Fair and Equitable Benefit Sharing in Agriculture Open Access

Fair and Equitable Benefit Sharing in Agriculture  Open Access
Author: Elsa Tsioumani
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 186
Release: 2020-07-16
ISBN: 0429582285
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fair and Equitable Benefit Sharing in Agriculture Open Access Book Excerpt:

This book explores the emergence and development of the legal concept of fair and equitable benefit-sharing, and its application in agriculture. Developed in the 1990s, the concept of fair and equitable benefit-sharing has been deployed in an ever-wider variety of international instruments, including those on biodiversity, climate change and human rights. A lack of clarity persists, however, on what fair and equitable benefit-sharing requires and entails, and whether its implementation supports or eventually undermines equity and justice. This book examines these questions in the area of land, food and agriculture, addressing for the first time several instances of the agricultural production chain, including research and development, land governance and land use and access to markets. It identifies challenges regarding implementation of the concept as enshrined in environmental treaties and soft-law instruments, with a focus on the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, the Voluntary Guidelines on Tenure and the UN Declaration on the Rights of Peasants. It investigates its role, enabling conditions and limitations, in a contradictory policy context involving environmental, food security and human rights objectives but also a growing web of multilateral and bilateral trade and investment agreements. Linking international law research with a socio-legal analysis, the book addresses four grassroots examples, which offer ideas for institutional and legal innovation from the local to the global level. This interdisciplinary title will be of great interest to students and scholars of international environmental law, agriculture, land law, development studies and global governance, as well as policymakers and practitioners working in these fields. “The Open Access version of this book, available at https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429198304, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license."

An explanatory guide to the Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit sharing

An explanatory guide to the Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit sharing
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: IUCN
Total Pages: 394
Release: 2012
ISBN: 2831715296
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

An explanatory guide to the Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit sharing Book Excerpt:

Blue Genes

Blue Genes
Author: Brian Harvey
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 248
Release: 2013-06-17
ISBN: 1136570861
Category: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Blue Genes Book Excerpt:

The advance of genetic sciences has led to a 'blue revolution' in the way we use aquatic biodiversity. By 2020, the world will be eating almost as much farmed as wild fish, marine bacteria could yield the cure for cancer and deep-sea bacteria may be exploited to gobble up oil spills. Science is moving ahead at a staggering speed, and the demand for genetic resources is growing rapidly - yet governance and policy lag far behind. This groundbreaking work is the first to look at the ownership, governance and trade in aquatic genetic resources. Blue Genes describes the growing demand for aquatic genetic resources and the desperate need to fill the policy vacuum about the management and conservation of aquatic biodiversity, which would help create a foundation for rules dictating access to, and use of, aquatic genetic resources. Special attention is paid to indigenous and local people having the right to access these resources and their role in managing and conserving aquatic biodiversity. The book concludes with policy recommendations specifically tailored to aquatic resources, with the use of six case studies from four continents to illustrate key issues.

Biodiversity Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property

Biodiversity  Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property
Author: Kamalesh Adhikari,Charles Lawson
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 262
Release: 2018-03-09
ISBN: 1351580337
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biodiversity Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property Book Excerpt:

Debates about Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) have moved on in recent years. An initial focus on the legal obligations established by international agreements like the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity and the form of obligations for collecting physical biological materials have now moved to a far more complex series of disputes and challenges about the ways ABS should be implemented and enforced: repatriation of resources, technology transfer, traditional knowledge and cultural expressions; open access to information and knowledge, naming conventions, farmers’ rights, new schemes for accessing pandemic viruses and sharing DNA sequences, and so on. Unfortunately, most of this debate is now crystallised into apparently intractable discussions such as implementing the certificates of origin, recognising traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expression as a form of intellectual property, and sovereignty for Indigenous peoples. Not everything in this new marketplace of ABS has been created de novo. Like most new entrants, ABS has disrupted existing legal and governance arrangements. This collection of chapters examines what is new, what has been changed, and what might be changed in response to the growing acceptance and prevalence of ABS of genetic resources. Biodiversity, Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property: Developments in Access and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources addresses current issues arising from recent developments in the enduring and topical debates about managing genetic resources through the ABS regime. The book explores key historical, doctrinal, and theoretical issues in the field, at the same time developing new ideas and perspectives around ABS. It shows the latest state of knowledge and will be of interest to researchers, academics, policymakers, and students in the fields of intellectual property, governance, biodiversity and conservation, sustainable development, and agriculture.

The Multilateral System of Access and Benefit sharing

The Multilateral System of Access and Benefit sharing
Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publsiher: Food & Agriculture Org.
Total Pages: 159
Release: 2022-01-05
ISBN: 925135491X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Multilateral System of Access and Benefit sharing Book Excerpt:

The fourth educational module on the International Treaty focuses on the Multilateral System functions provides an overview of the legal and historical perspectives that lead to the development of the Multilateral System and the list of Annex I crops. It also illustrates the core concepts and articles of Section IV of the International Treaty. The first two lessons are aimed at a broad target learner group, especially at learners that are new to the Multilateral System. Lessons three and four contain practical elements related to the day-to-day operations and may be of interest to those exchanging material and involved in the planning and implementation of the Multilateral System at the national level. All lessons provide an extensive list of resources and references for further reading and learning. It has been designed to contribute to supporting the implementation of the International Treaty and also the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework.

Genetics and Fish Breeding

Genetics and Fish Breeding
Author: Kolton Harrell
Publsiher: Scientific e-Resources
Total Pages: 316
Release: 2019-09-18
ISBN: 1839472693
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetics and Fish Breeding Book Excerpt:

Genetics and Fish Breeding gives an intensive survey of this vital subject, featuring species which are reproduced economically, for example, salmon, trout, carp and goldfish. The writer, has drawn together an abundance of data, giving a book which ought to be purchased by all fish researcher, fisheries researchers, geneticists and aquarists. A training initially created to deliver quality seed in imprisonment, actuated rearing has made awesome walks in angle populaces for India. The book offers a functional and concise diagram-from existing methods and operations to late patterns and their effects on aquaculture for what's to come. Provides point by point data about observational rearing practices like blended bringing forth and aimless hybridization; Presents the environmental and hormonal impact on development and bringing forth of fish with genuine fish rearing cases from around the globe; Includes well ordered logical measures to help tackle issues emerging from regular fish-cultivating botches; Provides genuine cases to maximize fish and seed creation to help general maintainability in aquaculture.

Accessing Biodiversity and Sharing the Benefits

Accessing Biodiversity and Sharing the Benefits
Author: Santiago Carrizosa,Stephen Brush,Patrick E. McGuire
Publsiher: IUCN
Total Pages: 315
Release: 2004
ISBN: 2831708168
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Accessing Biodiversity and Sharing the Benefits Book Excerpt:

The book aims to address the lack of information on the experiences of others by providing a comparative analysis of national access and benefit-sharing laws and policies in the 41 Pacific Rim countries that signed the CBD. It provides key insights on the main characteristics of selected access and benefit-sharing (ABS) policies and laws, their development, and implementation process. It contains a detailed comparative analysis of existing laws and policies. It presents four case studies of countries with regulations in place and contrasts them with four case studies of countries that are struggling to develop their regulations. It ends by discussing options of an international regime on ABS and a summary analysis of the main lessons and recommendations from the study.

African Perspectives on Genetic Resources

African Perspectives on Genetic Resources
Author: Kent Nnadozie
Publsiher: Environmental Law Institute
Total Pages: 347
Release: 2003
ISBN: 9781585760688
Category: Biodiversity
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

African Perspectives on Genetic Resources Book Excerpt:

Local Knowledge Intellectual Property and Agricultural Innovation

Local Knowledge  Intellectual Property and Agricultural Innovation
Author: Michael Blakeney,Kadambot H. M. Siddique
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 239
Release: 2020-06-22
ISBN: 9811546118
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Local Knowledge Intellectual Property and Agricultural Innovation Book Excerpt:

This book examines the role of local knowledge in promoting agricultural innovation and legislative support for agricultural innovation through intellectual property laws and the protection of farmers’ rights. In assessing the role of intellectual property in promoting agricultural innovation the book examines plant variety rights protection, the patenting of plant varieties and plant breeding methods; gene patents and climate change; open source biotechnology and agricultural innovation and geographical indications and the marketing of agricultural products. As a test bed for the application of the themes of the book, it applies a case study approach to look at the role of local knowledge and intellectual property rights in the cultivation of traditional rice varieties in Kerala, South West India and the extent to which this cultivation is supported by Indian legislation. The book concludes with an examination of the success of self-help groups, such as Farmers’ Clubs. This book appeals to all readers interested in policies to promote sustainable agriculture at a time of increasing food insecurity. A special feature of the book is the case study approach. To date, the role of local knowledge and agricultural innovation has been almost entirely ignored and the role of intellectual property in this space has been largely ignored. The book is a result of a research collaboration between the University of Western Australia and Kerala Agricultural University, funded in part by the Australian Research Council.

The United Nations Declaration on Peasants Rights

The United Nations  Declaration on Peasants  Rights
Author: Mariagrazia Alabrese,Adriana Bessa,Margherita Brunori,Pier Filippo Giuggioli
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 286
Release: 2022-01-24
ISBN: 1000550532
Category: Nature
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The United Nations Declaration on Peasants Rights Book Excerpt:

This is the first book to address and review the United Nations' Declaration on the Rights of Peasants and Other People Working in Rural Areas (UNDROP), which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in December 2018. Food security and sustainable agri-food systems, responsible governance of natural resources, and human rights are among the key themes of the new millennium. The Declaration is the first internationally negotiated instrument bridging these issues, calling for a radical paradigm change in the agricultural sector while giving voice to peasants and rural workers, recognised as the drivers of more equitable and resilient food systems. The book unfolds the impact of the Declaration in the wider realm of law and policy making, especially concerning the new human rights standards related to access and control of natural resources and the governance of food systems. The chapters in the book touch on a broad array of topics, including women’s rights, the role of and impact on indigenous peoples, food sovereignty, climate change, land tenure, and agrobiodiversity. Voices from outstanding scholars and practitioners are gathered together to inform and trigger a further debate on the negotiation process, the innovative and potentially disruptive contents, the relations with other fields of law, and the practical scope of the Declaration. The volume concludes with a collection of case studies that provide concrete examples to help us understand the potential impacts of the Declaration at regional, national, and local levels. This book is the first comprehensive tool to navigate the Declaration and is designed for students, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of food and agriculture law, peasant, agrarian and rural studies, human rights and environmental law, and international development and cooperation.

Intellectual Property Issues in Microbiology

Intellectual Property Issues in Microbiology
Author: Harikesh Bahadur Singh,Chetan Keswani,Surya Pratap Singh
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 402
Release: 2019-07-27
ISBN: 981137466X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Intellectual Property Issues in Microbiology Book Excerpt:

In the current era current era of significant innovations, science and technology are powerful tools improving human welfare through prosperity and sustainable development. The development of microbiology based industries in any given country is shaped by the characteristics of its technology—particularly its close relation to scientific knowledge, and by country-specific factors such as the level and nature of the scientific knowledge base, the institutional set-up, and the role assumed by the government, all of which influence the country's ability to exploit the new opportunities. This unique book presents an integrated approach for sustained innovation in various areas of microbiology. Focusing on the industrial and socio-legal implications of IPR in microbiological advances, it offers a comprehensive overview not only of the implications of IPR in omics-based research but also of the ethical and intellectual standards and how these can be developed for sustained innovation. The book is divided into three sections discussing current advances in microbiological innovations, recent intellectual property issues in agricultural, and pharmaceutical microbiology respectively. Integrating science and business, it offers a glimpse behind the scenes of the microbiology industry, and provides a detailed analysis of the foundations of the present day industry for students and professionals alike.

Transforming Biodiversity Governance

Transforming Biodiversity Governance
Author: Ingrid J. Visseren-Hamakers,Marcel T. J. Kok
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 350
Release: 2022-06-30
ISBN: 110847974X
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transforming Biodiversity Governance Book Excerpt:

A multidisciplinary approach to transforming biodiversity governance to combat the failure of current efforts and halt biodiversity loss.

Survey of access and benefit sharing country measures accommodating the distinctive features of genetic resources for food and agriculture and associated traditional knowledge

Survey of access and benefit sharing country measures accommodating the distinctive features of genetic resources for food and agriculture and associated traditional knowledge
Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publsiher: Food & Agriculture Org.
Total Pages: 92
Release: 2021-09-01
ISBN: 9251348774
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Survey of access and benefit sharing country measures accommodating the distinctive features of genetic resources for food and agriculture and associated traditional knowledge Book Excerpt:

The Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, at its Seventeenth Regular Session, requested its Secretary to prepare for review by the intergovernmental technical working groups on animal, aquatic, forest and plant genetic resources to produce an up-to-date survey of existing legislative, administrative and policy approaches, including best practices, for ABS for the different subsectors of GRFA and traditional knowledge associated with GRFA held by indigenous peoples and local communities, with the aim of identifying typical approaches and lessons learned from their implementation, as well as challenges and possible solutions. The current survey comprises a baseline desktop review of legislation, policy and literature. It provides a review of how countries address the distinctive features of GRFA and TKGRFA based on the letter of their ABS legislative, administrative and policy measures rather than on how these measures have been implemented in practice. It therefore does not provide an analysis of the state of implementation, the challenges involved and possible solutions to these challenges. As such, it aims to provide a basis for future empirical research on how ABS measures work in practice for GRFA subsectors. A specific objective is to provide a typology of legislative, administrative and policy measures applying to ABS for GRFA and TKGRFA.

Genetic Resources Traditional Knowledge and the Law

Genetic Resources  Traditional Knowledge and the Law
Author: Evanson C. Kamau,Gerd Winter
Publsiher: Earthscan
Total Pages: 528
Release: 2009-09-02
ISBN: 1849770093
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetic Resources Traditional Knowledge and the Law Book Excerpt:

The need to regulate access to genetic resources and ensure a fair and equitable sharing of any resulting benefits was at the core of the development of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The CBD established a series of principles and requirements around access and benefit sharing (ABS) in order to increase transparency and equity in the international flow of genetic resources, yet few countries have been able to effectively implement them and ABS negotiations are often paralysed by differing interests. This book not only examines these complex challenges, but offers workable, policy-oriented solutions. International contributors cover theoretical approaches, new significant national legislation, the concept of traditional knowledge, provider and user country measures and common solutions. Exploring specific, salient examples from across the globe, the authors provide lessons for national regulation and the ongoing negotiations for an international ABS regime. Uniquely, this book also looks at the potential for 'horizontal' development of ABS law and policy, applying lessons from bilateral approaches to other national contexts.

Creating Sustainable Bioeconomies

Creating Sustainable Bioeconomies
Author: Ivar Virgin,E. Jane Morris
Publsiher: Taylor & Francis
Total Pages: 276
Release: 2016-08-25
ISBN: 1317594428
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Creating Sustainable Bioeconomies Book Excerpt:

The growing global demand for food, feed and bio-based renewable material is changing the conditions for agricultural production worldwide. At the same time, revolutionary achievements in the field of biosciences are contributing to a transition whereby bio-based alternatives for energy and materials are becoming more competitive. Creating Sustainable Bioeconomies explores the prospects for biosciences and how its innovation has the potential to help countries in the North (Europe) and the South (Africa) to move towards resource efficient agriculture and sustainable bioeconomies. Throughout the book, the situations of Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa will be compared and contrasted, and opportunities for mutual learning and collaboration are explored. The chapters have been written by high profile authors and deal with a wide range of issues affecting the development of bioeconomies on both continents. This book compares and contrasts the situations of these two regions as they endeavour to develop knowledge based bioeconomies. This volume is suitable for those who are interested in ecological economics, development economics and environmental economics. It also provides action plans assisting policy-makers in both areas to support the transition to knowledge based and sustainable bioeconomies.

The Commons Plant Breeding and Agricultural Research

The Commons  Plant Breeding and Agricultural Research
Author: Fabien Girard,Christine Frison
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 302
Release: 2018-03-09
ISBN: 1351615890
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Commons Plant Breeding and Agricultural Research Book Excerpt:

The joint challenges of population increase, food security and conservation of agrobiodiversity demand a rethink of plant breeding and agricultural research from a different perspective. While more food is undeniably needed, the key question is rather about how to produce it in a way that sustains biological diversity and mitigates climate change. This book shows how social sciences, and more especially law, can contribute towards reconfiguring current legal frameworks in order to achieving a better balance between the necessary requirements of agricultural innovation and the need for protection of agrobiodiversity. On the assumption that the concept of property can be rethought against the background of the 'right to include', so as to endow others with a common 'right to access' genetic resources, several international instruments and contractual arrangements drawn from the plant-breeding field (including the Convention on Biological Diversity, technology exchange clearing houses and open sources licenses) receive special consideration. In addition, the authors explore the tension between ownership and the free circulation and exchange of germplasm and issues such as genetic resources managed by local and indigenous communities, the ITPGRFA and participatory plant-breeding programmes. As a whole, the book demonstrates the relevance of the 'Commons' for plant breeding and agricultural innovation.

Research and Development on Genetic Resources

Research and Development on Genetic Resources
Author: Evanson Chege Kamau,Gerd Winter,Peter-Tobias Stoll
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 394
Release: 2015-06-05
ISBN: 1317511182
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Research and Development on Genetic Resources Book Excerpt:

National implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) provisions has yielded enough challenges for providers and users of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge alike. The Nagoya Protocal brings novel ideas for resolving the challenges plaguing the Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS) process in general and non-commercial research in particular. This is one of the first books to address research cooperation and facilitated access for non-commercial biodiversity research. It uniquely offers concrete and practicable solutions based on experiences of researchers and administrative officials with ABS, and on the interpretation of the Nagoya Protocol on how free and lively taxonomic research can be ensured while at the same time observing obligations of obtaining prior informed consent and sharing of benefits. This book will be useful to students of International Environmental Law, International Biodiversity Law, Intellectual Property Law, Climate Law and Law of Indigenous Populations. With foreword from Executive Secretary CBD, Braulio Ferreira de Souza Dias.

Explanatory Guide to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

Explanatory Guide to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
Author: Gerald K. Moore,Witold Tymowski
Publsiher: IUCN
Total Pages: 212
Release: 2005
ISBN: 2831708192
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Explanatory Guide to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Book Excerpt:

At head of cover: IUCN Environmental Law Programme.

Concentration in Seed Markets Potential Effects and Policy Responses

Concentration in Seed Markets Potential Effects and Policy Responses
Author: OECD
Publsiher: OECD Publishing
Total Pages: 236
Release: 2018-12-04
ISBN: 9264308369
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Concentration in Seed Markets Potential Effects and Policy Responses Book Excerpt:

Recent mergers in the seed industry have led to concerns about market concentration and its potential effects on prices, product choice, and innovation. This study provides new and detailed empirical evidence on the degree of market concentration in seed and GM technology across a broad range ...

GEF Investments in Support of Access and Benefit Sharing

GEF Investments in Support of Access and Benefit Sharing
Author: Global Environment Facility
Publsiher: Global Environment Facility
Total Pages: 12
Release: 2011-09-15
ISBN: 1939339766
Category: Nature
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

GEF Investments in Support of Access and Benefit Sharing Book Excerpt: