Evaluating Science And Scientists

Author by : Mark S. Frankel
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 24
Total Download : 934
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Description : Reforms in the evaluation and funding of scientific research are a key element in the broader process of economic reform in Eastern Europe. This text examines the introduction of competitive funding systems based on peer review, surveys Western experience in the design and management of evaluation systems, and offers suggestions for dealing with some of the problems encountered by East European reformers. This text is aimed at postgraduate and upper-level undergraduate courses on science policy, the sociology of science and science and society.


Evaluating Scientific Research

Author by : Fred Leavitt
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 24
Total Download : 216
File Size : 48,5 Mb
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Description : This text uses non-technical vocabulary to explain the research process. It covers six problem areas: limitations of science; preparing for research; measurement; research designs; data analysis; and philosophical issues.


Innovations In Measuring And Evaluating Scientific Information

Author by : Jeyasekar, J. John
Languange : en
Publisher by : IGI Global
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 55
Total Download : 816
File Size : 47,7 Mb
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Description : Across a variety of disciplines, data and statistics form the backbone of knowledge. To ensure the reliability and validity of data appropriate measures must be taken in conducting studies and reporting findings. Innovations in Measuring and Evaluating Scientific Information provides emerging research on the theoretical base of scientific research and information literacy. While highlighting topics, such as bibliographical databases, forensic research, and trend analysis, this book explores visualization tools, software, and techniques for science mapping and scientific literature. This book is an important resource for scientific researchers, policy makers, research funding agencies, and students.


Evaluating Science And Scientists

Author by : Mark S. Frankel
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 12
Total Download : 861
File Size : 47,5 Mb
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Description : Reforms in the evaluation and funding of scientific research are a key element in the broader process of economic reform in Eastern Europe. Evaluating Science and Scientists examines the introduction of competitive funding systems based on peer review and surveys Western experience in the design and management of evaluation systems. The contributors also offer concrete suggestions for dealing with some of the problems that Eastern European reformers have encountered in introducing new evaluation systems.


On Comparing And Evaluating Scientific Theories

Author by : Adam Jonkisz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rodopi
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 22
Total Download : 699
File Size : 51,6 Mb
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Description : Contents: Leon KOJ: Methodology and values. - Leon KOJ: Science as system. - Adam GROBLER: Explanation and epistemic virtue. - Piotr GIZA: Intelligent computer systems and theory comparison. - Henryk OGRYZKO-WIEWIEROWSKI: Methods of social choice of scientific theories. - Kazimierz JODKOWSKI: Is the causal theory of reference a remedy for ontological incommensurability? - Wolfgang BALZER: On approximative reduction. - C. ULISES MOULINES: Is there genuinely scientific progress? - Adam JONKISZ: On relative progress in science."


How Science Works

Author by : Stephen H. Jenkins
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
Total Download : 531
File Size : 51,6 Mb
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Description : One week, red wine is good for the heart. The next week, new reports say it's bad for the health. So which is true? Anyone who's ever read science news with fascination, or who's ever been confounded by conflicting stories will appreciate this book. Taking a look at some true to life contemporary news stories, the author assesses recent studies on topics ranging from vitamin C and caffeine to pollution and cancer. With straight talk and a passion for the whole project of science, he demysifies the cult of the expert and sheds light on the nitty-gritty details of scientific processes. Any scientist loves a challenge, but the biggest challenge of all, observes Jenkins, is shared by scientists and nonscientitsts alike: how to make practical decisions in light of ambiguous evidence. Promising no simple answers, this book does offer excellent food for thought for people pondering that next glass of wine.


Evaluating Scientific Evidence

Author by : Erica Beecher-Monas
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 83
Total Download : 724
File Size : 53,5 Mb
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Description : This book examines scientific evidence in both civil and criminal contexts.


The Evaluation Of Research By Scientometric Indicators

Author by : Peter Vinkler
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 63
Total Download : 543
File Size : 51,6 Mb
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Description : Aimed at academics, academic managers and administrators, professionals in scientometrics, information scientists and science policy makers at all levels. This book reviews the principles, methods and indicators of scientometric evaluation of information processes in science and assessment of the publication activity of individuals, teams, institutes and countries. It provides scientists, science officers, librarians and students with basic and advanced knowledge on evaluative scientometrics. Especially great stress is laid on the methods applicable in practice and on the clarification of quantitative aspects of impact of scientific publications measured by citation indicators. Written by a highly knowledgeable and well-respected scientist in the field Provides practical and realistic quantitative methods for evaluating scientific publication activities of individuals, teams, countries and journals Gives standardized descriptions and classification of the main categories of evaluative scientometrics


Science On The Witness Stand

Author by : Tee L. Guidotti
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oem Health Information Incorporated
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 13
Total Download : 756
File Size : 43,8 Mb
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Description :


Evaluating The Work Of Forensic Scientists By Citation Analysis

Author by : AW. Jones
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
Total Download : 295
File Size : 46,6 Mb
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Description : "The Hottest in Forensics: Citations Tell Whodunnit" was the catchy rubric used to introduce the lead article in the January 1995 number of Science Watch, a newsletter published by the Philadelphia based Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) ISI is perhaps better known for producing the Science Citation Index (SCI) and Current Contents, two widely used tools for literature retrieval and bibliometric evaluation of science and scientists. The Science Watch newsletter team identifies trends and performances in basic and applied research by means of citation counts and thus helps to spot hot-topics and emerging research fronts. Science Watch also publishes interviews with scientific superstars and authors of highly cited papers.


Interpreting Evidence

Author by : Bernard Robertson
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 23
Total Download : 876
File Size : 41,5 Mb
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Description : This book explains the correct logical approach to analysis of forensic scientific evidence. The focus is on general methods of analysis applicable to all forms of evidence. It starts by explaining the general principles and then applies them to issues in DNA and other important forms of scientific evidence as examples. Like the first edition, the book analyses real legal cases and judgments rather than hypothetical examples and shows how the problems perceived in those cases would have been solved by a correct logical approach. The book is written to be understood both by forensic scientists preparing their evidence and by lawyers and judges who have to deal with it. The analysis is tied back both to basic scientific principles and to the principles of the law of evidence. This book will also be essential reading for law students taking evidence or forensic science papers and science students studying the application of their scientific specialisation to forensic questions.


Critical Analysis Of Science Textbooks

Author by : Myint Swe Khine
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 17
Total Download : 895
File Size : 48,6 Mb
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Description : The critical analysis of science textbooks is vital in improving teaching and learning at all levels in the subject, and this volume sets out a range of academic perspectives on how that analysis should be done. Each chapter focuses on an aspect of science textbook appraisal, with coverage of everything from theoretical and philosophical underpinnings, methodological issues, and conceptual frameworks for critical analysis, to practical techniques for evaluation. Contributions from many of the most distinguished scholars in the field give this collection its sure-footed contemporary relevance, reflecting the international standards of UNESCO as well as leading research organizations such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science (whose Project 2061 is an influential waypoint in developing protocols for textbook analysis). Thus the book shows how to gauge aspects of textbooks such as their treatment of controversial issues, graphical depictions, scientific historiography, vocabulary usage, accuracy, and readability. The content also covers broader social themes such as the portrayal of women and minorities. "Despite newer, more active pedagogies, textbooks continue to have a strong presence in classrooms and to embody students’ socio-historical inheritance in science. Despite their ubiquitous presence, they have received relatively little on-going empirical study. It is imperative that we understand how textbooks influence science learning. This book presents a welcome and much needed analysis." Tina A. Grotzer Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA The present book provides a much needed survey of the current state of research into science textbooks, and offers a wide range of perspectives to inform the 'science' of writing better science textbooks. Keith S Taber University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom


How Science Works

Author by : Stephen H. Jenkins
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 13
Total Download : 867
File Size : 43,9 Mb
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Description : One week, red wine is good for the heart. The next week, new reports say it's bad for the health. So which is true? Anyone who's ever read science news with fascination, or who's ever been confounded by conflicting stories will appreciate this book. Taking a look at some true to life contemporary news stories, the author assesses recent studies on topics ranging from vitamin C and caffeine to pollution and cancer. With straight talk and a passion for the whole project of science, he demysifies the cult of the expert and sheds light on the nitty-gritty details of scientific processes. Any scientist loves a challenge, but the biggest challenge of all, observes Jenkins, is shared by scientists and nonscientitsts alike: how to make practical decisions in light of ambiguous evidence. Promising no simple answers, this book does offer excellent food for thought for people pondering that next glass of wine.


Evaluating And Valuing In Social Research

Author by : Thomas A. Schwandt
Languange : en
Publisher by : Guilford Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 78
Total Download : 205
File Size : 41,9 Mb
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Description : Much applied research takes place as if complex social problems--and evaluations of interventions to address them--can be dealt with in a purely technical way. In contrast, this groundbreaking book offers an alternative approach that incorporates sustained, systematic reflection about researchers' values, what values research promotes, how decisions about what to value are made and by whom, and how judging the value of social interventions takes place. The authors offer practical and conceptual guidance to help researchers engage meaningfully with value conflicts and refine their capacity to engage in deliberative argumentation. Pedagogical features include a detailed evaluation case, "Bridge to Practice" exercises and annotated resources in most chapters, and an end-of-book glossary.


Analyzing The Role Of Citizen Science In Modern Research

Author by : Ceccaroni, Luigi
Languange : en
Publisher by : IGI Global
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 96
Total Download : 846
File Size : 43,7 Mb
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Description : As the need for sustainable development practices around the world continues to grow, it has become imperative for citizens to become actively engaged in the global transition. By evaluating data collected from various global programs, researchers are able to identify strategies and challenges in implementing civic engagement initiatives. Analyzing the Role of Citizen Science in Modern Research focuses on analyzing data on current initiatives and best practices in citizen engagement and education programs across various disciplines. Highlighting emergent research and application techniques within citizen science initiatives, this publication appeals to academicians, researchers, policy makers, government officials, technology developers, advanced-level students and program developers interested in launching or improving citizen science programs across the globe.


Evaluating Democracy

Author by : Joe Allman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 36
Total Download : 878
File Size : 44,6 Mb
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Description :


The Scientific Attitude

Author by : Lee McIntyre
Languange : en
Publisher by : MIT Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 19
Total Download : 807
File Size : 54,9 Mb
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Description : An argument that what makes science distinctive is its emphasis on evidence and scientists' willingness to change theories on the basis of new evidence. Attacks on science have become commonplace. Claims that climate change isn't settled science, that evolution is “only a theory,” and that scientists are conspiring to keep the truth about vaccines from the public are staples of some politicians' rhetorical repertoire. Defenders of science often point to its discoveries (penicillin! relativity!) without explaining exactly why scientific claims are superior. In this book, Lee McIntyre argues that what distinguishes science from its rivals is what he calls “the scientific attitude”—caring about evidence and being willing to change theories on the basis of new evidence. The history of science is littered with theories that were scientific but turned out to be wrong; the scientific attitude reveals why even a failed theory can help us to understand what is special about science. McIntyre offers examples that illustrate both scientific success (a reduction in childbed fever in the nineteenth century) and failure (the flawed “discovery” of cold fusion in the twentieth century). He describes the transformation of medicine from a practice based largely on hunches into a science based on evidence; considers scientific fraud; examines the positions of ideology-driven denialists, pseudoscientists, and “skeptics” who reject scientific findings; and argues that social science, no less than natural science, should embrace the scientific attitude. McIntyre argues that the scientific attitude—the grounding of science in evidence—offers a uniquely powerful tool in the defense of science.


Real Research

Author by : Loreen Therese Wolfer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Pearson College Division
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 53
Total Download : 408
File Size : 43,6 Mb
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Description : Covering both quantitative and qualitative research, this new text teaches the skills for conducting research and how to read and evaluate published research. Real Research explains the systematic steps used by social scientists to examine the social world, and teaches te skills necessary to read, understand and realistically evaluate published research carried out by others. The author follows the stages of the research process and presents a model of "ideal" research; but she also emphasizes that research does not always involve an orderly set of steps, and is often affected by limitations such as time and money.


Evaluating Research

Author by : Francis C. Dane
Languange : en
Publisher by : SAGE Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 58
Total Download : 965
File Size : 43,7 Mb
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Description : The Second Edition offers readers a straightforward presentation of the key components of research and the skills they need to read and evaluate it. The book covers a range of research that students are most likely to encounter, from experimental to field research, and archival to evaluation research. The Second Edition features updated examples of research across disciplines, new and updated content on qualitative research and conceptual statistics, and a streamlined organization that better aligns with the order of information in a research article.


Beyond Bibliometrics

Author by : Blaise Cronin
Languange : en
Publisher by : MIT Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 16
Total Download : 310
File Size : 50,7 Mb
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Description : A comprehensive, state-of-the-art examination of the changing ways we measure scholarly performance and research impact.


Introduction To Scientific Psychology

Author by : Henry D. Jr. Schlinger
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 86
Total Download : 537
File Size : 53,6 Mb
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Description : We humans are faced with an interesting problem: That which we think we un derstand the most-our own behavior-we probably understand the least. On the eve of a new millennium. the planet is beset by a host of problems that are. for the most part. caused by human behavior. Ironically. although it seems that the greatest impact of our behavior is on the planet and its other inhabitants. we may actually be threatening our own future the most. For example. we have caused untold harm to the air we breathe. to the water we drink. and. by exten sion. to much of the food we eat. More important perhaps. we have created a so ciety in which. among other things. many people are anxious and depressed. young women starve themselves. and alcohol and cigarette use are responsible for hundreds of thousands of cases of illness and death every year. And humans still murder one another at an astounding rate. while at the same time continu ing to affirm the value of human life. At a time when it is critical that our chil dren become educated. more and more children are not learning the basic skills they will need to think logically so that they can begin to solve the world's problems. The question may be not "Can the planet survive?" but. rather. "Can we humans survive and change our own destructive actions?" Although many scholars. philosophers.


Pseudoscience

Author by : Allison B. Kaufman
Languange : en
Publisher by : MIT Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 64
Total Download : 267
File Size : 41,8 Mb
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Description : Case studies, personal accounts, and analysis show how to recognize and combat pseudoscience in a post-truth world. In a post-truth, fake news world, we are particularly susceptible to the claims of pseudoscience. When emotions and opinions are more widely disseminated than scientific findings, and self-proclaimed experts get their expertise from Google, how can the average person distinguish real science from fake? This book examines pseudoscience from a variety of perspectives, through case studies, analysis, and personal accounts that show how to recognize pseudoscience, why it is so widely accepted, and how to advocate for real science. Contributors examine the basics of pseudoscience, including issues of cognitive bias; the costs of pseudoscience, with accounts of naturopathy and logical fallacies in the anti-vaccination movement; perceptions of scientific soundness; the mainstream presence of “integrative medicine,” hypnosis, and parapsychology; and the use of case studies and new media in science advocacy. Contributors David Ball, Paul Joseph Barnett, Jeffrey Beall, Mark Benisz, Fernando Blanco, Ron Dumont, Stacy Ellenberg, Kevin M. Folta, Christopher French, Ashwin Gautam, Dennis M. Gorman, David H. Gorski, David K. Hecht, Britt Marie Hermes, Clyde F. Herreid, Jonathan Howard, Seth C. Kalichman, Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair, Arnold Kozak, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Emilio Lobato, Steven Lynn, Adam Marcus, Helena Matute, Ivan Oransky, Chad Orzel, Dorit Reiss, Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter, Kavin Senapathy, Dean Keith Simonton, Indre Viskontas, John O. Willis, Corrine Zimmerman


Rip Ing Through Scientific Inquiry

Author by : Robert E. Landsman
Languange : en
Publisher by : ANOVA Science Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 91
Total Download : 198
File Size : 43,7 Mb
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Description :


Rational Changes In Science

Author by : Joseph C. Pitt
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 34
Total Download : 383
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Description : THE PROBLEMS OF SCIENTIFIC RATIONALITY Fashion is a fickle mistress. Only yesterday scientific rationality enjoyed considerable attention, consideration, and even reverence among phi losophers; "but today's fashion leads us to despise it, and the matron, rejected and abandoned as Hecuba, complains; modo maxima rerum, tot generis natisque potens - nunc trahor exui, inops", to cite Kant for our purpose, who cited Ovid for his. Like every fashion, ours also has its paradoxical aspects, as John Watkins correctly reminds in an essay in this volume. Enthusiasm for science was high among philosophers when significant scientific results were mostly a promise, it declined when that promise became an undeniable reality. Nevertheless, as with the decline of any fashion, even the revolt against scientific rationality has some reasonable grounds. If the taste of the philosophical community has changed so much, it is not due to an incident or a whim. This volume is not about the history of and reasons for this change. Instead, it provides a view of the new emerging image of scientific rationality in both its philosophical and historical aspects. In particular, the aim of the contributions gathered here is to focus on the concept around which the discussions about rationality have mostly taken place: scientific change.


Pisa 2015 Results Volume I Excellence And Equity In Education

Author by : OECD
Languange : en
Publisher by : OECD Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 86
Total Download : 661
File Size : 43,6 Mb
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Description : The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) examines not just what students know in science, reading and mathematics, but what they can do with what they know. Results from PISA show educators and policy makers the quality and equity of learning outcomes achieved elsewhere ...