Description : G. Bruce Doern and Jeffrey S. Kinder examine four labs whose mandates deal with the Alberta oil sands, environmental technologies, wildlife research, and mining and metals, respectively. The authors use these cases to explain why a better middle-level approach to analysis is needed for strategic public interest-centred government science.
Description : DIVOffers a new perspective on how state legislators make decisions about what public services to provide and how to pay for them /div
Description : Since 1960, Canadian industry has lagged behind other advanced capitalist economies in its level of commitment to research and development. Asleep at the Switch explains the reasons for this underperformance, despite a series of federal measures to spur technological innovation in Canada. Bruce Smardon argues that the underlying issue in Canada's longstanding failure to innovate is structural, and can be traced to the rapid diffusion of American Fordist practices into the manufacturing sector of the early twentieth century. Under the influence of Fordism, Canadian industry came to depend heavily on outside sources of new technology, particularly from the United States. Though this initially brought in substantial foreign capital and led to rapid economic development, the resulting branch-plant industrial structure led to the prioritization of business interests over transformative and innovative industrial strategies. This situation was exacerbated in the early 1960s by the Glassco framework, which assumed that the best way for the federal state to foster domestic technological capacity was to fund private sector research and collaborative strategies with private capital. Remarkably, and with few results, federal programs and measures continued to emphasize a market-oriented approach. Asleep at the Switch details the ongoing attempts by the federal government to increase the level of innovation in Canadian industry, but shows why these efforts have failed to alter the pattern of technological dependency.
Description : There are fewer grounds today than in the past to deplore a North‑South divide in research and innovation. This is one of the key findings of the UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030. A large number of countries are now incorporating science, technology and innovation in their national development agenda, in order to make their economies less reliant on raw materials and more rooted in knowledge. Most research and development (R&D) is taking place in high-income countries, but innovation of some kind is now occurring across the full spectrum of income levels according to the first survey of manufacturing companies in 65 countries conducted by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics and summarized in this report. For many lower-income countries, sustainable development has become an integral part of their national development plans for the next 10–20 years. Among higher-income countries, a firm commitment to sustainable development is often coupled with the desire to maintain competitiveness in global markets that are increasingly leaning towards ‘green’ technologies. The quest for clean energy and greater energy efficiency now figures among the research priorities of numerous countries. Written by more than 50 experts who are each covering the country or region from which they hail, the UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 provides more country-level information than ever before. The trends and developments in science, technology and innovation policy and governance between 2009 and mid-2015 described here provide essential baseline information on the concerns and priorities of countries that could orient the implementation and drive the assessment of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in the years to come.
Description : Data access is essential for serving the public good. This book provides new frameworks to address the resultant privacy issues.
Description : At a time when faculty roles are under great scrutiny and faculty work itself has an uncertain future, this book offers a new approach to examining academic professionalism. This collection of essays applies a philanthropic lens to contemporary debates and considers academic work completed out of a moral responsibility to the public good. It provides a counterpoint to narrow conceptions of appropriate faculty work as limited to the production of credit hours and research dollars and offers evidence that faculty can have a wider role both within and beyond the “ivory tower.” By examining faculty members’ many contributions, not only to students but to society-at-large, Faculty Work and the Public Good provides an alternate perspective on America’s colleges and universities that will help preserve and expand professorial contributions to the public good. Although not all faculty are philanthropically inclined, highlighting those who are will help preserve valuable aspects of faculty work and encourage more such contributions to society. This volume is an essential read for higher education policymakers, trustees, and administrators; students and scholars of higher education and philanthropy; and individual faculty concerned about their profession. Contributors: Ann E. Austin, J. Herman Blake, Dwight F. Burlingame, Denise Mott DeZolt, Sean Gehrke, Audrey J. Jaeger, Adrianna Kezar, Jia G. Liang, Elizabeth Lynn, Michael Moody, Emily L. Moore, Thomas F. Nelson-Laird, Jason F. Perkins, William M. Plater, Gary Rhoades, R. Eugene Rice, John Saltmarsh, Lorilee R. Sandmann, Paul Shaker, Marty Sulek, William G. Tierney, Richard C. Turner “The contributors to this volume provide unique insights into this under-appreciated but significant dimension of academic work and culture.” —Jack H. Schuster, professor emeritus, education and public policy, senior research fellow, Claremont Graduate University “Provides a powerful rationale for broadening the definition of what are the valued contributions faculty members can make to their institutions, disciplines, and the public at large” —Judith M. Gappa, professor emerita, Purdue University
Description : A study of two bridges between science and society: governmental science policy and scientists' voluntary public-interest associations. According to a widespread stereotype, scientists occupy an ivory tower, isolated from other parts of society. To some extent this is true, and the resulting freedom to pursue curiosity-driven research has made possible extraordinary scientific advances. The spinoffs of "pure" science, however, have also had powerful impacts on society, and the potential for future impacts is even greater. The public and many policymakers, as well as many researchers, have paid insufficient attention to the mechanisms for interchange between science and society that have developed since World War II. Ivory Bridges examines two such mechanisms: governmental science policy (often involving the participation of "scientist administrators") and scientists' voluntary public-interest associations. The examination of science policy is guided by the notion of "Jeffersonian science"—-defined as basic research on topics identified as being in the national interest. The book illustrates the concept with a historical case study of the Press-Carter Initiative of the late 1970s and proposes that a Jeffersonian approach would make a valuable addition to future science policy. The book also looks at the activities of citizen-scientists who have organized themselves to promote the welfare of society. It shows that their numerous and diverse organizations have made major contributions to the commonweal and that they have helped to prevent science from becoming either too subservient to government or too autonomous. An extensive appendix profiles a wide variety of these organizations.