Explorations In Semantic Parallelism

Author by : James J. Fox
Languange : en
Publisher by : ANU E Press
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Description : This collection of eighteen papers explores issues in the study of semantic parallelism — a world-wide tradition in the composition of oral poetry. It is concerned with both comparative issues and the intensive study of a single living poetic tradition of composition in strict canonical parallelism. The papers in the volume were written at intervals from 1971 to 2014 — a period of over forty years. They are a summation of a career-long research effort that continues to take shape. The concluding essay reflects on possible directions for future research.


Master Poets Ritual Masters

Author by : James J. Fox
Languange : en
Publisher by : ANU Press
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Description : This is a study in oral poetic composition. It examines how oral poets compose their recitations. Specifically, it is a study of the recitations of 17 separate master poets from the Island of Rote recorded over a period of 50 years. Each of these poets offers his version of what is culturally considered to be the ‘same’ ritual chant. These compositions are examined in detail and their oral formulae are carefully compared to one another. Professor James J. Fox is an anthropologist who carried out his doctoral field research on the Island of Rote in eastern Indonesia in 1965–66. In 1965, he began recording the oral traditions of the island and developed a close association with numerous oral poets on the island. After many subsequent visits, in 2006, he began a nine-year project that brought groups of oral poets to Bali for week-long recording sessions. Recitations gathered over a period of 50 years are the basis for this book.


Austronesian Paths And Journeys

Author by : James J. Fox
Languange : en
Publisher by : ANU Press
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Description : This is the eighth volume in the Comparative Austronesian series. The papers in this volume examine metaphors of path and journey among specific Austronesian societies located on islands from Taiwan to Timor and from Madagascar to Micronesia. These diverse local expressions define common cultural conceptions found throughout the Austronesian-speaking world.


Explorations In Poetics

Author by : Benjamin Harshav
Languange : en
Publisher by : Stanford University Press
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Total Read : 28
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Description : This collection of essays, originally published at different times, presents a coherent, systematic, and comprehensive theory of the work of literature and its major aspects. The approach, which may be called "Constructive Poetics," does not assume that a work of literature is a text with fixed structures and meanings, but a text that invites the reader to evoke or project a network of interrelated constructs, complementary or contradictory as they may be. The work of literature is not just a narrative, as studies in narratology assume, but a text that projects a fictional world, or an Internal Field of Reference. Meanings in a text are presented through the evocation of "frames of reference" (scenes, characters, ideas, etc.). Language in literature is double-directed: it relates the Internal Field to External Fields and vice versa. The essays explore the problems of fictionality, presentation and representation, metaphor as interaction between several frames of reference, the theory of "Integrational Semantics" in literary and other texts, the meaning of sound patterns in poetry, and the question of "literariness." This theory and its specific aspects were developed by the author in Israel in the 1960s and 1970s and lay at the foundations of the Tel-Aviv School of Poetics. Revived now, it resonates with the current mood in literary criticism.


What Is Poetry

Author by : Nigel Fabb
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : Illustrated by 130 languages and literatures, this book explores poetry's unique psychological qualities.


Bridging Constructions

Author by : Valérie Guérin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Language Science Press
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Description : Many descriptive grammars report the use of a linguistic pattern at the interface between discourse and syntax which is known generally as tail-head linkage. This volume takes an unprecedented look at this type of linkage across languages and shows that there exist three distinct variants, all subsumed under the hypernym bridging constructions. The chapters highlight the defining features of these constructions in the grammar and their functional properties in discourse. The volume reveals that: Bridging constructions consist of two clauses: a reference clause and a bridging clause. Across languages, bridging clauses can be subordinated clauses, reduced main clauses, or main clauses with continuation prosody.Bridging constructions have three variants: recapitulative linkage, summary linkage and mixed linkage. They differ in the formal makeup of the bridging clause.In discourse, the functions that bridging constructions fulfil depend on the text genres in which they appear and their position in the text.If a language uses more than one type of bridging construction, then each type has a distinct discourse function.Bridging constructions can be optional and purely stylistic or mandatory and serve a grammatical purpose.Although the difference between bridging constructions and clause repetition can be subtle, they maintain their own distinctive characteristics.


An Introduction To Religious Language

Author by : Valerie Hobbs
Languange : en
Publisher by : Bloomsbury Publishing
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Description : Religious language is all around us, embedded in advertising, politics and news media. This book introduces readers to the field of theolinguistics, the study of religious language. Investigating the ways in which people talk to and about God, about the sacred and about religion itself, it considers why people make certain linguistic choices and what they accomplish. Introducing the key methods required for examining religious language, Valerie Hobbs acquaints readers with the most common and important theolinguistic features and their functions. Using critical corpus-assisted discourse analysis with a focus on archaic and other lexical features, metaphor, agency and intertextuality, she examines religious language in context. Highlighting its use in both expected locations, such as modern-day prayer and politics, and unexpected locations including advertising, sport, healthcare and news media, Hobbs analyses the shifting and porous linguistic boundaries between the religious and the secular. With discussion questions and lists of further readings for each chapter, and a companion website featuring video excerpts, tools for corpus research and links to archives, this is the ideal introduction to the study of religious language.


Orality And Language

Author by : G. N. Devy
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
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Description : Part of the series Key Concepts in Indigenous Studies, this book focuses on the concepts that recur in any discussion of the society, culture and literature among indigenous peoples. This book, the fourth in a five-volume series, deals with the two key concepts of language and orality of indigenous peoples from Asia, Australia, North America and South America. With contributions from renowned scholars, activists and experts from across the globe, it looks at the intricacies of oral transmission of memory and culture, literary production and transmission, and the nature of creativity among indigenous communities. It also discusses the risk of a complete decline of the languages of indigenous peoples, as well as the attempts being made to conserve these languages. Bringing together academic insights and experiences from the ground, this unique book, with its wide coverage, will serve as a comprehensive guide for students, teachers and scholars of indigenous studies. It will be essential reading for those in social and cultural anthropology, tribal studies, sociology and social exclusion studies, politics, religion and theology, cultural studies, literary and postcolonial studies, and Third World and Global South studies, as well as activists working with indigenous communities.


Culture And Communication

Author by : James M. Wilce
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : James M. Wilce's new textbook introduces students to the study of language as a tool in anthropology. Solidly positioned in linguistic anthropology, it is the first textbook to combine clear explanations of language and linguistic structure with current anthropological theory. It features a range of study aids, including chapter summaries, learning objectives, figures, exercises, key terms and suggestions for further reading, to guide student understanding. The complete glossary includes both anthropological and linguist terminology. An Appendix features material on phonetics and phonetic representation. Accompanying online resources include a test bank with answers, useful links, an instructor's manual, and a sign language case study. Covering an extensive range of topics not found in existing textbooks, including semiotics and the evolution of animal and human communication, this book is an essential resource for introductory courses on language and culture, communication and culture, and linguistic anthropology.


Metathesis And Unmetathesis In Amarasi

Author by : Owen Edwards
Languange : en
Publisher by : Language Science Press
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Total Read : 55
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Description : This book provides a complete analysis of synchronic CV -> VC metathesis in Amarasi, a language of western Timor. Metathesis and unmetathesis realise a paradigm of parallel forms, pairs of which occur to complement each other throughout the language. Metathesis in Amarasi is superficially associated with a bewildering array of disparate phonological processes including: vowel deletion, consonant deletion, consonant insertion and multiple kinds of vowel assimilation, any of which can (and do) vary by lect in their realisation. By proposing that Amarasi has an obligatory CVCVC foot in which C-slots can be empty, all these phonological processes can be straightforwardly derived from a single rule of metathesis and two associated phonological rules. Three kinds of metathesis can be identified in Amarasi: (i) Before vowel initial enclitics, roots must undergo metathesis, responding to the need to create a phonological boundary between a clitic host and enclitic. Such metathesis is phonologically condi- tioned. (ii) Metathesis occurs within the syntax to signal attributive modification. Such a metathesised form cannot occur at the end of a phrase and thus requires the presence of an unmetathesised form to complete it syntactically. (iii) In the discourse an unmetathe- sised form marks an unresolved event or situation. Such an unmetathesised form cannot occur in isolation and requires a metathesised form to achieve resolution. Metathesis in Amarasi is the central linguistic process around which linguistic struc- tures are organised. Amarasi metatheses also reflect fundamental Timorese notions of societal and cosmic organisation. Alongside weaving and other performed activities, metathesis is an important linguistic marker of identity in a region obsessed with similarities and differences between different groups. The complementarity of Amarasi metathesis and unmetathesis within the syntax and within discourse reflects the Timorese division of the world into a series of mutually dependent binary and complementary pairs. As well as being the key which unlocks the structure of the language, metathesis is also a reflection of the structure of Amarasi society and culture.


Registers Of Communication

Author by : Asif Agha
Languange : en
Publisher by : BoD - Books on Demand
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Description : In any society, communicative activities are organized into models of conduct that differentiate specific social practices from each other and enable people to communicate with each other in ways distinctive to those practices. The articles in this volume investigate a series of locale-specific models of communicative conduct, or registers of communication, through which persons organize their participation in varied social practices, including practices of politics, religion, schooling, migration, trade, media, verbal art, and ceremonial ritual. Drawing on research traditions on both sides of the Atlantic, the authors of these articles bring together insights from a variety of scholarly disciplines, including linguistics, anthropology, folklore, literary studies, and philology. They describe register models associated with a great many forms of interpersonal behavior, and, through their own multi-year and multi-disciplinary collaborative efforts, bring register phenomena into focus as features of social life in the lived experience of people in societies around the world.


Expressions Of Austronesian Thought And Emotions

Author by : James J. Fox
Languange : en
Publisher by : ANU Press
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Total Read : 67
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Description : This collection of papers is the seventh volume in the Comparative Austronesian series. The papers in this volume focus on societies from Sumatra to Melanesia and examine the expression and patterning of Austronesian thought and emotions.


Evidentiality Egophoricity And Engagement

Author by : Henrik Bergqvist
Languange : en
Publisher by : Language Science Press
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Description : The expression of knowledge in language (i.e. epistemicity) consists of a number of distinct notions and proposed categories that are only partly related to a well explored forms like epistemic modals. The aim of the volume is therefore to contribute to the ongoing exploration of epistemic marking systems in lesser-documented languages from the Americas, Papua New Guinea, and Central Asia from the perspective of language description and cross-linguistic comparison. As the title of the volume suggests, part of this exploration consists of situating already established notions (such as evidentiality) with the diversity of systems found in individual languages. Epistemic forms that feature in the present volume include ones that signal how speakers claim knowledge based on perceptual-cognitive access (evidentials); the speaker’s involvement as a basis for claiming epistemic authority (egophorics); the distribution of knowledge between the speech-participants where the speaker signals assumptions about the addressee’s knowledge of an event as either shared, or non-shared with the speaker (engagement marking).


The Routledge Handbook Of Language And Emotion

Author by : Sonya E Pritzker
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : The Routledge Handbook of Language and Emotion offers a variety of critical theoretical and methodological perspectives that interrogate the ways in which ideas about and experiences of emotion are shaped by linguistic encounters, and vice versa. Taking an interdisciplinary approach which incorporates disciplines such as linguistic anthropology, sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, psychology, communication studies, education, sociology, folklore, religious studies, and literature, this book: explores and illustrates the relationship between language and emotion in the five key areas of language socialisation; culture, translation and transformation; poetry, pragmatics and power; the affective body-self; and emotion communities; situates our present-day thinking about language and emotion by providing a historical and cultural overview of distinctions and moral values that have traditionally dominated Western thought relating to emotions and their management; provides a unique insight into the multiple ways in which language incites emotion, and vice versa, especially in the context of culture. With contributions from an international range of leading and emerging scholars in their fields, The Routledge Handbook of Language and Emotion is an indispensable resource for students and researchers who are interested in incorporating interdisciplinary perspectives on language and emotion into their work.


Explorations In Nominal Inflection

Author by : Gereon Müller
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter
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Description : Explorations in Nominal Inflection is a collection of new articles that focus on nominal inflection markers in different languages. The studies are concerned with the morphological inventories of markers, their syntactic distribution, and, importantly, the interaction between the two. As a result, the contributions shed new light on the morphology/syntax interface, and on the role of morpho-syntactic features in mediating between the two components. Issues that feature prominently throughout are inflection class, case, gender, number, animacy, syncretism, iconicity, agreement, the status of paradigms, the nature of morpho-syntactic features, and the structure of nominal projections. Recurrent analytical tools involve the concepts of competition (optimality, specificity), underspecification, and economy, in various theoretical frameworks. James P. Blevins: Inflection Classes and Economy Bernd Wiese: Categories and Paradigms. On Underspecification in Russian Declension


Explorations In Automatic Thesaurus Discovery

Author by : Gregory Grefenstette
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : Explorations in Automatic Thesaurus Discovery presents an automated method for creating a first-draft thesaurus from raw text. It describes natural processing steps of tokenization, surface syntactic analysis, and syntactic attribute extraction. From these attributes, word and term similarity is calculated and a thesaurus is created showing important common terms and their relation to each other, common verb--noun pairings, common expressions, and word family members. The techniques are tested on twenty different corpora ranging from baseball newsgroups, assassination archives, medical X-ray reports, abstracts on AIDS, to encyclopedia articles on animals, even on the text of the book itself. The corpora range from 40,000 to 6 million characters of text, and results are presented for each in the Appendix. The methods described in the book have undergone extensive evaluation. Their time and space complexity are shown to be modest. The results are shown to converge to a stable state as the corpus grows. The similarities calculated are compared to those produced by psychological testing. A method of evaluation using Artificial Synonyms is tested. Gold Standards evaluation show that techniques significantly outperform non-linguistic-based techniques for the most important words in corpora. Explorations in Automatic Thesaurus Discovery includes applications to the fields of information retrieval using established testbeds, existing thesaural enrichment, semantic analysis. Also included are applications showing how to create, implement, and test a first-draft thesaurus.


Parallelism And Programming In Classifier Systems

Author by : Stephanie Forrest
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : Parallelism and Programming in Classifier Systems deals with the computational properties of the underlying parallel machine, including computational completeness, programming and representation techniques, and efficiency of algorithms. In particular, efficient classifier system implementations of symbolic data structures and reasoning procedures are presented and analyzed in detail. The book shows how classifier systems can be used to implement a set of useful operations for the classification of knowledge in semantic networks. A subset of the KL-ONE language was chosen to demonstrate these operations. Specifically, the system performs the following tasks: (1) given the KL-ONE description of a particular semantic network, the system produces a set of production rules (classifiers) that represent the network; and (2) given the description of a new term, the system determines the proper location of the new term in the existing network. These two parts of the system are described in detail. The implementation reveals certain computational properties of classifier systems, including completeness, operations that are particularly natural and efficient, and those that are quite awkward. The book shows how high-level symbolic structures can be built up from classifier systems, and it demonstrates that the parallelism of classifier systems can be exploited to implement them efficiently. This is significant since classifier systems must construct large sophisticated models and reason about them if they are to be truly ""intelligent."" Parallel organizations are of interest to many areas of computer science, such as hardware specification, programming language design, configuration of networks of separate machines, and artificial intelligence This book concentrates on a particular type of parallel organization and a particular problem in the area of AI, but the principles that are elucidated are applicable in the wider setting of computer science.


Programming Language Explorations

Author by : Ray Toal
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
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Description : Programming Language Explorations is a tour of several modern programming languages in use today. The book teaches fundamental language concepts using a language-by-language approach. As each language is presented, the authors introduce new concepts as they appear, and revisit familiar ones, comparing their implementation with those from languages seen in prior chapters. The goal is to present and explain common theoretical concepts of language design and usage, illustrated in the context of practical language overviews. Twelve languages have been carefully chosen to illustrate a wide range of programming styles and paradigms. The book introduces each language with a common trio of example programs, and continues with a brief tour of its basic elements, type system, functional forms, scoping rules, concurrency patterns, and sometimes, metaprogramming facilities. Each language chapter ends with a summary, pointers to open source projects, references to materials for further study, and a collection of exercises, designed as further explorations. Following the twelve featured language chapters, the authors provide a brief tour of over two dozen additional languages, and a summary chapter bringing together many of the questions explored throughout the text. Targeted to both professionals and advanced college undergraduates looking to expand the range of languages and programming patterns they can apply in their work and studies, the book pays attention to modern programming practice, covers cutting-edge languages and patterns, and provides many runnable examples, all of which can be found in an online GitHub repository. The exploration style places this book between a tutorial and a reference, with a focus on the concepts and practices underlying programming language design and usage. Instructors looking for material to supplement a programming languages or software engineering course may find the approach unconventional, but hopefully, a lot more fun.


The Slavic Akathistos Hymn

Author by : Antonina Filonov Gove
Languange : en
Publisher by : O. Sagner
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Description : This work offers a detailed analysis of the Slavic translation of a sixth-century Greek liturgical poem that is representative of the poetic genius of the best of the Byzantine melodes. The immediate goal has been to discover to what degree the poetic elements of the original text were reproduced in the translation. The analysis illuminates the question of the quality of the Slavic translations of Byzantine liturgical hymns. Text engl., teilw. Griech. U. makedon. Durchsuchbare elektronische Faksimileausgabe als PDF. Digitalisiert im Rahmen des DFG-Projektes Digi20 in Kooperation mit der BSB München. OCR-Bearbeitung durch den Verlag Otto Sagner.


Death And Dissymmetry

Author by : Mieke Bal
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Chicago Press
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Description : Chicago studies in the history of Judaism.


Murder And Difference

Author by : Mieke Bal
Languange : en
Publisher by : Indiana University Press
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Description : "... an important contribution to current literary concerns with the ideologies of texts... " -- Society of Old Testament Study Book List "... she points the way into as yet little-explored territory, broadly engaging literary theory as well as ideological criticism... she moves beyond both narrowly historical and exclusively text-centered criticism... " -- Theology Today "... Bal has given us both a coruscating feminist critique of biblical scholarship and a fund of provocative exegetical insights... required reading for anyone who wants to know where serious biblical scholarship is heading." -- Shofar


New Vistas In Grammar

Author by : Linda R. Waugh
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Benjamins Publishing
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Description : The papers in this volume reflect the renewed interest in the semantics of grammatical categories and the issues of invariance and variation in grammar. In particular, this collection presents the current understanding of invariance of grammar with respect to the synchronic and diachronic analyses of specific languages, and as realized in work on typology and universals.The book is divided into five sections: The Question of Invariance; Invariance and Grammatical Categories; Grammar and Discourse; Grammar and Pragmatics; Typology and Universals.


Connectionist Approaches To Natural Language Processing

Author by : R G Reilly
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : Originally published in 1992, when connectionist natural language processing (CNLP) was a new and burgeoning research area, this book represented a timely assessment of the state of the art in the field. It includes contributions from some of the best known researchers in CNLP and covers a wide range of topics. The book comprises four main sections dealing with connectionist approaches to semantics, syntax, the debate on representational adequacy, and connectionist models of psycholinguistic processes. The semantics and syntax sections deal with a variety of approaches to issues in these traditional linguistic domains, covering the spectrum from pure connectionist approaches to hybrid models employing a mixture of connectionist and classical AI techniques. The debate on the fundamental suitability of connectionist architectures for dealing with natural language processing is the focus of the section on representational adequacy. The chapters in this section represent a range of positions on the issue, from the view that connectionist models are intrinsically unsuitable for all but the associationistic aspects of natural language, to the other extreme which holds that the classical conception of representation can be dispensed with altogether. The final section of the book focuses on the application of connectionist models to the study of psycholinguistic processes. This section is perhaps the most varied, covering topics from speech perception and speech production, to attentional deficits in reading. An introduction is provided at the beginning of each section which highlights the main issues relating to the section topic and puts the constituent chapters into a wider context.


Roman Jakobson

Author by : Daniel Armstrong
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
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Description :


Repetition In Arabic Discourse

Author by : Barbara Johnstone
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Benjamins Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 69
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Description : In this examination of expository prose in contemporary Arabic, structural and semantic repetition is found to be responsible both for linguistic cohesion and for rhetorical force. Johnstone identifies and discusses repetitive features on every level of analysis. Writers in Arabic use lexical couplets consisting of conjoined synonyms, which create new semantic paradigms as they evoke old ones. Morphological roots and patterns are repeated at close range, and this creates phonological rhyme as well. Regular patterns of paraphrase punctuate texts, and patterns of parallelism mark the internal structure of their segments. Johnstone offers an explanation for how repetition of all these kinds can serve persuasive ends by creating rhetorical presence, and discusses how the Arabic language and the Arab-Islamic cultural tradition especially lend themselves to this rhetorical strategy. She suggests, however, that discourse repetition serves a crucial function in the ecology of any language, as the mechanism by which speakers evoke and create underlying paradigmatic structure in their syntagmatic talk and writing.


Essays And Explorations

Author by : Morton Wilfred Bloomfield
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press
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Description :


Principles Of Semantic Networks

Author by : Alexander Borgida
Languange : en
Publisher by : Morgan Kaufmann Pub
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 77
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Description :


Language In Literature

Author by : Geoffrey Leech
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 50
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Description : Over a period of over forty years, Geoffrey Leech has made notable contributions to the field of literary stylistics, using the interplay between linguistic form and literary function as a key to the ‘mystery’ of how a text comes to be invested with artistic potential. In this book, seven earlier papers and articles, read previously only by a restricted audience, have been brought together with four new chapters, the whole volume showing a continuity of approach across a period when all too often literary and linguistic studies have appeared to drift further apart. Leech sets the concept of ‘foregrounding’ (also known as defamiliarization) at the heart of the interplay between form and interpretation. Through practical and insightful examination of how poems, plays and prose works produce special meaning, he counteracts the ‘flight from the text’ that has characterized thinking about language and literature in the last thirty years, when the response of the reader, rather than the characteristics and meaning potential of the text itself, have been given undue prominence. The book provides an enlightening analysis of well-known (as well as less well-known) texts of great writers of the past, including Keats, Shelley, Samuel Johnson, Shaw, Dylan Thomas, and Virginia Woolf.


Participating In Christ

Author by : Michael J. Gorman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Baker Academic
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Description : World-renowned scholar Michael Gorman examines the important Pauline theme of participation in Christ and explores its contemporary significance for Christian life and ministry. One of the themes Gorman explores is what he calls "resurrectional cruciformity"--that participating in Christ is simultaneously dying and rising with him and that cross-shaped living, infused with the life of the resurrected Lord, is life giving. Throughout the book, Gorman demonstrates the centrality of participating in Christ for Paul's theology and spirituality.