Free Will And The Human Sciences In Britain 1870 1910

Author by : Roger Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : Smith takes an in-depth look at the question of free will through the prism of different disciplines in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.


Free Will And The Human Sciences In Britain 1870 1910

Author by : Roger Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Pittsburgh Press
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Description : From the late nineteenth century onwards religion gave way to science as the dominant force in society. This led to a questioning of the principle of free will—if the workings of the human mind could be reduced to purely physiological explanations, then what place was there for human agency and self-improvement? Smith takes an in-depth look at the problem of free will through the prism of different disciplines. Physiology, psychology, philosophy, evolutionary theory, ethics, history and sociology all played a part in the debates that took place. His subtly nuanced navigation through these arguments has much to contribute to our understanding of Victorian and Edwardian science and culture, as well as having relevance to current debates on the role of genes in determining behaviour.


Free Will And The Human Sciences In Britain 1870 1910

Author by : Roger Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 86
Total Download : 177
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Description : Smith takes an in-depth look at the question of free will through the prism of different disciplines in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.


The Medical Trade Catalogue In Britain 1870 1914

Author by : Claire L Jones
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 50
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Description : By the late nineteenth century advances in medical knowledge, technology and pharmaceuticals led to the development of a thriving commercial industry. Drawing on over 400 medical trade catalogues Jones presents a study of the changing nature of medical professionalism.


Popular Exhibitions Science And Showmanship 1840 1910

Author by : Jill A Sullivan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 79
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Description : Victorian culture was characterized by a proliferation of shows and exhibitions. These were encouraged by the development of new sciences and technologies, together with changes in transportation, education and leisure patterns. The essays in this collection look at exhibitions and their influence in terms of location, technology and ideology.


Huxley S Church And Maxwell S Demon

Author by : Matthew Stanley
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Chicago Press
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Description : During the Victorian period science shifted from being practiced in a theistic context (integrating religious considerations and ideas) to a naturalistic context (explicitly forbidding religious matters). This book examines the foundations of that change. While it is generally thought that the transformation was due to the methodological superiority of naturalistic science, Matthew Stanley shows that most of the methodological values underlying scientific practice were virtually identical between the theists and the naturalists. Each agreed on the importance of the uniformity of natural laws, the use of hypothesis and theory, the moral value of science, and intellectual freedom. This was despite the claims by both groups that those fundamentals were intrinsic to their worldview, and completely incompatible with that of their opponents. Stanley goes on to argue that the victory of the scientific naturalists came from deliberate strategies executed over a generation to gain control of the institutions of scientific education and to re-imagine the history of their discipline. Rather than a sudden revolution, the similarity between theistic and naturalistic science allowed for a relatively smooth transition in practice from the old guard to the new. "Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon" explores this shift through a parallel study of two major scientific figures: James Clerk Maxwell, a devout Christian physicist, and Thomas Henry Huxley, the iconoclast biologist who coined the word agnostic. Both were deeply engaged in the methodological, institutional, and political issues that were crucial to the theistic-naturalistic transformation. The author s astute examination of the ascendance of scientific naturalism sheds new light on the controversies over science and religion in modern America. "


Adolphe Quetelet Social Physics And The Average Men Of Science 1796 1874

Author by : Kevin Donnelly
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : Adolphe Quetelet was an influential scientist whose controversial work was condemned by John Stuart Mill and Charles Dickens. He was in contact with many Victorian elite, including Babbage, Herschel and Faraday. This is the first scholarly biography of Quetelet, exploring his contribution to quantitative reasoning and place in intellectual history.


Constraints Of Agency

Author by : Craig W. Gruber
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Description : This book explores the basic concept of agency and develops it further in psychology using it to better understand and explain psychological processes and behavior. More importantly, this book seeks to put an emphasis on the role of agency in four distinct settings: history of psychology, neuroscience, psychology of religion, and sociocultural theories of co-agency. In Volume 12 of the Annals of Theoretical Psychology the contributors explore a number of new ways to look at agency in psychology. This volume seeks to develop a systematic theory of axioms for agency. It describes implications for research and practice that are founded on an understanding of the person as an actor in the world. This book also has implications for research and practice across psychology's sub-fields uniting the discipline through an agentic view of the person


The Metaphysical Society 1869 1880

Author by : Catherine Marshall
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Total Read : 36
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Description : The Metaphysical Society was founded in 1869 at the instigation of James Knowles (editor of the Contemporary Review and then of the Nineteenth Century) with a view to 'collect, arrange, and diffuse Knowledge (whether objective or subjective) of mental and moral phenomena' (first resolution of the society in April 1869). The Society was a private dining and debate club that gathered together a latter-day clerisy. Building on the tradition of the Cambridge Apostles, they elected talented members from across the Victorian intellectual spectrum: Bishops, one Cardinal, philosophers, men of science, literary figures, and politicians. The Society included in its 62 members prominent figures such as T. H. Huxley, William Gladstone, Walter Bagehot, Henry Edward Manning, John Ruskin, and Alfred Lord Tennyson. The Metaphysical Society (1869-1880) moves beyond Alan Willard Brown's 1947 pioneering study of the Metaphysical Society by offering a more detailed analysis of its inner dynamics and its larger impact outside the dining room at the Grosvenor Hotel. The contributors shed light on many of the colourful figures that joined the Society as well as the alliances that they formed with fellow members. The collection also examines the major concepts that informed the papers presented at Society meetings. By discussing groups, important individuals, and underlying concepts, the volume contributes to a rich, new picture of Victorian intellectual life during the 1870's, a period when intellectuals were wondering how, and what, to believe in a time of social change, spiritual crisis, and scientific progress.


The Routledge Research Companion To Nineteenth Century British Literature And Science

Author by : John Holmes
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
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Total Read : 52
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Description : Tracing the continuities and trends in the complex relationship between literature and science in the long nineteenth century, this companion provides scholars with a comprehensive, authoritative and up-to-date foundation for research in this field. In intellectual, material and social terms, the transformation undergone by Western culture over the period was unprecedented. Many of these changes were grounded in the growth of science. Yet science was not a cultural monolith then any more than it is now, and its development was shaped by competing world views. To cover the full range of literary engagements with science in the nineteenth century, this companion consists of twenty-seven chapters by experts in the field, which explore crucial social and intellectual contexts for the interactions between literature and science, how science affected different genres of writing, and the importance of individual scientific disciplines and concepts within literary culture. Each chapter has its own extensive bibliography. The volume as a whole is rounded out with a synoptic introduction by the editors and an afterword by the eminent historian of nineteenth-century science Bernard Lightman.


The Making Of British Anthropology 1813 1871

Author by : Efram Sera-Shriar
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
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Description : Victorian anthropology has been called an 'armchair practice', distinct from the scientific discipline of the 20th century. Sera-Shriar argues that anthropology went through a process of innovation which built on bservational study and that nineteenth-century anthropology laid the foundations for the field-based science of today.


Science And Societies In Frankfurt Am Main

Author by : Ayako Sakurai
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 35
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Description : Sakurai presents a study of how scientific societies affected the social and political life of a city. As it did not have a university or a centralized government, Frankfurt am Main is an ideal case study of how scientific associations – funded by private patronage for the good of the local populace – became an important centre for natural history.


Brewing Science Technology And Print 1700 1880

Author by : James Sumner
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 86
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Description : How did the brewing of beer become a scientific process? Sumner explores this question by charting the theory and practice of the trade in Britain and Ireland during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.


The Age Of Scientific Naturalism

Author by : Michael S. Reidy
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : The essays in this volume focus on the way Victorian Physicist John Tyndall and his correspondents developed their ideas through letters, periodicals and journals and challenge assumptions about who gained authority, and how they attained and defended their position within the scientific community.


Victorian Medicine And Popular Culture

Author by : Louise Penner
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 9
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Description : This collection of essays explores the rise of scientific medicine and its impact on Victorian popular culture. Chapters include an examination of Dickens’s involvement with hospital funding, concerns over milk purity and the theatrical portrayal of drug addiction, plus a whole section devoted to medicine in crime fiction.


Victorian Literature And The Physics Of The Imponderable

Author by : Sarah C Alexander
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 58
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Description : The Victorians were obsessed with the empirical but were frequently frustrated by the sizeable gaps in their understanding of the world around them. This study examines how literature and popular culture adopted the emerging language of physics to explain the unknown or ‘imponderable’.


The Making Of Modern Anthrax 1875 1920

Author by : James F Stark
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 12
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Description : Stark offers a fresh perspective on the history of infectious disease. He examines anthrax in terms of local, national and global significance, and constructs a narrative that spans public, professional and geographic domains.


Astronomy In India 1784 1876

Author by : Joydeep Sen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 59
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Description : Covering the period from the foundation of the Asiatick Society in 1784 to the establishment of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science in 1876, Sen explores the relationship between Indian astronomers and the colonial British.


The History Of British Women S Writing 1830 1880

Author by : Lucy Hartley
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 60
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Description : This volume charts the rise of professional women writers across diverse fields of intellectual enquiry and through different modes of writing in the period immediately before and during the reign of Queen Victoria. It demonstrates how, between 1830 and 1880, the woman writer became an agent of cultural formation and contestation, appealing to and enabling the growth of female readership while issuing a challenge to the authority of male writers and critics. Of especial importance were changing definitions of marriage, family and nation, of class, and of morality as well as new conceptions of sexuality and gender, and of sympathy and sensation. The result is a richly textured account of a radical and complex process of feminization whereby formal innovations in the different modes of writing by women became central to the aesthetic, social, and political formation of British culture and society in the nineteenth century.


History And Historiography In Classical Utilitarianism 1800 1865

Author by : Callum Barrell
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Total Read : 59
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Description : This first comprehensive account of the utilitarians' historical thought intellectually resituates their conceptions of philosophy and politics, at a time when the past acquired new significances as both a means and object of study. Drawing on published and unpublished writings - and set against the intellectual backdrops of Scottish philosophical history, German and French historicism, romanticism, positivism, and the rise of social science and scientific history - Callum Barrell recovers the depth with which Jeremy Bentham, James Mill, George Grote, and John Stuart Mill thought about history as a site of philosophy and politics. He argues that the utilitarians, contrary to their reputations as ahistorical and even antihistorical thinkers, developed complex frameworks in which to learn from and negotiate the past, inviting us to rethink the foundations of their ideas, as well as their place in - and relationship to - nineteenth-century philosophy and political thought.


From Melancholia To Depression

Author by : Åsa Jansson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Nature
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Total Read : 18
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Description : This open access book maps a crucial but neglected chapter in the history of psychiatry: how was melancholia transformed in the nineteenth century from traditional melancholy madness into a modern biomedical mood disorder, paving the way for the emergence of clinical depression as a psychiatric illness in the twentieth century? At a time when the prevalence of mood disorders and antidepressant consumption are at an all-time high, the need for a comprehensive historical understanding of how modern depressive illness came into being has never been more urgent. This book addresses a significant gap in existing scholarly literature on melancholia, depression, and mood disorders by offering a contextualised and critical perspective on the history of melancholia in the first decades of psychiatry, from the 1830s until the turn of the twentieth century.


Uncommon Contexts

Author by : Ben Marsden
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 65
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Description : Britain in the long nineteenth century developed an increasing interest in science of all kinds. The essays in this collection uncover this symbiotic relationship between literature and science.


Between Mind And Nature

Author by : Roger Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : Reaktion Books
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
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Description : From William James to Ivan Pavlov, John Dewey to Sigmund Freud, the Würzburg School to the Chicago School, psychology has spanned centuries and continents. Today, the word is an all-encompassing name for a bewildering range of beliefs about what psychologists know and do, and this intrinsic interest in knowing how our own and other’s minds work has a story as fascinating and complex as humankind itself. In Between Mind and Nature, Roger Smith explores the history of psychology and its relation to religion, politics, the arts, social life, the natural sciences, and technology. Considering the big questions bound up in the history of psychology, Smith investigates what human nature is, whether psychology can provide answers to human problems, and whether the notion of being an individual depends on social and historical conditions. He also asks whether a method of rational thinking exists outside the realm of natural science. Posing important questions about the value and direction of psychology today, Between Mind and Nature is a cogently written book for those wishing to know more about the quest for knowledge of the mind.


The Cambridge Companion To Nineteenth Century Thought

Author by : Gregory Claeys
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Total Read : 47
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Description : Leading historians introduce the most influential trends in thought which originated or developed in the nineteenth century.


Shell Shock And Medical Culture In First World War Britain

Author by : Tracey Loughran
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 16
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Description : Shell-Shock and Medical Culture in First World War Britain is a thought-provoking reassessment of medical responses to war-related psychological breakdown in the early twentieth century. Dr Loughran places shell-shock within the historical context of British psychological medicine to examine the intellectual resources doctors drew on as they struggled to make sense of nervous collapse. She reveals how medical approaches to shell-shock were formulated within an evolutionary framework which viewed mental breakdown as regression to a level characteristic of earlier stages of individual or racial development, but also ultimately resulted in greater understanding and acceptance of psychoanalytic approaches to human mind and behaviour. Through its demonstration of the crucial importance of concepts of mind-body relations, gender, willpower and instinct to the diagnosis of shell-shock, this book locates the disorder within a series of debates on human identity dating back to the Darwinian revolution and extending far beyond the medical sphere.


Endemic

Author by : Kari Nixon
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Description : This book develops a new multimodal theoretical model of contagion for interdisciplinary scholars, featuring contributions from influential scholars spanning the fields of medical humanities, philosophy, political science, media studies, technoculture, literature, and bioethics. Exploring the nexus of contagion's metaphorical and material aspects, this volume contends that contagiousness in its digital, metaphorical, and biological forms is a pervasively endemic condition in our contemporary moment. The chapters explore both endemicity itself and how epidemic discourse has become endemic to processes of social construction. Designed to simultaneously prime those new to the discourse of humanistic perspectives of contagion, complicate issues of interest to seasoned scholars of science and technology studies, and add new topics for debate and inquiry in the field of bioethics, Endemic will be of wide interest for researchers and educators.


Centrality Of History For Theory Construction In Psychology

Author by : Sven Hroar Klempe
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 30
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Description : This book offers a comprehensive overview of the purpose of history for psychology. Its purpose is to ask why history should be of concern to psychologists in teaching and research, and in theory and in practice. The future position of humanities subjects is currently highly debated on all fronts. Chapters focus on the arguments from psychologists, upgrade the precision and quality of discussion, and thus, provide a base for affirming the place of history of psychology in the broad field of psychological activity. A fundamental question dominates the discussion. Is the purpose of the history of psychology to serve current psychology, rather than to contribute to historical knowledge – and to enter large debates about what historical knowledge means for being human? If the answer is yes, as most psychologists who come to the issues will presume, in what ways? Are these ways philosophically grounded, or do the social and political conditions of power and funding in universities dominate the arguments? In this volume, the contributors demonstrate the relation between historical investigations and current practice. Featured topics include: The history of psychology and its relation to feminism. The history of psychology and its relation to current research assessment and curriculum. The history of science and its relation to psychology. The metalanguage for psychology. Case studies of history in theory construction. Centrality of History for Theory Construction in Psychology will be of interest to psychologists, professors, graduate psychology students, and scholars in the human sciences.


Ivan Pavlov

Author by : Daniel Philip Todes
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
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Total Read : 93
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Description : This is the first scholarly biography of Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) in any language. Based upon a wealth of archival material, it weaves his life and science into some 100 years of Russian history and offers a fundamental reinterpretation of his scientific style and his famous research on conditional reflexes.


History In Practice

Author by : Ludmilla Jordanova
Languange : en
Publisher by : Bloomsbury Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 17
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Description : Exploring the breadth and complexities of history as a field of study, History in Practice demystifies what historians actually do and the tasks they take on. This study, written by one of the most acute practitioners in the field, examines not only the academic discipline but also engages with the use of historical ideas in the wider world. The new edition features: - A new chapter on history in the digital age, covering the use of information technology in historical practice - Extended coverage of the relationships between history and other disciplines - Fresh material on current trends in the practice of history - Over 35 new illustrations spread throughout the book drawn from around the world This book is essential reading for all students seeking an understanding of history as a discipline.


John Hughlings Jackson

Author by : Samuel H. Greenblatt
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Total Read : 87
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Description : Samuel H. Greenblatt providing an in-depth analysis of Jackson's work within the professional, social, and intellectual contexts of his Victorian milieu in this fascinating biography.