Exploring The Eastern Frontiers Of Turkic

Author by : Marcel Erdal
Languange : de
Publisher by : Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 27
Total Download : 765
File Size : 42,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The papers brought together in the present volume deal with grammatical, lexical, onomastic and historical issues of non-Muslim Turkic languages and dialects spoken in South Siberia, in Mongolia and in China, and with the areal and genetic relationships between them. All of these varieties are socially dominated by non-Turkic languages; many of them are acutely endangered and, in general, insufficiently described. A number of the articles deal with the oral traditions (i.e. epics, proverbs) of the peoples speaking these varieties. Some typological issues concerning the Turkic languages of the area are also touched upon.


Turkic

Author by : Lars Johanson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 96
Total Download : 492
File Size : 44,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Turkic is one of the world's major language families, comprising a high number of distinct languages and varieties that display remarkable similarities and notable differences. Written by a leading expert in the field, this landmark work provides an unrivalled overview of multiple features of Turkic, covering structural, functional, historical, sociolinguistic and literary aspects. It presents the history and cultures of the speakers, structures, and use of the whole set of languages within the family, including Turkish, Azeri, Turkmen, Tatar, Kazakh, Uzbek, and Uyghur, and gives a comprehensive overview of published works on Turkic languages, large and small. It also provides an innovative theoretical framework, employing a unified terminology and transcription, to give new insights into the Turkic linguistic type. Requiring no previous knowledge of the Turkic languages, it will be welcomed by both general readers, as well as academic researchers and students of linguistic typology, comparative linguistics, and Turkic studies.


Introduction To Altaic Philology

Author by : Igor de Rachewiltz
Languange : en
Publisher by : BRILL
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 669
File Size : 46,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : There are many excellent books dealing with Old Turkic, Preclassical and Classical Mongolian and Literary Manchu individually, but none providing in a single volume a comprehensive survey of all the three major Altaic languages. The present volume attempts to fill this gap; at the same time it reviews also the much debated Altaic Hypothesis. The book is intended for use by students at university level as well as by general readers with a basic knowledge of linguistics. The 39 language texts analysed in the volume are discussed within their historical and cultural context, thus vastly enlarging the scope of the purely linguistic investigation.


Eine Hundertbl Ttrige Tulpe Bir Adbarg L La

Author by : Ingeborg Hauenschild
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 91
Total Download : 525
File Size : 45,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Studien zur Sprache, Geschichte und Kultur der Turkvölker was founded in 1980 by the Hungarian Turkologist György Hazai. The series deals with all aspects of Turkic language, culture and history, and has a broad temporal and regional scope. It welcomes manuscripts on Central, Northern, Western and Eastern Asia as well as parts of Europe, and allows for a wide time span from the first mention in the 6th century to modernity and present.


The Oxford Guide To The Transeurasian Languages

Author by : Martine Robbeets
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 96
Total Download : 633
File Size : 41,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The Oxford Guide to the Transeurasian Languages provides a comprehensive account of the Transeurasian languages, and is the first major reference work in the field since 1965. The term 'Transeurasian' refers to a large group of geographically adjacent languages that includes five uncontroversial linguistic families: Japonic, Koreanic, Tungusic, Mongolic, and Turkic. The historical connection between these languages, however, constitutes one of the most debated issues in historical comparative linguistics. In the present book, a team of leading international scholars in the field take a balanced approach to this controversy, integrating different theoretical frameworks, combining both functional and formal linguistics, and showing that genealogical and areal approaches are in fact compatible with one another. The volume is divided into five parts. Part I deals with the historical sources and periodization of the Transeurasian languages and their classification and typology. In Part II, chapters provide individual structural overviews of the Transeurasian languages and the linguistic subgroups that they belong to, while Part III explores Transeurasian phonology, morphology, syntax, lexis, and semantics from a comparative perspective. Part IV offers a range of areal and genealogical explanations for the correlations observed in the preceding parts. Finally, Part V combines archaeological, genetic, and anthropological perspectives on the identity of speakers of Transeurasian languages. The Oxford Guide to the Transeurasian Languages will be an indispensable resource for specialists in Japonic, Koreanic, Tungusic, Mongolic, and Turkic languages and for anyone with an interest in Transeurasian and comparative linguistics more broadly.


Transeurasian Verbal Morphology In A Comparative Perspective

Author by : Lars Johanson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 34
Total Download : 652
File Size : 40,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The term Transeurasian refers to a large group of geographically adjacent languages stretching from the Pacific in the East to the Mediterranean in the West. They share a significant amount of linguistic properties and include five linguistic families: Japanese, Korean, Tungusic, Mongolic and Turkic. There is disagreement among scholars on the question whether these languages are genealogically related in the sense of an "Altaic" family. Many linguists, however, seem to agree on at least one point, namely that investigations into the striking correspondences in the domain of verbal morphology could substantially help unravelling the question. The present volume brings together prominent specialists in the field who explore potentially shared features of verbal morphology among the Transeurasian languages and search for the best way to explain them. Important issues dealt with include the following: How useful is verbal morphology really in establishing genealogical relations among languages? Is there concrete evidence for cognate verbal morphology across the Transeurasian languages? Is it possible to draw wider connections with Indo-European and Uralic? How to distinguish between genealogical retention and copying of verbal morphology? In which ways can typological similarities be significant in this context?


Turcology In Mainz

Author by : Hendrik Boeschoten
Languange : en
Publisher by : Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 51
Total Download : 238
File Size : 55,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This volume contains contributions in English and German on various topics of linguistic turcology. All contributors are in some way associated with the turcological department in Mainz. The articles cover a broad specter of linguistic fields such as syntax, phonology, morphophonology, semantics, pragmatics, lexicon, onomasitcs, socio-linguistics and language contact. All major branches of the Turkic languages are covered, with the focus of the individual contributions either on a single language or on several languages from a comparative perspective. Both synchronic and diachronic issues are addressed. There are contributions with either a descriptive or a theoretical bias.


Mongolic Elements In Tuvan

Author by : Bayarma Khabtagaeva
Languange : en
Publisher by : Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 58
Total Download : 737
File Size : 40,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Tuvan is one of the archaic Turkic languages. A powerful Mongolic influence means that it possibly also has more Mongolic elements than other Turkic languages. Results of the present work are based on a database of approximately 1500 Mongolic loanwords. After confirming the Mongolic origin of these words in Tuvan, etymological, phonetical and morphological aspects are listed to assure, when and from which Mongolian language the loanword was taken. The study demonstrates the powerful Mongolic influence on Tuvan and establishes what linguistic criteria are available to characterize and classify the Mongolic loanwords. Accordingly an earlier and a later layer are distinguished. The later layer further comprises three groups of loanwords, the Buryat, Khalkha and Oirat ones.


Word Formation

Author by : Peter O. Müller
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 80
Total Download : 592
File Size : 41,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This handbook comprises an in-depth presentation of the state of the art in word-formation. The five volumes contain 207 articles written by leading international scholars. The XVI chapters of the handbook provide the reader, in both general articles and individual studies, with a wide variety of perspectives: word-formation as a linguistic discipline (history of science, theoretical concepts), units and processes in word-formation, rules and restrictions, semantics and pragmatics, foreign word-formation, language planning and purism, historical word-formation, word-formation in language acquisition and aphasia, word-formation and language use, tools in word-formation research. The final chapter comprises 74 portraits of word-formation in the individual languages of Europe and offers an innovative perspective. These portraits afford the first overview of this kind and will prove useful for future typological research. This handbook will provide an essential reference for both advanced students and researchers in word-formation and related fields within linguistics.


Diachrony Of Verb Morphology

Author by : Martine Robbeets
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 72
Total Download : 313
File Size : 47,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This book deals with shared verb morphology in Japanese and other languages that have been identified as Transeurasian (traditionally: “Altaic”) in previous research. It analyzes shared etymologies and reconstructed grammaticalizations with the goal to provide evidence for the genealogical relatedness of these languages.


Language Contact In Siberia

Author by : Bayarma Khabtagaeva
Languange : en
Publisher by : BRILL
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 95
Total Download : 229
File Size : 55,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This monograph dicsusses phonetic, morphological and semantic features of Altaic elements in Yeniseian, a rather heterogeneous language family traditionally classified as one of the ‘Paleo-Siberian’ language groups, that are not related to each other.


The Secret History Of The Mongols Volume 3 Supplement

Author by : Igor de Rachewiltz
Languange : en
Publisher by : BRILL
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 80
Total Download : 694
File Size : 47,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Volume Three of the now standard translation of the Secret History of the Mongols (Brill 2004, 2006) by Igor de Rachewiltz is the indispensable companion to the first two volumes with its updated commentary, numerous revisions and some challenging new interpretations.


Salar

Author by : Arienne M. Dwyer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 32
Total Download : 670
File Size : 53,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This is a detailed fieldwork-based study of Salar, a mixed, unwritten language of Turkic origin spoken in Northwestern China. Due to its geographic isolation it has become an important object of research for language contact and creolization, since both its dialects have diverged sharply under the influence of Sino-Tibetan and other Turkic languages, incorporating many Chinese and Tibetan elements. The work emphasizes diachrony, and contains an overview of the origins and history of the Salars and their language. The phonemic inventory, synchronic and diachronic phonology, syllable structure, and areal features (obstruent voicing and consonantal preaspiration) are presented and analyzed.


Language Empires In Comparative Perspective

Author by : Christel Stolz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 56
Total Download : 194
File Size : 48,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The notion of empire is associated with economic and political mechanisms of dominance. For the last decades, however, there has been a lively debate concerning the question whether this concept can be transferred to the field of linguistics, specifically to research on situations of language spread on the one hand and concomitant marginalization of minority languages on the other. The authors who contributed to this volume concur as to the applicability of the notion of empire to language-related issues. They address the processes, potential merits and drawbacks of language spread as well as the marginalization of minority languages, language endangerment and revitalization, contact-induced language change, the emergence of mixed languages, and identity issues. An emphasis is on the dominance of non-Western languages such as Arabic, Chinese, and, particularly, Russian. The studies demonstrate that the emergence, spread and decline of language empires is a promising area of research, particularly from a comparative perspective.


The Tangwang Language

Author by : Dan Xu
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 83
Total Download : 125
File Size : 41,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This book studies the Tangwang language, providing the first comprehensive grammar in English of this Chinese variety, with detailed analysis of its phonology, morphology, and syntax. This fills a gap in the literature, as previously only a few articles on this language were available. The book takes an interdisciplinary approach, examining genetic data to determine historical patterns of population migration, as well as linguistic data that focus on the influence of the Dongxiang (Santa) language as a consequence of language contact on the Silk Road. The concluding chapter argues that Tangwang has not yet become a mixed language, and that syntactic borrowing has a stronger impact than lexical borrowing on languages.


Turkic Languages

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 38
Total Download : 422
File Size : 40,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Myth And Rhetoric Of The Turkish Model

Author by : Anita Sengupta
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 13
Total Download : 343
File Size : 47,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The volume discusses what the Turkish Model, or Turkish Development Alternative, was and why it was promoted in the Central Asian republics immediately following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It argues that the Turkish Model was a myth that transferred the ideal of a ''secular, democratic, liberal society'' as a model for the post Soviet Turkic world and in the process encouraged a ''Turkic" rhetoric that emphasized connection between the two regions based on a common ancestry. The volume begins with an understanding of the reality of the Model from a Turkish perspective and then goes on to examine whether the Turkic world as a "cultural-civilizational alternative" makes sense both from a historical as well as contemporary perspective. It concludes by looking at the re-emergence of the Model in the wake of the events in West Asia in early 2011 and examines how in the light of a search for options the Turkish Model is once again projected as viable.


Frontier Orientalism And The Turkish Image In Central European Literature

Author by : Charles D. Sabatos
Languange : en
Publisher by : Lexington Books
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 54
Total Download : 590
File Size : 49,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This comparative study analyzes the ways that Central European writers used stereotypes of the Turks to develop their national identities from the early modern period to the present. Charles D. Sabatos uses Andre Gingrich’s concept of “frontier Orientalism” to foreground his analysis of Central European Orientalism, designating the nations of the former Habsburg Empire as the occident and the Turks as the oriental “Other.” This study applies theoretical approaches to literary history—as developed by scholars such as Stephen Greenblatt and Linda Hutcheon—to a range of texts from the early modern period, the nineteenth-century national revivals, interwar independence, and the communist and postsocialist regimes. By following these depictions across literatures and over an extensive historical period, this study illustrates how the Turkish stereotype evolved from a menace to a more abstract yet still powerful metaphor of resistance, and finally to a mythical figure that evoked humor as often as fear.


Series B Skrifter

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 54
Total Download : 349
File Size : 52,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Eurasian Studies Yearbook

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 79
Total Download : 824
File Size : 42,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Exploring European Frontiers

Author by : B. Dolan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 47
Total Download : 986
File Size : 51,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The explorations of eighteenth-century travellers to the 'European frontiers' were often geared to define the cultural, political, and historical boundaries of 'European civilization.' In an age when political revolutions shocked nations into reassessing what separated the civilised from the barbaric, how did literary travellers contemplate the characteristics of their continental neighbours? Focusing on the writings of British travellers, we see how a new view of Europe was created, one that juxtaposed the customs and living conditions of populations in an attempt to define 'modern' Europe against a 'yet unenlightened' Europe.


The Persianate World

Author by : Nile Green
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of California Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 62
Total Download : 837
File Size : 43,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : At publication date, a free ebook version of this title will be available through Luminos, University of California Press’s Open Access publishing program. Visit www.luminosoa.org to learn more. Persian is one of the great lingua francas of world history. Yet despite its recognition as a shared language across the Islamic world and beyond, its scope, impact, and mechanisms remain underexplored. A world historical inquiry into pre-modern cosmopolitanism, The Persianate World traces the reach and limits of Persian as a Eurasian language in a comprehensive survey of its geographical, literary, and social frontiers. From Siberia to Southeast Asia, and between London and Beijing, this book shows how Persian gained, maintained, and finally surrendered its status to imperial and vernacular competitors. Fourteen essays trace Persian’s interactions with Bengali, Chinese, Turkic, Punjabi, and other languages to identify the forces that extended “Persographia,” the domain of written Persian. Spanning the ages expansion and contraction, The Persianate World offers a critical survey of both the supports and constraints of one of history’s key languages of global exchange.


Exploring Austria

Author by : Adrea Mach
Languange : en
Publisher by : iUniverse
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 69
Total Download : 283
File Size : 47,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The book presents Austria as a contemporary Shangri-la for all seasons in the midst of an economically challenged, war-torn world. Starting with its historical background of imperial legacy and developed over the past six centuries, readers are then taken on an exploratory tour of modern-day Austria where they experience Vienna and its environs, as well as exploring Austria farther afield and including must-see Austrian sights. Then the books premise is illustrated through twelve vignettespersonalized, off-the-beaten-track experienceseach of which captures unique features of Austrias nine provinces (including Vienna) during all four seasons of the yearcontrasting places, times and individual adventures. A complementary concept profiles experiences of different kindssports, culture, customs and traditions, along with Austrian culinary and wine specialties.


Exploring Ottoman Sovereignty

Author by : Rhoads Murphey
Languange : en
Publisher by : A&C Black
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 54
Total Download : 373
File Size : 47,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Is it possible to identify the 'essence' of Ottoman kingship? And if so, what were the core motivating principles that governed the dynasty over its 600 year lifespan and how continuous and consistent were they? Following the death of the dynasty's eponymous founder Osman in 1324, 35 successors held the throne. Despite the wide range of character traits, dispositions and personal preferences, they led the expansion, stagnation and eventual collapse of the empire. Rhoades Murphey offers an alternative way of understanding the soul of the empire as reflected in its key ruling institution: the sultanate. For much of the period of centralized Ottoman rule between ca. 1450 and 1850 each of the dynasty's successive rulers developed and used the state bureaucratic apparatus to achieve their ruling priorities, based around the palace and court culture and rituals of sovereignty as well as the sultan's role as the head of the central state administrative apparatus. Sovereignty was attached to the person of the sultan who moved (with his court) both often and for prolonged stays away from his principal residence. In the period between 1360 and 1453 there were dual capitals at Bursa and Edirne (Adrianople) and even after 1453 several Ottoman sultans showed a preference for Edirne over Istanbul. Even Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent - held by the Ottomans, western contemporaries and modern analysts alike to be the pinnacle and paragon of Ottoman kingship - spent far more time away from his residence at the Topkapi Palace than in it. This book explores the growing complexity of the empire as it absorbed cultural influences and imperial legacies from a wide diversity of sources each in turn engendering a further interpretation of existing notions of kingship and definitions of the role and function of the ruler.


Exploring The World Adventures Of A Global Traveler

Author by : Howard J. Wiarda
Languange : en
Publisher by : iUniverse
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 31
Total Download : 920
File Size : 46,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Professor Howard J. Wiarda, a leading academic expert on foreign policy, comparative politics, and international affairs, is the author of more than eighty books. Wiarda has traveled to many of the world’s most troubled and exciting places. Now, in the more personal accounts of his global travels, he recalls his foreign research adventures, the countries visited, and the people he met and interviewed along the way. Wiarda’s new four-volume set, Exploring the World: Adventures of a Global Traveler, details his travels and foreign adventures since 2006. In these travel books, he tells the stories that lie behind the research, offers his impressions of the countries and regions he has explored, and considers how and why some have been successful and others not. Volume I in this new series tells the story of Wiarda’s 2010 circumnavigation of the globe. Volume II focuses on Europe and the continued importance of European regionalism—despite the bumper stickers advertising “Europe Whole and Free.” Volume III deals with Latin America and questions whether the region is really as democratic as we would like it to be. Volume IV provides Wiarda’s analysis of Asia’s economic miracles while also recounting his recent visits to the Persian Gulf and his assessment of modernization and development in the Islamic world. Insightful and entertaining, Wiarda’s travel narratives offer commentary on important and interesting sites all over the world.


Dk Eyewitness Travel Guide Turkey

Author by : DK
Languange : en
Publisher by : Dorling Kindersley Ltd
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 48
Total Download : 465
File Size : 51,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The DK Eyewitness Turkey Travel Guide is your indispensable guide to this beautiful part of the world. The fully updated guide includes unique cutaways, floorplans and reconstructions of the must-see sites, plus street-by-street maps of all the fascinating cities and towns. The new-look guide is also packed with photographs and illustrations leading you straight to the best attractions on offer. The uniquely visual DK Eyewitness Travel guide will help you to discover everything region-by-region; from local festivals and markets to day trips around the countryside. Detailed listings will guide you to the best hotels, restaurants, bars and shops for all budgets, whilst detailed practical information will help you to get around, whether by train, bus or car. Plus, DK's excellent insider tips and essential local information will help you explore every corner of Turkey effortlessly. DK Eyewitness Turkey Travel Guide - showing you what others only tell you. Now available in PDF format.


Exploring The Nature Of Uighur Nationalism

Author by : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International Organizations, Human Rights, and Oversight
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 86
Total Download : 566
File Size : 45,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Contact And Conflict In Frankish Greece And The Aegean 1204 1453

Author by : Dr Mike Carr
Languange : en
Publisher by : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 60
Total Download : 538
File Size : 41,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade shattered irreversibly the political and cultural unity of the Byzantine world in the Greek peninsula, the Aegean and western Asia Minor. This volume brings together western medievalists, Byzantinists and Ottomanists, combining recent research in the relevant fields in order to provide a holistic interpretation of this world of extreme fragmentation. Although the impact of the crusades on Byzantine history leading up to 1204 has been extensively examined in the past, there has been little research on the way crusading was implemented in Greece and the Aegean after that point. Far from being limited to crusading per se, however, the papers put it into its wider context and examine other aspects of contact, such as trade, interfaith relations, and geographical exploration.


Contact And Conflict In Frankish Greece And The Aegean 1204 1453

Author by : Nikolaos G. Chrissis
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 76
Total Download : 218
File Size : 42,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade shattered irreversibly the political and cultural unity of the Byzantine world in the Greek peninsula, the Aegean and western Asia Minor. Between the disintegration of the Byzantine Empire after 1204 and the consolidation of Ottoman power in the fifteenth century, the area was a complex political, ethnic and religious mosaic, made up of Frankish lordships, Italian colonies, Turkish beyliks, as well as a number of states that professed to be the continuators of the Byzantine imperial tradition. This volume brings together western medievalists, Byzantinists and Ottomanists, combining recent research in the relevant fields in order to provide a holistic interpretation of this world of extreme fragmentation. Eight stimulating papers explore various factors that defined contact and conflict between Orthodox Greeks, Catholic Latins and Muslim Turks, highlighting common themes that run through this period and evaluating the changes that occurred over time. Particular emphasis is given on the crusades and the way they affected interaction in the area. Although the impact of the crusades on Byzantine history leading up to 1204 has been extensively examined in the past, there has been little research on the way crusading was implemented in Greece and the Aegean after that point. Far from being limited to crusading per se, however, the papers put it into its wider context and examine other aspects of contact, such as trade, interfaith relations, and geographical exploration.