Description : G. Bruce Doern and Jeffrey S. Kinder examine four labs whose mandates deal with the Alberta oil sands, environmental technologies, wildlife research, and mining and metals, respectively. The authors use these cases to explain why a better middle-level approach to analysis is needed for strategic public interest-centred government science.
Description : Perhaps just as perplexing as the biggest issues at the core of Earth science is the nature of communicating about nature itself. New Trends in Earth-Science Outreach and Engagement: The Nature of Communication examines the processes of communication necessary in bridging the chasm between climate change and natural hazard knowledge and public opinion and policy. At this junction of science and society, 17 chapters take a proactive and prescriptive approach to communicating with the public, the media, and policy makers about the importance of Earth science in everyday life. Book chapters come from some 40 authors who are geophysical scientists, social scientists, educators, scholars, and professionals in the field. Bringing diverse perspectives, these authors hail from universities, and research institutes, government agencies, non-profit associations, and corporations. They represent multiple disciplines, including geosciences, education, climate science education, environmental communication, and public policy. They come from across the United States and around the world. Arranged into five sections, the book looks at geosciences communication in terms of: 1) Education 2) Risk management 3) Public discourse 4) Engaging the public 5) New media From case studies and best practices to field work and innovations, experts deliver pragmatic solutions and delve into significant theories, including diffusion, argumentation, and constructivism, to name a few. Intended for environmental professionals, researchers, and educators in the geophysical and social sciences, the book emphasizes communication principles and practices within an up-to-the-minute context of new environmental issues, new technologies, and a new focus on resiliency.
Description : There are fewer grounds today than in the past to deplore a North‑South divide in research and innovation. This is one of the key findings of the UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030. A large number of countries are now incorporating science, technology and innovation in their national development agenda, in order to make their economies less reliant on raw materials and more rooted in knowledge. Most research and development (R&D) is taking place in high-income countries, but innovation of some kind is now occurring across the full spectrum of income levels according to the first survey of manufacturing companies in 65 countries conducted by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics and summarized in this report. For many lower-income countries, sustainable development has become an integral part of their national development plans for the next 10–20 years. Among higher-income countries, a firm commitment to sustainable development is often coupled with the desire to maintain competitiveness in global markets that are increasingly leaning towards ‘green’ technologies. The quest for clean energy and greater energy efficiency now figures among the research priorities of numerous countries. Written by more than 50 experts who are each covering the country or region from which they hail, the UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 provides more country-level information than ever before. The trends and developments in science, technology and innovation policy and governance between 2009 and mid-2015 described here provide essential baseline information on the concerns and priorities of countries that could orient the implementation and drive the assessment of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in the years to come.
Description : Since 1960, Canadian industry has lagged behind other advanced capitalist economies in its level of commitment to research and development. Asleep at the Switch explains the reasons for this underperformance, despite a series of federal measures to spur technological innovation in Canada. Bruce Smardon argues that the underlying issue in Canada's longstanding failure to innovate is structural, and can be traced to the rapid diffusion of American Fordist practices into the manufacturing sector of the early twentieth century. Under the influence of Fordism, Canadian industry came to depend heavily on outside sources of new technology, particularly from the United States. Though this initially brought in substantial foreign capital and led to rapid economic development, the resulting branch-plant industrial structure led to the prioritization of business interests over transformative and innovative industrial strategies. This situation was exacerbated in the early 1960s by the Glassco framework, which assumed that the best way for the federal state to foster domestic technological capacity was to fund private sector research and collaborative strategies with private capital. Remarkably, and with few results, federal programs and measures continued to emphasize a market-oriented approach. Asleep at the Switch details the ongoing attempts by the federal government to increase the level of innovation in Canadian industry, but shows why these efforts have failed to alter the pattern of technological dependency.
Description : A study of two bridges between science and society: governmental science policy and scientists' voluntary public-interest associations. According to a widespread stereotype, scientists occupy an ivory tower, isolated from other parts of society. To some extent this is true, and the resulting freedom to pursue curiosity-driven research has made possible extraordinary scientific advances. The spinoffs of "pure" science, however, have also had powerful impacts on society, and the potential for future impacts is even greater. The public and many policymakers, as well as many researchers, have paid insufficient attention to the mechanisms for interchange between science and society that have developed since World War II. Ivory Bridges examines two such mechanisms: governmental science policy (often involving the participation of "scientist administrators") and scientists' voluntary public-interest associations. The examination of science policy is guided by the notion of "Jeffersonian science"—-defined as basic research on topics identified as being in the national interest. The book illustrates the concept with a historical case study of the Press-Carter Initiative of the late 1970s and proposes that a Jeffersonian approach would make a valuable addition to future science policy. The book also looks at the activities of citizen-scientists who have organized themselves to promote the welfare of society. It shows that their numerous and diverse organizations have made major contributions to the commonweal and that they have helped to prevent science from becoming either too subservient to government or too autonomous. An extensive appendix profiles a wide variety of these organizations.
Description : DIVOffers a new perspective on how state legislators make decisions about what public services to provide and how to pay for them /div
Description : In the late 1960s an eclectic group of engineers joined the antiwar and civil rights activists of the time in agitating for change. The engineers were fighting to remake their profession, challenging their fellow engineers to embrace a more humane vision of technology. In Engineers for Change, Matthew Wisnioski offers an account of this conflict within engineering, linking it to deep-seated assumptions about technology and American life. The postwar period in America saw a near-utopian belief in technology's beneficence. Beginning in the mid-1960s, however, society--influenced by the antitechnology writings of such thinkers as Jacques Ellul and Lewis Mumford--began to view technology in a more negative light. Engineers themselves were seen as conformist organization men propping up the military-industrial complex. A dissident minority of engineers offered critiques of their profession that appropriated concepts from technology's critics. These dissidents were criticized in turn by conservatives who regarded them as countercultural Luddites. And yet, as Wisnioski shows, the radical minority spurred the professional elite to promote a new understanding of technology as a rapidly accelerating force that our institutions are ill-equipped to handle. The negative consequences of technology spring from its very nature--and not from engineering's failures. "Sociotechnologists" were recruited to help society adjust to its technology. Wisnioski argues that in responding to the challenges posed by critics within their profession, engineers in the 1960s helped shape our dominant contemporary understanding of technological change as the driver of history.
Description : Fundamentals of Forensic Science offers a complete look at the core topics of forensic science. It represents the most realistic view of the field by including areas that, while central to criminal investigation, fall outside the typical definition of criminalistics. These areas include pathology, entomology, anthropology, and other areas of scientific study unique to forensic textbooks. Organized by the timeline of a real case, the text begins with an introduction and history of forensic science. It then covers the methods of analysis used in most forensic examinations, addressing the biological, chemical and physical elements relevant to the field, and concluding with an examination of how forensic science intersects with law. Feature boxes throughout the text contain online resource listings, historical events in forensic science, practical issues in laboratory analysis, and topics for further reading or interest. This book is recommended for students in forensic science and professionals in the various forensic disciplines – fire, chemistry, crime scene, trace evidence, law enforcement personnel, lawyers, and defense attorneys. - Vivid, full-color illustrations that diagram key concepts and depict evidence encountered in the field - Straightforward unit organization that includes key terms, numerous feature boxes emphasizing resources on the World Wide Web, historical events in forensic science, practical issues in laboratory analysis, and topics for further reading - Effective pedagogy -including end-of-chapter questions- paired with a clear writing style makes this an invaluable resource for professors and students of forensic science