Description : This open access book focuses on the origins, consequences and aftermath of the 1995 and 1999 Western military interventions that led to the end of the most recent Balkan wars. Though challenging problems remain in Bosnia, Macedonia, Kosovo, and Serbia, the conflict prevention and state-building efforts thereafter were partly successful as countries of the region are on separate tracks towards European Union membership. This study highlights lessons that can be applied to the Middle East and Ukraine, where similar conflicts are likewise challenging sovereignty and territorial integrity. It is an accessible treatment of what makes war and how to make peace ideal for all readers interested in how violent international conflicts can be managed, informed by the experience of a practitioner. Daniel Serwer is Professor and Director of the Conflict Management program at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, USA. .
Description : A collection of articles about the fateful issues of war and peace in the Middle East, especially the evasive brands of war - terrorism and incitement. Horrific words of incitement, followed by atrocious acts of terror, have occurred during the past few years. These have significantly eroded hope in the peace process that had been initiated by Sadat and Begin a quarter-century ago (1977). All efforts to duplicate that feat between Israel and Palestinians have ended in frustration so far, and it now seems that a tremendous amount of ground-work will have to be done before a new peace venture. This volume focuses on these themes and brings to bear both the benefit of the hindsight gained since the articles were published, and the insight that the current world crisis, occasioned by the terrorism and broadsides against Western culture that al-Qai'da and its allies have launched.
Description : In its revised and updated fourth edition, this exhaustive encyclopedia provides a record of casualties of war from the last five centuries through 2015, with new statistical and analytical information. Figures include casualties from global terrorism, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and the fight against the Islamic State. New entries cover an additional 20 armed conflicts between 1492 and 2007 not included in previous editions. Arranged roughly by century and subdivided by world region, chronological entries include the name and dates of the conflict, precursor events, strategies and details, the outcome and its aftermath.
Description : Differences among religious communities have motivated—and continue to motivate—many of the deadliest conflicts in human history. But how did political power and organized religion become so thoroughly intertwined? And how have religion and religiously motivated conflicts affected the evolution of societies throughout history, from demographic and sociopolitical change to economic growth? War, Peace, and Prosperity in the Name of God turns the focus on the “big three monotheisms”—Judaism, Islam, and Christianity—to consider these questions. Chronicling the relatively rapid spread of the Abrahamic religions among the Old World, Murat Iyigun shows that societies that adhered to a monotheistic belief in that era lasted longer, suggesting that monotheism brought some sociopolitical advantages. While the inherent belief in one true god meant that these religious communities had sooner or later to contend with one another, Iyigun shows that differences among them were typically strong enough to trump disagreements within. The book concludes by documenting the long-term repercussions of these dynamics for the organization of societies and their politics in Europe and the Middle East.
Description : The First World War, now a century ago, still shapes the world in which we live, and its legacy lives on, in poetry, in prose, in collective memory and political culture. By the time the war ended in 1918, millions lay dead. Three major empires lay shattered by defeat, those of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottomans. A fourth, Russia, was in the throes of a revolution that helped define the rest of the twentieth century. The Oxford History of the First World War brings together in one volume many of the most distinguished historians of the conflict, in an account that matches the scale of the events. From its causes to its consequences, from the Western Front to the Eastern, from the strategy of the politicians to the tactics of the generals, they chart the course of the war and assess its profound political and human consequences. Chapters on economic mobilization, the impact on women, the role of propaganda, and the rise of socialism establish the wider context of the fighting at sea and in the air, and which ranged on land from the trenches of Flanders to the mountains of the Balkans and the deserts of the Middle East. First published for the 90th anniversary of the 1918 Armistice, this highly illustrated revised edition contains significant new material to mark the 100th anniversary of the war's outbreak.
Description : Averting Global War examines major regional disputes and conflicts throughout the world as they impact upon both American domestic and foreign policy. These include: The ongoing _war on terrorism_; NATO enlargement to Russian borders; US intervention in Iraq; US confrontation with Iran; the feud between Israel and the Palestinians; the widening _zone of conflict_ from Central Asia to sub-Saharan Africa; the global ramifications of North Korea_s nuclear program and China_s claims to Taiwan; Venezuela_s _Bolivarian Revolution_ and the _war on drugs_ in Latin America, the domestic socio-political effects of Latin American immigration upon the US. The book_s goal is to articulate an irenic American strategy intended to resolve, or at least transform, a number of these disputes and conflicts so as to prevent them from further _deepening_ or _widening__and to avert the real possibility of major power confrontation involving both clandestine and overt methods of warfare.
Description : This work looks ahead to the year 2015 & beyond, seeking to understand how the American armed forces might contribute better to the nation's future security. The authors try to conceptualize how a transformed world situation 20 years from now could affect U.S. security. They describe the most plausible changes likely to develop -- not as prophecy nor as an intelligence forecast, but as a considered statement of those recognizable trends that portend the greatest influence on U.S. security. By being cognizant of such plausible alternatives, American policy makers would have the chance to pursue or avoid them.