Description : Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine has become a classic text in the field of free radical and antioxidant research. Now in its fifth edition, the book has been comprehensively rewritten and updated whilst maintaining the clarity of its predecessors. Two new chapters discuss 'in vivo' and 'dietary' antioxidants, the first emphasising the role of peroxiredoxins and integrated defence mechanisms which allow useful roles for ROS, and the second containing new information on the role of fruits, vegetables, and vitamins in health and disease. This new edition also contains expanded coverage of the mechanisms of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins (and the repair of such damage), and the roles played by reactive species in signal transduction, cell survival, death, human reproduction, defence mechanisms of animals and plants against pathogens, and other important biological events. The methodologies available to measure reactive species and oxidative damage (and their potential pitfalls) have been fully updated, as have the topics of phagocyte ROS production, NADPH oxidase enzymes, and toxicology. There is a detailed and critical evaluation of the role of free radicals and other reactive species in human diseases, especially cancer, cardiovascular, chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. New aspects of ageing are discussed in the context of the free radical theory of ageing. This book is recommended as a comprehensive introduction to the field for students, educators, clinicians, and researchers. It will also be an invaluable companion to all those interested in the role of free radicals in the life and biomedical sciences.
Description : "Oxidative stress and inflammatory cell death / tissue damage have been implicated in a wide array of human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, inflammatory joint diseases,; cardiovascular dysfunctions as well as ageing. Oxidative stress mediates the activation of transcription factors such as NF?B that, in turn, induce the transcription of certain genes promoting cytokine production. Release of these cytokines results in the enhancement of inflammatory responses and activation of endothelial cells in distant organs. The inflammatory cascade is then triggered by the induction of adhesion molecules and the generation of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. Given that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS respectively) generated by infiltrated neutrophils into distant organs act directly as noxious agents reacting with molecular components, thereby enhancing inflammatory processes and therefore influencing cell viability, ROS and RNS have become potential therapeutic targets for prophylactic biofactors. Whilst their production by phagocytic cells is, of course, essential for the eradication of invading pathogens, and the capacity of selected chemotherapeutic agents to generate such species in specific `target' cells is well known in cancer research, the novel therapeutic actions and potential mechanisms of action of ozone as a microbicidal agent in clinical dentistry are now being advocated. The focus of this publication prominently encompasses the pivotal roles of ROS and RNS in the pathogenesis of many clinical conditions (together with their involvement in the ageing process of lower (yeast) cells, and higher organisms including plants), and discusses the potential applications of dietary-derived antioxidants to interfere with the biomolecular mechanisms of these processes and hence offer realistic therapeutic or prophylactic potentials."
Description : This book is based on the papers presented at the "Fourth International Congress on Oxygen Radicals (4-ICOR)," held June 27 - July 3, 1987, at the University of California, La Jolla. The chapters deal with the phenomena associated with highly reactive oxygen species (hydroxy, peroxy, alkoxy, aroxy, and superoxide radicals, as well as singlet oxygen) and their peroxidation products (hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxides, peroxides, and epoxides) as they relate to the fields of chemistry, food technology, nutrition, biology, pharmacology, and medicine. The kinetics, energetics, and mechanistic aspects of the reactions of these species and the interrelationship of oxygen radicals (or any other free radicals) and peroxidized products have been emphasized. Special attention is focused on the mechanisms of the generation of free radicals and peroxy products in biosystems and on the adverse effects of these radicals and products in humans. The topics span the continuum from the simple chemistry of model systems to the complex considerations of clinical medicine. The book also explores the mechanisms of agents that protect against free radicals and peroxy products in vitro and in vivo. These agents include antioxidants used in materials, food antioxidants, physiological antioxidants, and antioxienzymes (SOD, glutathione peroxidase, and catalases). The use of these inhibitors to prevent damage to organs being prepared for transplantation, thereby maintaining the quality of transplanted organs and/or extending their "shelf-life," also is examined.
Description : Excited states and free radicals are involved in the normal physiology of living systems, in pathological processes (including lipid peroxidation, inflammation, Parkinson's disease, cancer, and aging), in the mechanisms of drug action, and in the photochemotherapies such as the PUVA therapy for skin diseases and PDT for cancer. This text introduces the reader to this rapidly expanding field, one that lies at the borderlines of physics, chemistry, biology, pharmacology, and medicine. The authors explore in particular how time-resolved spectroscopic methods have found solutions at the molecular level to biological and medical problems. Topics include the nature of excited states and free radicals and the techniques for their study, activated oxygen species, DNA, proteins, carotenoids and photosynthetic reaction centers, photodermatology and melanogenesis, and aspects of cancer related to radio-, chemo-, and photodynamic therapy. Researchers and graduate students in photochemistry, photobiology, photomedicine, radiation chemistry and biology, and cancer therapies will find this book to be of very significant interest.
Description : There is a growing body of experimental and clinical data to suggest that the organs of the digestive system may be subjected to considerable oxidative stress associated with acute and chronic inflammation. Although inflammation and ischemia play a key role in producing oxygen-derived free radicals in the digestive tract, the contribution of other factors, such as transition metal imbalances, lipid and glucose metabolic disturbance, and the interaction with gaseous molecules including nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, has also been suggested. Recent studies have demonstrated that several biomarkers indicating oxidative stress-mediated damage may help in monitoring the degree of disease and planning the design of new therapeutic strategies. In addition, recent advances in 'omics' research (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, etc.) may bring a breakthrough in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology: Several molecular targets for oxidative stress have been presented by the 'omics'. This book includes up-to-date reviews on the relevant issues in free radical biology in a combination with expert basic research reviews and clinical aspects in gastroenterology and hepatology. Providing information about new molecular targets for the treatment or prevention of digestive diseases, this book should be read by clinical and basic researchers in gastroenterology and hepatology.
Description : Written in an accessible style and consistent format, "Essentials of Free Radical Biology and Medicine" takes a unique approach to integrating the fundamental principles with high quality cutting-edge research discoveries, and the basic bioscience with clinical medicine so as to provide the reader a comprehensive picture of the field in a concise manner. The book (i) blends basic and clinical sciences needed to effectively demonstrate the importance of the field; (ii) includes full-color illustrations to facilitate the understanding of the essential concepts; (iii) cites references mostly from highly influential journals to ensure the top quality of the information; (iv) uses self-assessment questions and glossary to enhance the assimilation of the cutting-edge knowledge; and (v) serves as a valuable reference or textbook for students, faculty, and other professionals in the fields of biology, pharmaceutical science, biomedical science, and clinical medicine.
Description : This concise monograph describes a variety of important reactions of iron in biological free-radical reactions. It presents both a chemical and a biochemical perspective of the topic, but at the same time unifies ideas where possible. Iron plays a key role in biological life processes, as acatalayst enabling us to use oxygen to generate the heat and chemical energy that drives life. When iron is not properly controlled within the body it can cause damage by making free radicals. The authors present a chemical and biomedical perspective of how reactions of iron complexes and freeradicals may contribute to human health and disease, especially in reactions of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.
Description : Free Radicals in Biology, Volume III reviews diverse topics in free radical biology and relates the results of chemical and biochemical investigations to clinical situations. It attempts to bridge the gap between chemical investigations and the medical applications and implications of free radical reactions. Topics covered range from radiation chemistry to biochemistry, biology, and medicine. Comprised of seven chapters, this volume begins with a general introduction to the technique of radiation chemistry; the thermodynamics and kinetic factors that need be considered; the use of pulse radiolysis and flow techniques; and the application of these methods to free radicals of biological interest. The reader is then introduced to the pulse radiolysis method and the mechanisms of carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Subsequent chapters discuss the morphological, histochemical, biochemical, and chemical nature of lipofuscin pigments; production of free radicals from the reactions of selected enzymes with their substrates; and the damage caused to skin by sunlight. The final chapter deals with the involvement of free radicals in chemical carcinogenesis. This monograph will be of value to chemists, biologists, and physicians.