Description : This unique book provides an up-to-date overview of the concepts behind lead-free soldering techniques. Readers will find a description of the physical and mechanical properties of lead-free solders, in addition to lead-free electronics and solder alloys. Additional topics covered include the reliability of lead-free soldering, tin whiskering and electromigration, in addition to emerging technologies and research.
Description : This book presents the scientific principles, processing conditions, probable failure mechanisms, and a description of reliability performance and equipment required for implementing high-temperature and lead-free die attach materials. In particular, it addresses the use of solder alloys, silver and copper sintering, and transient liquid-phase sintering. While different solder alloys have been used widely in the microelectronics industry, the implementation of sintering silver and transient liquid-phase sintering remains limited to a handful of companies. Hence, the book devotes many chapters to sintering technologies, while simultaneously providing only a cursory coverage of the more widespread techniques employing solder alloys. Addresses the differences between sintering and soldering (the current die-attach technologies), thereby comprehensively addressing principles, methods, and performance of these high-temperature die-attach materials; Emphasizes the industrial perspective, with chapters written by engineers who have hands-on experience using these technologies; Baker Hughes, Bosch and ON Semiconductor, are represented as well as materials suppliers such as Indium; Simultaneously provides the detailed science underlying these technologies by leading academic researchers in the field.
Description : Technology development needs a market. Since technology development is from supply side, it is always crucial to pay attention to the demand side of technology. Taking this notion as an underlying assumption, this book discusses a technology development case in the realm of microelectronic packaging technology based on a real case study of a three-year consecutive research and development program conducted in Korea with expandable implications for other contexts.
Description : Whether you're designing an electronic system from scratch or engineering the project from someone else's design, the Handbook gives you the tools you need to get the job done faster, cheaper and more reliably than ever. We guarantee it. From development and design to manufacturing and testing, the Handbook has you covered. It's the one resource to turn to first. Why not put it to the test and see for yourself?
Description : This reference provides a complete discussion of the conversion from standard lead-tin to lead-free solder microelectronic assemblies for low-end and high-end applications. Written by more than 45 world-class researchers and practitioners, the book discusses general reliability issues concerning microelectronic assemblies, as well as factors specific to the tin-rich replacement alloys commonly utilized in lead-free solders. It provides real-world manufacturing accounts of the introduction of reduced-lead and lead-free technology and discusses the functionality and cost effectiveness of alternative solder alloys and non-solder alternatives replacing lead-tin solders in microelectronics.
Description : Micro-miniaturization in electronics--a necessity for personal communications devices like cell phones and PDAs--has radically altered the materials these electronics are made from. This new edition, the first update of the handbook since 1993, is a complete rewrite, reflecting the great importance of engineering materials for thermal management and flexibility and microminiature sizes, and will be an invaluable tool to anyone working in electronic packaging, fabrication, or assembly design. * ALL NEW--A complete rewrite of the previous edition * Details and characterizes every major material type, allowing engineers to make accurate, cost-effective design choices * Full materials breakdown for high density packaging techniques * Materials for communications wiring and cabling
Description : Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described. Discusses whisker formation factors including surface grain geometry, crystallographic orientation-dependent surface grain boundary structure, and the localization of elastic strain/strain energy density distribution Examines how whiskers and hillocks evolve in time through real-time studies of whisker growth with the scanning electron microscope/focused ion beaming milling (SEM/FIB) Covers characterization methods of tin and tin-based alloy finishes such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) Reviews theories of mechanically-induced tin whiskers with case studies using pure tin and other lead-free finishes shown to evaluate the pressure-induced tin whiskers Mitigating Tin Whisker Risks: Theory and Practice is intended for the broader electronic packaging and manufacturing community including: manufacturing engineers, packaging development engineers, as well as engineers and researchers in high reliability industries.
Description : Lead-free Electronics provides guidance on the design and use of lead-free electronics as well as technical and legislative perspectives. All the complex challenges confronting the elec-tronics industry are skillfully addressed: * Complying with state legislation * Implementing the transition to lead-free electronics, including anticipating associated costs and potential supply chain issues * Understanding intellectual property issues in lead-free alloys and their applications, including licensing and infringement * Implementing cost effective manufacturing and testing * Reducing risks due to tin whiskers * Finding lead-free solutions in harsh environments such as in the automotive and telecommunications industries * Understanding the capabilities and limitations of conductive adhesives in lead-free interconnects * Devising solutions for lead-free, flip-chip interconnects in high-performance integrated circuit products Each chapter is written by leading experts in the field and carefully edited to ensure a consistent approach. Readers will find all the latest information, including the most recent data on cyclic thermomechanical deformation properties of lead-free SnAgCu alloys and a comparison of the properties of standard Sn-Pb versus lead-free alloys, using the energy partitioning approach. With legislative and market pressure to eliminate the use of lead in electronics manufacturing, this timely publication is essential reading for all engineers and professionals in the electronics industry.
Description : By 2006, any company selling electronics to European Union nations and China will have to convert to a lead-free manufacturing process. This resource shows manufacturers how to select the right Lead Free process and make the conversion as efficient and inexpensive as possible. Contents: Selecting Component LeadCoating * Selecting PCB Surface Finish * Manufacturing Approaches * Solder Paste Application * Reflow Soldering * Wave Soldering * Other Manufacturing Techniques and Common Defect Consideration * Reliability and Compatibility.