Description : From Neuron to Brain, Fourth Edition describes how nerve cells go about their business of transmitting signals, how the signals are put together, and how, out of this integration, higher functions emerge. The emphasis, as before, is on experiments, and on the way they are carried out. Elements of format and presentation have been changed -- more headings have been introduced, the paragraphs are shorter, and the illustrations, now in full color, have been clarified. Intended for use in upper-level undergraduate, graduate, psychology, and medical school neuroscience courses, this book will be of interest to anyone who is curious about the workings of the nervous system.
Description : This volume provides an authoritative, comprehensive view of the most current issues in brain pathophysiology and offers a critical evaluation of antioxidant-based therapeutic approaches to neurodegeneration, providing an up-to-date account of the role of antioxidants in the prevention and moderation of clinical symptoms. Examines free radicals in spinal cord damage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, reperfusion damage, and cytotoxicity! With over 2400 references, tables, drawings, photographs, and micrographs, Free Radicals in Brain Pathophysiology focuses on important biological signaling molecules such as superoxide anion and nitric oxide evaluates the action of low levels of oxygen- and nitrogen-centered radicals on cell membranes and receptors to modulate signal transduction pathways and gene expression links high mitochondrial density in neural tissue to brain disease considers how prions and -amyloid proteins influence the level of free radicals within cells assesses the abnormalities of superoxide dismutase in the familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis highlights the occurrence of oxidative stress and the impact of oxidative injury in brain physiology and neurodegeneration and more! With contributions from nearly 70 internationally recognized researchers, physiologists, and clinicians who describe their latest findings and provide new insights into the factors underlying neurological disorders, Free Radicals in Brain Pathophysiology is an unsurpassed reference for nutritionists and dietitians, clinical neurologists, pathologists, cell biologists and biochemists, cardiologists, oncologists, dermatologists, and graduate and medical school students in these disciplines.
Description : Contemporary debates on free will are numerous and multifaceted. According to compatibilists, it is possible for an agent to be determined in all her choices and actions and still be free. Incompatibilists, on the other hand, think that the existence of free will is incompatible with the truth of determinism. There are also two dominant conceptions of the nature of free will. According to the first, it is primarily a function of being able to do otherwise than one in fact does. The second approach focuses on issues of sourcehood, holding that free will is primarily a function of an agent being the source of her actions in a particular way. This book guides the student through all these debates, demarcating the different conceptions of free will, exploring the relationships between them, and examining how they relate to the debate between compatibilists and incompatibilists. In the process, it addresses a number of other views, including revisionism and free will scepticism. This is the ideal introduction to the contemporary debates for students at all levels.
Description : An account of scientific laws that vindicates the status of psychological laws and shows natural laws to be compatible with free will. In Laws, Mind, and Free Will, Steven Horst addresses the apparent dissonance between the picture of the natural world that arises from the sciences and our understanding of ourselves as agents who think and act. If the mind and the world are entirely governed by natural laws, there seems to be no room left for free will to operate. Moreover, although the laws of physical science are clear and verifiable, the sciences of the mind seem to yield only rough generalizations rather than universal laws of nature. Horst argues that these two familiar problems in philosophy--the apparent tension between free will and natural law and the absence of "strict" laws in the sciences of the mind--are artifacts of a particular philosophical thesis about the nature of laws: that laws make claims about how objects actually behave. Horst argues against this Empiricist orthodoxy and proposes an alternative account of laws--an account rooted in a cognitivist approach to philosophy of science. Horst argues that once we abandon the Empiricist misunderstandings of the nature of laws there is no contrast between "strict" laws and generalizations about the mind ("ceteris paribus" laws, laws hedged by the caveat "other things being equal"), and that a commitment to laws is compatible with a commitment to the existence of free will. Horst's alternative account, which he calls "cognitive Pluralism," vindicates the truth of psychological laws and resolves the tension between human freedom and the sciences.
Description : Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine has become a classic text in the field of free radical and antioxidant research. Now in its fifth edition, the book has been comprehensively rewritten and updated whilst maintaining the clarity of its predecessors. Two new chapters discuss 'in vivo' and 'dietary' antioxidants, the first emphasising the role of peroxiredoxins and integrated defence mechanisms which allow useful roles for ROS, and the second containing new information on the role of fruits, vegetables, and vitamins in health and disease. This new edition also contains expanded coverage of the mechanisms of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins (and the repair of such damage), and the roles played by reactive species in signal transduction, cell survival, death, human reproduction, defence mechanisms of animals and plants against pathogens, and other important biological events. The methodologies available to measure reactive species and oxidative damage (and their potential pitfalls) have been fully updated, as have the topics of phagocyte ROS production, NADPH oxidase enzymes, and toxicology. There is a detailed and critical evaluation of the role of free radicals and other reactive species in human diseases, especially cancer, cardiovascular, chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. New aspects of ageing are discussed in the context of the free radical theory of ageing. This book is recommended as a comprehensive introduction to the field for students, educators, clinicians, and researchers. It will also be an invaluable companion to all those interested in the role of free radicals in the life and biomedical sciences.
Description : This book provides a systematic in-depth analysis of nonparametric regression with random design. It covers almost all known estimates. The emphasis is on distribution-free properties of the estimates.
Description : Synapse, Neuron, Brain, the third and last volume in the series Medical Physics, focuses on neurons and their interactions. Comprised of seven chapters regarding the brain's synapses and nerves, this volume concludes through the presentation of medical physics and its applications. An introductory chapter of this volume provides the necessary basic concepts and theories needed in the understanding of the book. This is followed by a discussion on the brain and its interconnections with the spinal cord. Chapter 3 focuses on the importance of evoked potentials as a diagnostic tool for the sensory organ and the neural processing of the stimuli. Chemical and electrical properties of synapses are also given emphasis. Other topics covered in this volume include the rall theory and neuronal integration; membrane noise at synaptic junctions; and new techniques on brain studies (autoradiography, positron annihilation, and nuclear magnetic resonance). As with the other volumes, this also caters to persons in various disciplines such as medicine, physiology, physics, and biology.
Description : The issues of mental causation, consciousness, and free will have vexed philosopherssince Plato. In this book, Peter Tse examines these unresolved issues from a neuroscientificperspective. In contrast with philosophers who use logic rather than data to argue whether mentalcausation or consciousness can exist given unproven first assumptions, Tse proposes that we insteadlisten to what neurons have to say. Because the brain must already embody a solution to themind--body problem, why not focus on how the brain actually realizes mental causation? Tse draws on exciting recent neuroscientific data concerning how informationalcausation is realized in physical causation at the level of NMDA receptors, synapses, dendrites,neurons, and neuronal circuits. He argues that a particular kind of strong free will and "downward"mental causation are realized in rapid synaptic plasticity. Recent neurophysiological breakthroughsreveal that neurons function as criterial assessors of their inputs, which then change the criteriathat will make other neurons fire in the future. Such informational causation cannot change thephysical basis of information realized in the present, but it can change the physical basis ofinformation that may be realized in the immediate future. This gets around the standard argumentagainst free will centered on the impossibility of self-causation. Tse explores the ways that mentalcausation and qualia might be realized in this kind of neuronal and associatedinformation-processing architecture, and considers the psychological and philosophical implicationsof having such an architecture realized in our brains.
Description : This textbook presents a wide range of subjects in neuroscience from a computational perspective. It offers a comprehensive, integrated introduction to core topics, using computational tools to trace a path from neurons and circuits to behavior and cognition. Moreover, the chapters show how computational neuroscience -- methods for modeling the causal interactions underlying neural systems -- complements empirical research in advancing the understanding of brain and behavior. The chapters -- all by leaders in the field, and carefully integrated by the editors -- cover such subjects as action and motor control; neuroplasticity, neuromodulation, and reinforcement learning; vision; and language -- the core of human cognition.The book can be used for advanced undergraduate or graduate level courses. It presents all necessary background in neuroscience beyond basic facts about neurons and synapses and general ideas about the structure and function of the human brain. Students should be familiar with differential equations and probability theory, and be able to pick up the basics of programming in MATLAB and/or Python. Slides, exercises, and other ancillary materials are freely available online, and many of the models described in the chapters are documented in the brain operation database, BODB (which is also described in a book chapter).ContributorsMichael A. Arbib, Joseph Ayers, James Bednar, Andrej Bicanski, James J. Bonaiuto, Nicolas Brunel, Jean-Marie Cabelguen, Carmen Canavier, Angelo Cangelosi, Richard P. Cooper, Carlos R. Cortes, Nathaniel Daw, Paul Dean, Peter Ford Dominey, Pierre Enel, Jean-Marc Fellous, Stefano Fusi, Wulfram Gerstner, Frank Grasso, Jacqueline A. Griego, Ziad M. Hafed, Michael E. Hasselmo, Auke Ijspeert, Stephanie Jones, Daniel Kersten, Jeremie Knuesel, Owen Lewis, William W. Lytton, Tomaso Poggio, John Porrill, Tony J. Prescott, John Rinzel, Edmund Rolls, Jonathan Rubin, Nicolas Schweighofer, Mohamed A. Sherif, Malle A. Tagamets, Paul F. M. J. Verschure, Nathan Vierling-Claasen, Xiao-Jing Wang, Christopher Williams, Ransom Winder, Alan L. Yuille