology

Author by : Sabrina C. Agarwal
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 84
Total Download : 357
File Size : 50,5 Mb
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Description : Illustrates new methodological directions in analyzing human social and biological variation Offers a wide array of research on past populations around the globe Explains the central features of bioarchaeological research by key researchers and established experts around the world


Human Diet And Nutrition In Biocultural Perspective

Author by : Tina Moffat
Languange : en
Publisher by : Berghahn Books
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 16
Total Download : 919
File Size : 47,9 Mb
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Description : There are not many areas that are more rooted in both the biological and social-cultural aspects of humankind than diet and nutrition. Throughout human history nutrition has been shaped by political, economic, and cultural forces, and in turn, access to food and nutrition has altered the course and direction of human societies. Using a biocultural approach, the contributors to this volume investigate the ways in which food is both an essential resource fundamental to human health and an expression of human culture and society. The chapters deal with aspects of diet and human nutrition through space and time and span prehistoric, historic, and contemporary societies spread over various geographical regions, including Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia to highlight how biology and culture are inextricably linked.


A Companion To Paleopathology

Author by : Anne L. Grauer
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 45
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File Size : 46,8 Mb
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Description : A Companion to Paleopathology offers a comprehensive overview of this rapidly growing sub- field of physical anthropology. Presents a broad overview of the field of paleopathology, integrating theoretical and methodological approaches to understand biological and disease processes throughout human history Demonstrates how paleopathology sheds light on the past through the analysis of human and non-human skeletal materials, mummified remains and preserved tissue Integrates scientific advances in multiple fields that contribute to the understanding of ancient and historic diseases, such as epidemiology, histology, radiology, parasitology, dentistry, and molecular biology, as well as archaeological, archival and historical research. Highlights cultural processes that have an impact on the evolution of illness, death and dying in human populations, including subsistence strategies, human environmental adaptations, the effects of malnutrition, differential access to resources, and interpersonal and intercultural violence


Biological Anthropology

Author by : Noel Thomas Boaz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 30
Total Download : 970
File Size : 55,6 Mb
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Description : This new edition of Biological Anthropology is evolutionary in perspective in the belief that evolution is the only unifying theory that can clearly explain the existing array of biological and cultural data. The basics of anthropological theory and human genetics are introduced before the topics of vertebrate evolution, primate evolution and social behavior, human evolution and behavior, and human variation and adaptation. In each section, behavior, morphology, adaptation, and ecology are discussed to provide the comparative basis for human origins. Includes expanded sections on genetics, with a new chapter on classic genetics (Ch. 2), and a new chapter on Darwinian evolution (Ch. 3); a new chapter on the living primates, their distribution and anatomical adaptations (Ch. 7); an expanded section on Homo, including a new chapter on Homo sapiens sapiens; and a new chapter on hominoid and human behavior (Ch. 13), which combines the evolution of hominoid behavior and the evolution of human social behavior.


Body Composition In Biological Anthropology

Author by : Roy J. Shephard
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
Total Download : 909
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Description : All those concerned with biological anthropology, both clinicians and researchers, will find this book of great interest.


The Global History Of Paleopathology

Author by : Jane E. Buikstra
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press on Demand
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 54
Total Download : 778
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Description : The first comprehensive global history of the discipline of paleopathology


The Archaeology Of Greater Nicoya

Author by : Larry Steinbrenner
Languange : en
Publisher by : University Press of Colorado
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 30
Total Download : 409
File Size : 43,7 Mb
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Description : The Archaeology of Greater Nicoya is the first edited volume in a quarter century to provide an overview of this fascinating archaeological subarea of Mesoamerica, encompassing Pacific Nicaragua and northwestern Costa Rica. Inhabited by diverse peoples of Mesoamerican origin centuries before Spanish colonization, Greater Nicoya remains controversial in the twenty-first century as scholars struggle to achieve consensus on questions of geography, chronology, and cultural identity. Drawing on approaches ranging from ethnohistory to bioarchaeology to scientific and culture-historical archaeology, the book is organized into sections on redefining Greater Nicoya, projects and surveys, material culture, and mortuary practices. Individual chapters explore Indigenous groups and their origins, extensive summaries of the three largest scholarly archaeological projects completed in Pacific Nicaragua in the last quarter century, clear evidence of Mesoamerican connections from Costa Rica’s Bay of Culebra, detailed histories of lithic analysis and rock art studies in Nicaragua, new insights into mortuary and cultural practices based on osteological evidence, and reinterpretations of diagnostic ceramic types as products of related potting communities and the first definitive identification of production centers for these types. Drawing upon new 14C dates, this volume also provides the most substantial revision of the late pre-colonial chronology since the 1960s, a correction that has critical implications for understanding the prehistory of Greater Nicoya.


The Routledge Handbook Of Bioarchaeology In Southeast Asia And The Pacific Islands

Author by : Marc Oxenham
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 24
Total Download : 710
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Description : In recent years the bioarchaeology of Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands has seen enormous progress. This new and exciting research is synthesised, contextualised and expanded upon in The Routledge Handbook of Bioarchaeology in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. The volume is divided into two broad sections, one dealing with mainland and island Southeast Asia, and a second section dealing with the Pacific islands. A multi-scalar approach is employed to the bio-social dimensions of Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands with contributions alternating between region and/or site specific scales of operation to the individual or personal scale. The more personal level of osteobiographies enriches the understanding of the lived experience in past communities. Including a number of contributions from sub-disciplinary approaches tangential to bioarchaeology the book provides a broad theoretical and methodological approach. Providing new information on the globally relevant topics of farming, population mobility, subsistence and health, no other volume provides such a range of coverage on these important themes.


Rethinking Evolutionary Psychology

Author by : A. Goldfinch
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 59
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Description : Rethinking Evolutionary Psychology identifies, champions and vindicates a streamlined evolutionary psychology. It offers a new way of thinking that moves decisively away from theoretical and critical excess. Where standard accounts often obscure and distort, this book emphasizes and develops evolutionary psychology's heuristic credentials.


The Tales Teeth Tell

Author by : Tanya M. Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : MIT Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 89
Total Download : 431
File Size : 49,8 Mb
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Description : What teeth can tell us about human evolution, development, and behavior. Our teeth have intriguing stories to tell. These sophisticated time machines record growth, diet, and evolutionary history as clearly as tree rings map a redwood's lifespan. Each day of childhood is etched into tooth crowns and roots—capturing birth, nursing history, environmental clues, and illnesses. The study of ancient, fossilized teeth sheds light on how our ancestors grew up, how we evolved, and how prehistoric cultural transitions continue to affect humans today. In The Tales Teeth Tell, biological anthropologist Tanya Smith offers an engaging and surprising look at what teeth tell us about the evolution of primates—including our own uniqueness. Humans' impressive set of varied teeth provides a multipurpose toolkit honed by the diet choices of our mammalian ancestors. Fossil teeth, highly resilient because of their substantial mineral content, are all that is left of some long-extinct species. Smith explains how researchers employ painstaking techniques to coax microscopic secrets from these enigmatic remains. Counting tiny daily lines provides a way to estimate age that is more powerful than any other forensic technique. Dental plaque—so carefully removed by dental hygienists today—records our ancestors' behavior and health in the form of fossilized food particles and bacteria, including their DNA. Smith also traces the grisly origins of dentistry, reveals that the urge to pick one's teeth is not unique to humans, and illuminates the age-old pursuit of “dental art.” The book is generously illustrated with original photographs, many in color.


Population And Demography

Author by : Stephen Shennan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 19
Total Download : 250
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Description : Covers recent work on the cultural aspects of past societies, focusing especially on studies of colonisation and migration, and the impact of population growth.


Research Methods In Human Skeletal Biology

Author by : Elizabeth A. DiGangi
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 37
Total Download : 817
File Size : 46,8 Mb
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Description : Research Methods in Human Skeletal Biology serves as the one location readers can go to not only learn how to conduct research in general, but how research is specifically conducted within human skeletal biology. It outlines the current types of research being conducted within each sub-specialty of skeletal biology, and gives the reader the tools to set up a research project in skeletal biology. It also suggests several ideas for potential projects. Each chapter has an inclusive bibliography, which can serve as a good jumpstart for project references. Provides a step-by-step guide to conducting research in human skeletal biology Covers diverse topics (sexing, aging, stature and ancestry estimation) and new technologies (histology, medical imaging, and geometric morphometrics) Excellent accompaniment to existing forensic anthropology or osteology works


The Oxford Handbook Of The Archaeology Of Childhood

Author by : Sally Crawford
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 56
Total Download : 877
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Description : Real understanding of past societies is not possible without including children, and yet they have been strangely invisible in the archaeological record. Compelling explanation about past societies cannot be achieved without including and investigating children and childhood. However marginal the traces of children's bodies and bricolage may seem compared to adults, archaeological evidence of children and childhood can be found in the most astonishing places and spaces. The archaeology of childhood is one of the most exciting and challenging areas for new discovery about past societies. Children are part of every human society, but childhood is a cultural construct. Each society develops its own idea about what a childhood should be, what children can or should do, and how they are trained to take their place in the world. Children also play a part in creating the archaeological record itself. In this volume, experts from around the world ask questions about childhood - thresholds of age and growth, childhood in the material culture, the death of children, and the intersection of the childhood and the social, economic, religious, and political worlds of societies in the past.


Fundamentals Of Forensic Anthropology

Author by : Linda L. Klepinger
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 23
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Description : An essential foundation for the practice of forensic anthropology This text is the first of its level written in more than twenty years. It serves as a summary and guide to the core material that needs to be mastered and evaluated for the practice of forensic anthropology. The text is divided into three parts that collectively provide a solid base in theory and methodology: Part One, "Background Setting for Forensic Anthropology," introduces the field and discusses the role of forensic anthropology in historic context. Part Two, "Towards Personal Identification," discusses initial assessments of skeletal remains; determining sex, age, ancestral background, and stature; and skeletal markers of activity and life history. Part Three, "Principal Anthropological Roles in Medical-Legal Investigation," examines trauma; the postmortem period; professionalism, ethics, and the expert witness; and genetics and DNA. The critical and evaluative approach to the primary literature stresses the inherent biological constraints on degrees of precision and certainty, and cautions about potential pitfalls. The practical focus, coupled with theoretical basics, make Fundamentals of Forensic Anthropology ideal for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in biological anthropology as well as forensic scientists in allied fields of medical-legal investigation.


Skeletal Biology Of The Ancient Rapanui Easter Islanders

Author by : Vincent H. Stefan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 99
Total Download : 481
File Size : 40,6 Mb
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Description : A succinct volume presenting current views of Rapanui prehistory, utilising biological evidence to modify existing archaeological and cultural anthropological preconceptions.


Theories Of Adolescent Development

Author by : Barbara M. Newman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 36
Total Download : 258
File Size : 51,8 Mb
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Description : Adolescence is both universal and culturally constructed, resulting in diverse views about its defining characteristics. Theories of Adolescent Development brings together many theories surrounding this life stage in one comprehensive reference. It begins with an introduction to the nature of theory in the field of adolescence including an analysis of why there are so many theories in this field. The theory chapters are grouped into three sections: biological systems, psychological systems, and societal systems. Each chapter considers a family of theories including scope, assumptions, key concepts, contributions to the study of adolescence, approaches to measurement, applications, and a discussion of strengths and limitations of this family. A concluding chapter offers an integrative analysis, identifying five assumptions drawn from the theories that are essential guides for future research and application. Three questions provide a focus for comparison and contrast: How do the theories characterize the time and timing of adolescence? What do the theories emphasize as domains that are unfolding in movement toward maturity? Building on the perspective of Positive Youth Development, how do the theories differ in their views of developmental resources and conditions that may undermine development in adolescence? Includes biological, psychological and sociological theories Identifies historical roots, assumptions, key concepts, applications, measurement, strengths, and limitations of each theory Compares and contrasts theories Concludes with an integrated perspective across theories


Ages And Abilities The Stages Of Childhood And Their Social Recognition In Prehistoric Europe And Beyond

Author by : Katharina Rebay-Salisbury
Languange : en
Publisher by : Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 55
Total Download : 176
File Size : 41,5 Mb
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Description : This volume explores social responses to stages of childhood from the late Neolithic to Classical Antiquity in Central Europe and the Mediterranean. Comparing osteological and archaeological evidence, as well as integrating images and texts, authors consider whether childhood age classes are archaeologically recognizable.


Osteoarchaeology

Author by : Efthymia Nikita
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 44
Total Download : 653
File Size : 47,6 Mb
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Description : Osteoarchaeology: A Guide to the Macroscopic Study of Human Skeletal Remains covers the identification of bones and teeth, taphonomy, sex, ancestry assessment, age estimation, the analysis of biodistances, growth patterns and activity markers, and paleopathology. The book aims to familiarize the reader with the main applications of osteoarchaeology and provide the necessary knowledge required for the implementation of a broad range of osteological methods. It is ideal as a complement to existing textbooks used in upper level undergraduate and graduate courses on osteoarchaeology, human osteology, and, to some extent, forensic anthropology. Pedagogical features include ample illustrations, case study material, revision exercises, and a glossary. Additional features comprise macros that facilitate data processing and analysis, as well as an extensive chapter on applied statistics. Contains coverage of nearly every aspect of human osteological macroscopic analysis Presents detailed descriptions of the application of different methods Includes a variety of online resources, including macros designed by the author for the calculation of the number of individuals in commingled assemblages, processing cranial landmarks and nonmetric traits, and more