Description : Up-to-date third edition which presents a coherent description of the nervous system from the perspective of modern work on molecular biology, cellular and developmental biology, biophysics, neurophysiology, neurochemistry and neuroanatomy.
Description : This volume provides an authoritative, comprehensive view of the most current issues in brain pathophysiology and offers a critical evaluation of antioxidant-based therapeutic approaches to neurodegeneration, providing an up-to-date account of the role of antioxidants in the prevention and moderation of clinical symptoms. Examines free radicals in spinal cord damage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, reperfusion damage, and cytotoxicity! With over 2400 references, tables, drawings, photographs, and micrographs, Free Radicals in Brain Pathophysiology focuses on important biological signaling molecules such as superoxide anion and nitric oxide evaluates the action of low levels of oxygen- and nitrogen-centered radicals on cell membranes and receptors to modulate signal transduction pathways and gene expression links high mitochondrial density in neural tissue to brain disease considers how prions and -amyloid proteins influence the level of free radicals within cells assesses the abnormalities of superoxide dismutase in the familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis highlights the occurrence of oxidative stress and the impact of oxidative injury in brain physiology and neurodegeneration and more! With contributions from nearly 70 internationally recognized researchers, physiologists, and clinicians who describe their latest findings and provide new insights into the factors underlying neurological disorders, Free Radicals in Brain Pathophysiology is an unsurpassed reference for nutritionists and dietitians, clinical neurologists, pathologists, cell biologists and biochemists, cardiologists, oncologists, dermatologists, and graduate and medical school students in these disciplines.
Description : An account of scientific laws that vindicates the status of psychological laws and shows natural laws to be compatible with free will. In Laws, Mind, and Free Will, Steven Horst addresses the apparent dissonance between the picture of the natural world that arises from the sciences and our understanding of ourselves as agents who think and act. If the mind and the world are entirely governed by natural laws, there seems to be no room left for free will to operate. Moreover, although the laws of physical science are clear and verifiable, the sciences of the mind seem to yield only rough generalizations rather than universal laws of nature. Horst argues that these two familiar problems in philosophy--the apparent tension between free will and natural law and the absence of "strict" laws in the sciences of the mind--are artifacts of a particular philosophical thesis about the nature of laws: that laws make claims about how objects actually behave. Horst argues against this Empiricist orthodoxy and proposes an alternative account of laws--an account rooted in a cognitivist approach to philosophy of science. Horst argues that once we abandon the Empiricist misunderstandings of the nature of laws there is no contrast between "strict" laws and generalizations about the mind ("ceteris paribus" laws, laws hedged by the caveat "other things being equal"), and that a commitment to laws is compatible with a commitment to the existence of free will. Horst's alternative account, which he calls "cognitive Pluralism," vindicates the truth of psychological laws and resolves the tension between human freedom and the sciences.
Description : This book provides a systematic in-depth analysis of nonparametric regression with random design. It covers almost all known estimates. The emphasis is on distribution-free properties of the estimates.
Description : The issues of mental causation, consciousness, and free will have vexed philosopherssince Plato. In this book, Peter Tse examines these unresolved issues from a neuroscientificperspective. In contrast with philosophers who use logic rather than data to argue whether mentalcausation or consciousness can exist given unproven first assumptions, Tse proposes that we insteadlisten to what neurons have to say. Because the brain must already embody a solution to themind--body problem, why not focus on how the brain actually realizes mental causation? Tse draws on exciting recent neuroscientific data concerning how informationalcausation is realized in physical causation at the level of NMDA receptors, synapses, dendrites,neurons, and neuronal circuits. He argues that a particular kind of strong free will and "downward"mental causation are realized in rapid synaptic plasticity. Recent neurophysiological breakthroughsreveal that neurons function as criterial assessors of their inputs, which then change the criteriathat will make other neurons fire in the future. Such informational causation cannot change thephysical basis of information realized in the present, but it can change the physical basis ofinformation that may be realized in the immediate future. This gets around the standard argumentagainst free will centered on the impossibility of self-causation. Tse explores the ways that mentalcausation and qualia might be realized in this kind of neuronal and associatedinformation-processing architecture, and considers the psychological and philosophical implicationsof having such an architecture realized in our brains.
Description : No other textbook provides coverage of the essential concepts of disease processes and disorders with the specific needs of the physical therapy assistant in mind. Pathology for the Physical Therapist Assistant provides coverage of disease processes and systemic disorders as well as guidelines, precautions, and contraindications for physical therapy interventions. Catherine Goodman, Kenda Fuller, and Robbie O’Shea share their expertise in a consistent, well-organized approach that defines each disorder, describes the appropriate physical therapy assessment and intervention, and rounds out the discussion with relevant case study examples based on established practice patterns. Chapters follow a consistent organization, first defining a disorder and then describing the appropriate physical therapy assessment and intervention. Full-color art throughout clearly depicts pathologies and interventions. Case studies provide examples of physical therapy applications to help you connect theory and practice and build strong clinical reasoning skills. Special boxes highlight Clinical Signs, Interventions, and Case Studies to alert you to important information within the text. Terminology and language from the Guide to Physical Therapy Practice is used throughout to familiarize you with standardized terminology used in practice. A companion Evolve website provides additional online learning activities including online chapters, references linked to Medline, case studies, and self-test questions.
Description : In recent years, philosophical discussions of free will have focused largely on whether or not free will is compatible with determinism. In this challenging book, David Hodgson takes a fresh approach to the question of free will, contending that close consideration of human rationality and human consciousness shows that together they give us free will, in a robust and indeterministic sense. In particular, they give us the capacity to respond appositely to feature-rich gestalts of conscious experiences, in ways that are not wholly determined by laws of nature or computational rules. The author contends that this approach is consistent with what science tells us about the world; and he considers its implications for our responsibility for our own conduct, for the role of retribution in criminal punishment, and for the place of human beings in the wider scheme of things. Praise for David Hodgson's previous work, The Mind Matters "magisterial...It is balanced, extraordinarily thorough and scrupulously fair-minded; and it is written in clear, straightforward, accessible prose." --Michael Lockwood, Times Literary Supplement "an excellent contribution to the literature. It is well written, authoritative, and wonderfully wide-ranging. ... This account of quantum theory ... will surely be of great value. ... On the front cover of the paper edition of this book Paul Davies is quoted as saying that this is "a truly splendid and provocative book". In writing this review I have allowed myself to be provoked, but I am happy to close by giving my endorsement to this verdict in its entirety!" --Euan Squires, Journal of Consciousness Studies "well argued and extremely important book." --Sheena Meredith, New Scientist "His reconstructions and explanations are always concise and clear." --Jeffrey A Barrett, The Philosophical Review "In this large-scale and ambitious work Hodgson attacks a modern orthodoxy. Both its proponents and its opponents will find it compelling reading." --J. R. Lucas, Merton College, Oxford
Description : This presentation describes structural and functional properties of the cerebral circulation that are unique to the brain, an organ with high metabolic demands, and the need for tight water and ion homeostasis. Autoregulation is pronounced in the brain, with myogenic, metabolic, and neurogenic mehanisms contributing to maintain relatively constant blood flow during both increases and decreases in pressure. In addition, unlike peripheral organs where the majority of vascular resistance resides in small arteries and arterioles, large extracranial and intracranial arteries contribute signifi cantly to vascular resistance in the brain. The prominent role of large arteries in cerebrovascular resistance helps maintain blood flow and protect downstream vessels during changes in perfusion pressure. The Cerebral endothelium is also unique in that its barrier properties are in some way more like epithelium than endothelium in the periphery. The cerebral endothelium, known as the blood-brain barrier, has specialized tight junctions that do not allow ions ot pass freely and has very low hydraulic conductivity and transcellular transport. This special confi guration modifi es Starling's forces in the brain such that ions retained in the vascular lumen oppose water movement due to hydrostatic pressure. Tight water regulation is necessary in the brain because it has limited capacity for expansion within the skull. Increased intracranial pressure due to vasogenic edema can cause severe neurologic complications and death. This chapter will review these special features of the cerebral circulation and how they contribute to the physiology of the brain. This volume is a printed version of a work that appears in the Colloquium Digital Library of Life Sciences. Colloquium titles cover all of cell and molecular biology and biomedicine, including the neurosciences, from the advanced undergraduate and graduate level up to the post-graduate and practicing researcher level. They offer concise, original presentations of important research and development topics, published quickly, in digital and print formats. For more information, visit www.morganclaypool.com