Fundamentals of Massive MIMO

Fundamentals of Massive MIMO
Author: Thomas L. Marzetta,Erik G. Larsson,Hong Yang,Hien Quoc Ngo
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2016-11-17
ISBN: 1316813088
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Massive MIMO Book Excerpt:

Written by pioneers of the concept, this is the first complete guide to the physical and engineering principles of Massive MIMO. Assuming only a basic background in communications and statistical signal processing, it will guide readers through key topics in multi-cell systems such as propagation modeling, multiplexing and de-multiplexing, channel estimation, power control, and performance evaluation. The authors' unique capacity-bounding approach will enable readers to carry out effective system performance analyses and develop advanced Massive MIMO techniques and algorithms. Numerous case studies, as well as problem sets and solutions accompanying the book online, will help readers put knowledge into practice and acquire the skill set needed to design and analyze complex wireless communication systems. Whether you are a graduate student, researcher, or industry professional working in the field of wireless communications, this will be an indispensable guide for years to come.

Fundamentals of Massive MIMO

Fundamentals of Massive MIMO
Author: Thomas L. Marzetta,Erik G. Larsson,Hong Yang,Hien Quoc Ngo
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2016
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Massive MIMO Book Excerpt:

Massive MIMO

Massive MIMO
Author: Hien Quoc Ngo
Publsiher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Total Pages: 45
Release: 2015-01-16
ISBN: 9175191474
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Massive MIMO Book Excerpt:

The last ten years have seen a massive growth in the number of connected wireless devices. Billions of devices are connected and managed by wireless networks. At the same time, each device needs a high throughput to support applications such as voice, real-time video, movies, and games. Demands for wireless throughput and the number of wireless devices will always increase. In addition, there is a growing concern about energy consumption of wireless communication systems. Thus, future wireless systems have to satisfy three main requirements: i) having a high throughput; ii) simultaneously serving many users; and iii) having less energy consumption. Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology, where a base station (BS) equipped with very large number of antennas (collocated or distributed) serves many users in the same time-frequency resource, can meet the above requirements, and hence, it is a promising candidate technology for next generations of wireless systems. With massive antenna arrays at the BS, for most propagation environments, the channels become favorable, i.e., the channel vectors between the users and the BS are (nearly) pairwisely orthogonal, and hence, linear processing is nearly optimal. A huge throughput and energy efficiency can be achieved due to the multiplexing gain and the array gain. In particular, with a simple power control scheme, Massive MIMO can offer uniformly good service for all users. In this dissertation, we focus on the performance of Massive MIMO. The dissertation consists of two main parts: fundamentals and system designs of Massive MIMO. In the first part, we focus on fundamental limits of the system performance under practical constraints such as low complexity processing, limited length of each coherence interval, intercell interference, and finite-dimensional channels. We first study the potential for power savings of the Massive MIMO uplink with maximum-ratio combining (MRC), zero-forcing, and minimum mean-square error receivers, under perfect and imperfect channels. The energy and spectral efficiency tradeoff is investigated. Secondly, we consider a physical channel model where the angular domain is divided into a finite number of distinct directions. A lower bound on the capacity is derived, and the effect of pilot contamination in this finite-dimensional channel model is analyzed. Finally, some aspects of favorable propagation in Massive MIMO under Rayleigh fading and line-of-sight (LoS) channels are investigated. We show that both Rayleigh fading and LoS environments offer favorable propagation. In the second part, based on the fundamental analysis in the first part, we propose some system designs for Massive MIMO. The acquisition of channel state information (CSI) is very importantin Massive MIMO. Typically, the channels are estimated at the BS through uplink training. Owing to the limited length of the coherence interval, the system performance is limited by pilot contamination. To reduce the pilot contamination effect, we propose an eigenvalue-decomposition-based scheme to estimate the channel directly from the received data. The proposed scheme results in better performance compared with the conventional training schemes due to the reduced pilot contamination. Another important issue of CSI acquisition in Massive MIMO is how to acquire CSI at the users. To address this issue, we propose two channel estimation schemes at the users: i) a downlink "beamforming training" scheme, and ii) a method for blind estimation of the effective downlink channel gains. In both schemes, the channel estimation overhead is independent of the number of BS antennas. We also derive the optimal pilot and data powers as well as the training duration allocation to maximize the sum spectral efficiency of the Massive MIMO uplink with MRC receivers, for a given total energy budget spent in a coherence interval. Finally, applications of Massive MIMO in relay channels are proposed and analyzed. Specifically, we consider multipair relaying systems where many sources simultaneously communicate with many destinations in the same time-frequency resource with the help of a massive MIMO relay. A massive MIMO relay is equipped with many collocated or distributed antennas. We consider different duplexing modes (full-duplex and half-duplex) and different relaying protocols (amplify-and-forward, decode-and-forward, two-way relaying, and one-way relaying) at the relay. The potential benefits of massive MIMO technology in these relaying systems are explored in terms of spectral efficiency and power efficiency.

MIMO Processing for 4G and Beyond

MIMO Processing for 4G and Beyond
Author: Mario Marques da Silva,Francisco A. Monteiro
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 551
Release: 2016-04-19
ISBN: 1466598085
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

MIMO Processing for 4G and Beyond Book Excerpt:

MIMO Processing for 4G and Beyond: Fundamentals and Evolution offers a cutting-edge look at multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signal processing, namely its detection (in both time and frequency domains) and precoding. It examines its integration with OFDM, UWB, and CDMA, along with the impact of these combinations at the system level. Massive M

Spatial Resource Allocation in Massive MIMO Communications

Spatial Resource Allocation in Massive MIMO Communications
Author: Trinh Van Chien
Publsiher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Total Pages: 66
Release: 2019-12-09
ISBN: 9179299415
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spatial Resource Allocation in Massive MIMO Communications Book Excerpt:

Massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) is considered as an heir of the multi-user MIMO technology and it has gained lots of attention from both academia and industry since the last decade. By equipping base stations (BSs) with hundreds of antennas in a compact array or a distributed manner, this new technology can provide very large multiplexing gains by serving many users on the same time-frequency resources and thereby bring significant improvements in spectral efficiency (SE) and energy efficiency (EE) over the current wireless networks. The transmit power, pilot training, and spatial transmission resources need to be allocated properly to the users to achieve the highest possible performance. This is called resource allocation and can be formulated as design utility optimization problems. If the resource allocation in Massive MIMO is optimized, the technology can handle the exponential growth in both wireless data traffic and number of wireless devices, which cannot be done by the current cellular network technology. In this thesis, we focus on the five different resource allocation aspects in Massive MIMO communications: The first part of the thesis studies if power control and advanced coordinated multipoint (CoMP) techniques are able to bring substantial gains to multi-cell Massive MIMO systems compared to the systems without using CoMP. More specifically, we consider a network topology with no cell boundary where the BSs can collaborate to serve the users in the considered coverage area. We focus on a downlink (DL) scenario in which each BS transmits different data signals to each user. This scenario does not require phase synchronization between BSs and therefore has the same backhaul requirements as conventional Massive MIMO systems, where each user is preassigned to only one BS. The scenario where all BSs are phase synchronized to send the same data is also included for comparison. We solve a total transmit power minimization problem in order to observe how much power Massive MIMO BSs consume to provide the requested quality of service (QoS) of each user. A max-min fairness optimization is also solved to provide every user with the same maximum QoS regardless of the propagation conditions. The second part of the thesis considers a joint pilot design and uplink (UL) power control problem in multi-cell Massive MIMO. The main motivation for this work is that the pilot assignment and pilot power allocation is momentous in Massive MIMO since the BSs are supposed to construct linear detection and precoding vectors from the channel estimates. Pilot contamination between pilot-sharing users leads to more interference during data transmission. The pilot design is more difficult if the pilot signals are reused frequently in space, as in Massive MIMO, which leads to greater pilot contamination effects. Related works have only studied either the pilot assignment or the pilot power control, but not the joint optimization. Furthermore, the pilot assignment is usually formulated as a combinatorial problem leading to prohibitive computational complexity. Therefore, in the second part of this thesis, a new pilot design is proposed to overcome such challenges by treating the pilot signals as continuous optimization variables. We use those pilot signals to solve different max-min fairness optimization problems with either ideal hardware or hardware impairments. The third part of this thesis studies a two-layer decoding method that mitigates inter-cell interference in multi-cell Massive MIMO systems. In layer one, each BS estimates the channels to intra-cell users and uses the estimates for local decoding within the cell. This is followed by a second decoding layer where the BSs cooperate to mitigate inter-cell interference. An UL achievable SE expression is computed for arbitrary two-layer decoding schemes, while a closed form expression is obtained for correlated Rayleigh fading channels, maximum-ratio combining (MRC), and largescale fading decoding (LSFD) in the second layer. We formulate a sum SE maximization problem with both the data power and LSFD vectors as optimization variables. Since the problem is non-convex, we develop an algorithm based on the weighted minimum mean square error (MMSE) approach to obtain a stationary point with low computational complexity. Motivated by recent successes of deep learning in predicting the solution to an optimization problem with low runtime, the fourth part of this thesis investigates the use of deep learning for power control optimization in Massive MIMO. We formulate the joint data and pilot power optimization for maximum sum SE in multi-cell Massive MIMO systems, which is a non-convex problem. We propose a new optimization algorithm, inspired by the weighted MMSE approach, to obtain a stationary point in polynomial time. We then use this algorithm together with deep learning to train a convolutional neural network to perform the joint data and pilot power control in sub-millisecond runtime. The solution is suitable for online optimization. Finally, the fifth part of this thesis considers a large-scale distributed antenna system that serves the users by coherent joint transmission called Cell-free Massive MIMO. For a given user set, only a subset of the access points (APs) is likely needed to satisfy the users' performance demands. To find a flexible and energy-efficient implementation, we minimize the total power consumption at the APs in the DL, considering both the hardware consumed and transmit powers, where APs can be turned off to reduce the former part. Even though this is a nonconvex optimization problem, a globally optimal solution is obtained by solving a mixed-integer second-order cone program (SOCP). We also propose low-complexity algorithms that exploit group-sparsity or received power strength in the problem formulation.

Exploring Alternative Massive MIMO Designs

Exploring Alternative Massive MIMO Designs
Author: Daniel Verenzuela
Publsiher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Total Pages: 116
Release: 2020-01-15
ISBN: 9179299210
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Exploring Alternative Massive MIMO Designs Book Excerpt:

The development of information and communication technologies (ICT) provides the means for reaching global connectivity that can help humanity progress and prosper. This comes with high demands on data traffic and number of connected devices which are rapidly growing and need to be met by technological development. Massive MIMO, where MIMO stands for multiple-input multiple-output, is a fundamental component of the 5G wireless communication standard for its ability to provide high spectral and energy efficiency, SE and EE, respectively. The key feature of this technology is the use of a large number of antennas at the base stations (BSs) to spatially multiplex several user equipments (UEs). In the development of new technologies like Massive MIMO, many design alternatives need to be evaluated and compared in order to find the best operating point with a preferable tradeoff between low cost and complexity. In this thesis, two alternative designs for signal processing and hardware in Massive MIMO are studied and compared with the baseline operation in terms of SE, EE, and power consumption. The first design is called superimposed pilot (SP) transmission and is based on superimposing pilot and data symbols to eliminate the need to reserve dedicated time-frequency resources for pilots. This allows more data to be transmitted and supports longer pilot sequences that, in turn, reduce pilot contamination. The second design is mixed analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and it aims at balancing the SE performance and the power consumption cost by allowing different ADC bit resolutions across the BS antennas. The results show that the Massive MIMO baseline, when properly optimized, is the preferred choice in standard deployments and propagation conditions. However, the SP alternative design can increase the SE compared to the baseline by using the Massive-MIMO iterative channel estimation and decoding (MICED) algorithm proposed in this dissertation. In particular, the SE gains are found in cases with high mobility, high carrier frequencies, or high number of spatially multiplexed UEs. For the mixed-ADCs alternative design, improvements in the SE and EE compared to the Massive MIMO baseline can be achieved in cases with distributed BS antennas where interference suppression techniques are used. El desarrollo en tecnologías de información y comunicación (en inglés, ICT) provee los medios para alcanzar la conectividad global que puede ayudar a la humanidad a progresar y prosperar. Esto implica que el avance tecnológico debe satisfacer la alta demanda de tráfico de data y número de equipos conectados que se encuentra en rápido crecimiento. La tecnología de múltiple-entrada múltiple-salida masiva, en inglés Massive MIMO, se considera una pieza fundamental de la quinta generación de comunicaciones inalámbricas (5G) debido a su capacidad de proveer una alta eficiencia espectral y energética (en inglés, SE y EE, respectivamente). Esta tecnología está caracterizada fundamentalmente por el uso de un alto número de antenas en la estación base (en inglés, BS) para multiplexar a varios usuarios en el espacio. En el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías como Massive MIMO, muchas alternativas de diseño necesitan ser evaluadas y comparadas para encontrar el mejor punto de operación con un balance conveniente entre complejidad y bajo costo. En esta tesis, dos alternativas de diseño para el procesamiento de señales y el hardware de Massive MIMO son estudiadas y comparadas con la operación del diseño base en términos de eficiencia espectral, eficiencia energética y consumo de potencia. El primer diseño se denomina transmisión de pilotos superpuestos (en inglés, SP) y está basado en la superposición de señales piloto y de datos para eliminar la necesidad de asignar recursos dedicados a señales pilotos. Además, la transmisión de pilotos superpuestos permite reducir la interferencia que surge a raíz de reusar las señales pilotos en distintas celdas, este efecto se denomina contaminación de pilotos (en inglés pilot contamination). El segundo diseño se denomina conversores analógico-adigital (en inglés, ADC) mixtos (en inglés, mixed-ADCs) y se basa en permitir distintas resoluciones de bit en los conversores analógico-a-digital de las antenas en la estación base. Este diseño permite que la resolución de los conversores analógico-a-digital se adapte a las condiciones de propagación de las señales para balancear los beneficios en eficiencia espectral con el costo de potencia consumida. Los resultados muestran que el diseño base de Massive MIMO, cuando esta optimizado de manera apropiada, es la opción preferida en despliegues y condiciones de propagación estándares. Sin embargo, la transmisión de pilotos superpuestos puede incrementar la eficiencia espectral en comparación al diseño base cuando se combina con el método iterativo para la estimación de canal y decodificación en Massive MIMO propuesto en esta tesis (en inglés, MICED). En particular, las ganancias en eficiencia espectral son obtenidas en escenarios con alta movilidad de usuarios, alta frecuencia portadora, o alto número de usuarios multiplexados en el espacio. Con respecto al diseño alternativo de conversores analógico-a-digital mixtos, la eficiencia espectral y energética pueden ser incrementadas en comparación al diseño base cuando las antenas de la estación base están distribuidas en el espacio y técnicas para suprimir interferencia entre usuarios son usadas. Die Entwicklung der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (ICT) bietet die Möglichkeit eine globale Konnektivität zu erreichen, die Fortschritt und Wohlstand fördern kann. Dies bedeutet zugleich, dass der steigende Datenverkehr und die wachsende Anzahl verbundener Geräte eines entsprechenden technologischen Fortschritts bedarf. Massive MIMO, wobei MIMO für multiple-input multiple-output steht, ist eine fundamentale Komponente des drahtlosen 5G Kommunikationsstandards, da sie eine hohe spektrale Effizienz (SE) und Energieeffizienz bietet (EE). Die Hauptkomponente dieser Technologie ist die Nutzung einer großen Anzahl an Antennen auf Seiten der Basisstationen (BSs) um mehrere Nutzer zu bedienen, die ihre Signale zur selben Zeit auf derselben Frequenz senden während sie in der räumlichen Domäne getrennt sind (spatial multiplexing). In der Entwicklung neuer Technologien wie Massive MIMO müssen viele Designalternativen evaluiert und verglichen werden um den optimalen Betriebspunkt im Sinne eines sinnvollen Gleichgewichts zwischen Kosteneffizienz und Komplexität zu finden. In dieser Doktorarbeit werden zwei alternative Designs für Signalverarbeitung und Hardware in Massive MIMO Systemen untersucht und in Bezug auf spektrale Effizienz, Energieeffizienz und Stromverbrauch mit dem Massive MIMO Basisdesign verglichen. Das erste Design heißt überlagerte Pilotton Übertragung (superimposed pilot, SP) und basiert auf der Überlagerung von Pilotton und Datensignal, damit nicht mehr die Notwendigkeit besteht bestimmte Ressourcen für Pilottöne zu reservieren. Dies ermöglicht die Übertragung größerer Datenmengen und reduziert die Interferenz, die aus der wiederholten Nutzung der Pilottöne in verschiedenen Zellen resultiert (pilot contamination). Das zweite Design nennt sich gemischte analog zu digital Konverter (mixed analog-to-digital converters, ADCs) und erlaubt es einen Kompromiss zwischen hoher spektraler Effizienz und niedrigem Stromverbrauch zu finden. Dies geschieht indem die Bit Auflösung an jeder BS Antenne an die Ausbreitungsbedingungen der Signale angepasst wird. Die Resultate zeigen, dass das Massive MIMO Basisdesign, wenn es richtig optimiert ist, bei Standardeinsätzen und unter normalen Ausbreitungsbedingungen, die bevorzugte Wahl ist. Das alternative SP Design kann jedoch die spektrale Effizienz im Vergleich zum Basisdesign durch die Nutzung des in dieser Dissertation vorgeschlagenen Massive MIMO iterativen Kanalschätzungs- und Dekodierungsalgorithmus (MICED) erhöhen. Die verbesserte spektrale Effizienz findet sich insbesondere in Fällen hoher Nutzermobilität, hoher Frequenzen oder hoher Anzahl an gleichzeitig bedienter Nutzer. Das gemischte analog zu digital Konverter Design ermöglicht in Fällen verteilter Basisstationen bei denen Interferenz unterdrückende Techniken genutzt werden eine verbesserte spektrale Effizienz und Energieeffizienz. Utvecklingen av informations- och kommunikationsteknik (IKT) gör det möjligt för människor från hela världen att kopplas samman och utbyta kunskaper. Ju mer vi vet och förstår om varandra, desto större är chansen att mänskligheten kan uppnå globala utvecklingsmål och välstånd. IKT-utvecklingen är associerad med höga krav på datatakter och antal uppkopplade enheter. Dessa krav ökar ständigt och måste mötas med teknologisk utveckling. Massiv MIMO, där MIMO står för multiple-input multiple-output, är flerantennteknik och en grundsten i nästa generations trådlösa kommunikationssystem. Huvudanledningen till detta är att tekniken kan förbättra spektraleffektiviteten (SE), vilket är ett mått på hur väl vi kan kommunicera data över begränsade radiofrekvensresurser. Tekniken förbättrar även energieffektiviteten (EE), vilket är ett mått på hur effektivt tekniken använder energi till att kommunicera data. Massiv MIMO bygger på användandet av ett stort antal av antenner på basstationerna för att kommunicera med ett flertal användare samtidigt och på samma frekvensresurser. Detta möjliggörs genom ”rumslig multiplexing” vilket betyder att signaler från användare på olika platser kan separeras på basstationen i den rumsliga domänen. Denna separering kräver att basstationen först mäter egenskaperna hos signaler som kommer från de olika användarnas positioner. När en ny teknik, såsom Massiv MIMO, utvecklas är det viktigt att olika alternativa designer utvärderas och jämförs för att identifiera den bästa varianten. Detta kan exempelvis vara den variant som uppnår en viss balans mellan hög kommunikationsprestanda och låg kostnad. I denna avhandling utvärderas två alternativa sätt att designa signalbehandlingen och hårdvaran i Massiv MIMO. Dessa jämförs med konventionell Massiv MIMO i termer av SE, EE och effektförbrukning. Den första alternativa designen kallas överlagrade piloter och bygger på att kända pilotsignaler och okända datasignaler skickas samtidigt från användarna, istället för efter varandra. Pilotsignalerna används för att mäta upp de trådlösa kanalerna som signalerna färdas över medan datasignalerna innehåller den information som ska kommuniceras. Genom att överlagra pilotsignalerna så behövs inga dedikerade radioresurser för piloter och därmed finns det mer resurser för datasändning. Dessutom minskar överlagrandet de störningar som kommer från andra användare som använder samma pilot, vilket kallas pilotkontaminering. Den andra alternativa designen kallas mixade analog-till-digital (AD) omvandlare. En AD-omvandlare är en krets som behövs på varje antenn för att omvandla analoga radiosignaler till digitala signaler som kan processas i en dator. Bitupplösningen i AD-omvandlaren avgör hur många nivåer som kan användas för att representera den analoga signalen. Ju högre bitupplösning desto fler nivåer och därmed en mer noggrann representation, men detta leder även till högre beräkningskomplexitet och effektförbrukning. Mixade AD-omvandlare försöker balansera mellan hög prestanda och låg komplexitet genom att optimera bitupplösningen på varje antenn i ett Massiv MIMO system. Avhandlingens resultat visar att det går att öka SE i Massiv MIMO genom att använda överlagrade piloter, ifall den föreslagna algoritmen MICED (Massive-MIMO iterative channel estimation and decoding) används. Förbättringarna är särskilt stora när användarna har hög mobilitet, när en hög bärfrekvens används eller när antalet rumsligt multiplexade användare är högt. När det gäller mixade AD-omvandlare så kan små förbättringar i SE uppnås, jämfört med konventionell Massiv MIMO, när bitupplösningen i AD-omvandlarna optimeras under förutsättning att signalstyrkan varierar mellan basstationens antenner. Sammanfattningsvis så kan de alternativa designerna av Massiv MIMO som studerats i avhandlingen ge små prestandaförbättringar jämfört med konventionella metoder. Men trots detta så kan de konventionella metoderna uppnå en bra avvägning mellan hög prestanda och låg komplexitet ifall de optimeras väl.

Analysis of Alternative Massive MIMO Designs

Analysis of Alternative Massive MIMO Designs
Author: Daniel Verenzuela
Publsiher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Total Pages: 62
Release: 2018-03-15
ISBN: 9176853233
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Analysis of Alternative Massive MIMO Designs Book Excerpt:

The development of information and communication technologies (ICT) provides the means for reaching global connectivity that can help humanity progress and prosper. This comes with high demands on data traffic and number of connected devices which are rapidly growing and need to be met by technological development. Massive MIMO, where MIMO stands for multiple-input multiple-output, is envisioned as a fundamental component of next generation wireless communications for its ability to provide high spectral and energy efficiency, SE and EE, respectively. The key feature of this technology is the use of a large number of antennas at the base stations (BS) to spatially multiplex several user equipments (UEs). In the development of new technologies like Massive MIMO, many design alternatives need to be evaluated and compared in order to find the best operating point with a preferable tradeoff between high performance and low cost. In this thesis, two alternative designs for signal processing and hardware in Massive MIMO are studied and compared with the baseline operation in terms of SE, EE, and power consumption. The first design is called superimposed pilot (SP) transmission and is based on superimposing pilot and data symbols to remove the overhead from pilot transmission and reduce pilot contamination. The second design is mixed analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and it aims at balancing high performance and low complexity by allowing different ADC bit resolutions across the BS antennas. The results show that the baseline operation of Massive MIMO, properly optimized, is the preferred choice. However, SP and mixed ADCs still have room for improvement and further study is needed to ascertain the full capabilities of these alternative designs.

Cell Free Massive MIMO

Cell Free Massive MIMO
Author: Giovanni Interdonato
Publsiher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Total Pages: 75
Release: 2020-09-09
ISBN: 9179298087
Category: Electronic books
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cell Free Massive MIMO Book Excerpt:

The fifth generation of mobile communication systems (5G) is nowadays a reality. 5G networks are been deployed all over the world, and the first 5G-capable devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets, wearable, etc.) are already commercially available. 5G systems provide unprecedented levels of connectivity and quality of service (QoS) to cope with the incessant growth in the number of connected devices and the huge increase in data-rate demand. Massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) technology plays a key role in 5G systems. The underlying principle of this technology is the use of a large number of co-located antennas at the base station, which coherently transmit/receive signals to/from multiple users. This signal co-processing at multiple antennas leads to manifold benefits: array gain, spatial diversity and spatial user multiplexing. These elements enable to meet the QoS requirements established for the 5G systems. The major bottleneck of massive MIMO systems as well as of any cellular network is the inter-cell interference, which affects significantly the cell-edge users, whose performance is already degraded by the path attenuation. To overcome these limitations and provide uniformly excellent service to all the users we need a more radical approach: we need to challenge the cellular paradigm. In this regard, cell-free massive MIMO constitutes the paradigm shift. In the cell-free paradigm, it is not the base station surrounded by the users, but rather it is each user being surrounded by smaller, simpler, serving base stations referred to as access points (APs). In such a system, each user experiences being in the cell-center, and it does not experience any cell boundaries. Hence, the terminology cell-free. As a result, users are not affected by inter-cell interference, and the path attenuation is significantly reduced due to the presence of many APs in their proximity. This leads to impressive performance. Although appealing from the performance viewpoint, the designing and implementation of such a distributed massive MIMO system is a challenging task, and it is the object of this thesis. More specifically, in this thesis we study: Paper A) The large potential of this promising technology in realistic indoor/outdoor scenarios while also addressing practical deployment issues, such as clock synchronization among APs, and cost-efficient implementations. We provide an extensive description of a cell-free massive MIMO system, emphasizing strengths and weaknesses, and pointing out differences and similarities with existing distributed multiple antenna systems, such as Coordinated MultiPoint (CoMP). Paper B) How to preserve the scalability of the system, by proposing a solution related to data processing, network topology and power control. We consider a realistic scenario where multiple central processing units serve disjoint subsets of APs, and compare the spectral efficiency provided by the proposed scalable framework with the canonical cell-free massive MIMO and CoMP. Paper C) How to improve the spectral efficiency (SE) in the downlink (DL), by devising two distributed precoding schemes, referred to as local partial zero-forcing (ZF) and local protective partial ZF, that provide an adaptable trade-off between interference cancelation and boosting of the desired signal, with no additional front-haul overhead, and that are implementable by APs with very few antennas. We derive closed-form expressions for the achievable SE under the assumption of independent Rayleigh fading channel, channel estimation error and pilot contamination. These closed-form expressions are then used to devise optimal max-min fairness power control. Paper D) How to further improve the SE by letting the user estimate the DL channel from DL pilots, instead of relying solely on the knowledge of the channel statistics. We derive an approximate closed-form expression of the DL SE for conjugate beamforming (CB), and assuming independent Rayleigh fading. This expression accounts for beamformed DL pilots, estimation errors and pilot contamination at both the AP and the user side. We devise a sequential convex approximation algorithm to globally solve the max-min fairness power control optimization problem, and a greedy algorithm for uplink (UL) and DL pilot assignment. The latter consists in jointly selecting the UL and DL pilot pair, for each user, that maximizes the smallest SE in the network. Paper E) A precoding scheme that is more suitable when only the channel statistics are available at the users, referred to as enhanced normalized CB. It consists in normalizing the precoding vector by its squared norm in order to reduce the fluctuations of the effective channel seen at the user, and thereby to boost the channel hardening. The performance achieved by this scheme is compared with the CB scheme with DL training (described in Paper D). Paper F) A maximum-likelihood-based method to estimate the channel statistics in the UL, along with an accompanying pilot transmission scheme, that is particularly useful in line-of-sight operation and in scenarios with resource constraints. Pilots are structurally phase-rotated over different coherence blocks to create an effective statistical distribution of the received pilot signal that can be efficiently exploited by the AP when performing the proposed estimation method. The overall conclusion is that cell-free massive MIMO is not a utopia, and a practical, distributed, scalable, high-performance system can be implemented. Today it represents a hot research topic, but tomorrow it might represent a key enabler for beyond-5G technology, as massive MIMO has been for 5G. La quinta generazione dei sistemi radiomobili cellulari (5G) è oggi una realtà. Le reti 5G si stanno diffondendo in tutto il mondo e i dispositivi 5G (ad esempio smartphones, tablets, indossabili, ecc.) sono già disponibili sul mercato. I sistemi 5G garantiscono livelli di connettività e di qualità di servizio senza precedenti, per fronteggiare l’incessante crescita del numero di dispositivi connessi alla rete e della domanda di dati ad alta velocità. La tecnologia Massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) riveste un ruolo fondamentale nei sistemi 5G. Il principio alla base di questa tecnologia è l’impiego di un elevato numero di antenne collocate nella base station (stazione radio base) le quali trasmettono/ricevono segnali, in maniere coerente, a/da più terminali utente. Questo co-processamento del segnale da parte di più antenne apporta molteplici benefici: guadagno di array, diversità spaziale e multiplazione degli utenti nel dominio spaziale. Questi elementi consentono di raggiungere i requisiti di servizio stabiliti per i sistemi 5G. Tuttavia, il limite principale dei sistemi massive MIMO, così come di ogni rete cellulare, è rappresentato dalla interferenza inter-cella (ovvero l’interferenza tra aree di copertura gestite da diverse base stations), la quale riduce in modo significativo le performance degli utenti a bordo cella, già degradate dalle attenuazioni del segnale dovute alla considerevole distanza dalla base station. Per superare queste limitazioni e fornire una qualità del servizio uniformemente eccellente a tutti gli utenti, è necessario un approccio più radicale e guardare oltre il classico paradigma cellulare che caratterizza le attuali architetture di rete. A tal proposito, cell-free massive MIMO (massive MIMO senza celle) costituisce un cambio di paradigma: ogni utente è circondato e servito contemporaneamente da numerose, semplici e di dimensioni ridotte base stations, denominate access points (punti di accesso alla rete). Gli access points cooperano per servire tutti gli utenti nella loro area di copertura congiunta, eliminando l’interferenza inter-cella e il concetto stesso di cella. Non risentendo più dell’effetto “bordo-cella”, gli utenti possono usufruire di qualità di servizio e velocità dati eccellenti. Sebbene attraente dal punto di vista delle performance, l’implementazione di un tale sistema distribuito è una operazione impegnativa ed è oggetto di questa tesi. Piu specificatamente, questa tesi di dottorato tratta: Articolo A) L’enorme potenziale di questa promettente tecnologia in scenari realistici sia indoor che outdoor, proponendo anche delle soluzioni di implementazione flessibili ed a basso costo. Articolo B) Come preservare la scalabilità del sistema, proponendo soluzioni distribuite riguardanti il processamento e la condivisione dei dati, l’architettura di rete e l’allocazione di potenza, ovvero come ottimizzare i livelli di potenza trasmessa dagli access points per ridurre l’interferenza tra utenti e migliorare le performance. Articolo C) Come migliorare l’efficienza spettrale in downlink (da access point verso utente) proponendo due schemi di pre-codifica dei dati di trasmissione, denominati local partial zero-forcing (ZF) e local protective partial ZF, che forniscono un perfetto compromesso tra cancellazione dell’interferenza tra utenti ed amplificazione del segnale desiderato. Articolo D) Come migliorare l’efficienza spettrale in downlink permettendo al terminale utente di stimare le informazioni sulle condizioni istantanee del canale da sequenze pilota, piuttosto che basarsi su informazioni statistiche ed a lungo termine, come convenzionalmente previsto. Articolo E) In alternativa alla soluzione precedente, uno schema di pre-codifica che è più adatto al caso in cui gli utenti hanno a disposizione esclusivamente informazioni statistiche sul canale per poter effettuare la decodifica dei dati. Articolo F) Un metodo per permettere agli access points di stimare, in maniera rapida, le condizioni di canale su base statistica, favorito da uno schema di trasmissione delle sequenze pilota basato su rotazione di fase. Realizzare un sistema cell-free massive MIMO pratico, distribuito, scalabile e performante non è una utopia. Oggi questo concept rappresenta un argomento di ricerca interessante, attraente e stimolante ma in futuro potrebbe costituire un fattore chiave per le tecnologie post-5G, proprio come massive MIMO lo è stato per il 5G. Den femte generationens mobilkommunikationssystem (5G) är numera en verklighet. 5G-nätverk är utplacerade på ett flertal platser världen över och de första 5G-kapabla terminalerna (såsom smarta telefoner, surfplattor, kroppsburna apparater, etc.) är redan kommersiellt tillgängliga. 5G-systemen kan tillhandahålla tidigare oöverträffade nivåer av uppkoppling och servicekvalitet och är designade för en fortsatt oavbruten tillväxt i antalet uppkopplade apparater och ökande datataktskrav. Massiv MIMO-teknologi (eng: multiple-input multiple-output) spelar en nyckelroll i dagens 5G-system. Principen bakom denna teknik är användningen av ett stort antal samlokaliserade antenner vid basstationen, där alla antennerna sänder och tar emot signaler faskoherent till och från flera användare. Gemensam signalbehandling av många antennsignaler ger ett flertal fördelar, såsom hög riktverkan via lobformning, vilket leder till högre datatakter samt möjliggör att flera användare utnyttjar samma radioresurser via rumslig användarmultiplexering. Eftersom en signal kan gå genom flera olika, möjligen oberoende kanaler, så utsätts den för flera olika förändringar samtidigt. Denna mångfald ökar kvaliteten på signalen vid mottagaren och förbättrar radiolänkens robusthet och tillförlitlighet. Detta gör det möjligt att uppfylla de höga kraven på servicekvalitet som fastställts för 5G-systemen. Den största begränsningen för massiva MIMO-system såväl som för alla cellulära mobilnätverk, är störningar från andra celler som påverkar användare på cellkanten väsentligt, vars prestanda redan begränsas av sträckdämpningen på radiokanalen. För att övervinna dessa begränsningar och för att kunna tillhandahålla samma utmärkta servicekvalitet till alla användare behöver vi ett mer radikalt angreppssätt: vi måste utmana cellparadigmet. I detta avseende utgör cellfri massiv-MIMO teknik ett paradigmskifte. I cellfri massive-MIMO är utgångspunkten inte att basstationen är omgiven av användare som den betjänar, utan snarare att varje användare omges av basstationer som de betjänas av. Dessa basstationer, ofta mindre och enklare, kallas accesspunkter (AP). I ett sådant system upplever varje användare att den befinner sig i centrum av systemet och ingen användare upplever några cellgränser. Därav terminologin cellfri. Som ett resultat av detta påverkas inte användarna av inter-cellstörningar och sträckdämpningen reduceras kraftigt på grund av närvaron av många accesspunkter i varje användares närhet. Detta leder till imponerande prestanda. Även om det är tilltalande ur ett prestandaperspektiv så är utformningen och implementeringen av ett sådant distribuerat massivt MIMO-system en utmanande uppgift, och det är syftet med denna avhandling att studera detta. Mer specifikt studerar vi i denna avhandling: A) den mycket stora potentialen med denna teknik i realistiska inomhus- såväl som utomhusscenarier, samt hur man hanterar praktiska implementeringsproblem, såsom klocksynkronisering bland accesspunkter och kostnadseffektiva implementeringar; B) hur man ska uppnå skalbarhet i systemet genom att föreslå lösningar relaterade till databehandling, nätverkstopologi och effektkontroll; C) hur man ökar datahastigheten i nedlänken med hjälp av två nyutvecklade distribuerade överföringsmetoder som tillhandahåller en avvägning mellan störningsundertryckning och förstärkning av önskade signaler, utan att öka mängden intern signalering till de distribuerade accesspunkterna, och som kan implementeras i accesspunkter med mycket få antenner; D) hur man kan förbättra prestandan ytterligare genom att låta användaren estimera nedlänkskanalen med hjälp av nedlänkspiloter, istället för att bara förlita sig på kunskap om kanalstatistik; E) en överföringsmetod för nedlänk som är mer lämpligt när endast kanalstatistiken är tillgänglig för användarna. Prestandan som uppnås genom detta schema jämförs med en utökad variant av den nedlänk-pilotbaserade metoden (beskrivet i föregående punkt); F) en metod för att uppskatta kanalstatistiken i upplänken, samt en åtföljande pilotsändningsmetod, som är särskilt användbart vid direktvägsutbredning (line-of-sight) och i scenarier med resursbegränsningar. Den övergripande slutsatsen är att cellfri massiv MIMO inte är en utopi, och att ett distribuerat, skalbart, samt högpresterande system kan implementeras praktiskt. Idag representerar detta ett hett forskningsämne, men snart kan det visa sig vara en viktig möjliggörare för teknik bortom dagens system, på samma sätt som centraliserad massiv MIMO har varit för de nya 5G-systemen.

Optimizing Massive MIMO

Optimizing Massive MIMO
Author: Hei Victor Cheng
Publsiher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Total Pages: 44
Release: 2018-04-11
ISBN: 9176853276
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optimizing Massive MIMO Book Excerpt:

The past decades have seen a rapid growth of mobile data traffic,both in terms of connected devices and data rate. To satisfy the evergrowing data traffic demand in wireless communication systems, thecurrent cellular systems have to be redesigned to increase both spectralefficiency and energy efficiency. Massive MIMO(Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) is one solution that satisfy bothrequirements. In massive MIMO systems, hundreds of antennas areemployed at the base station to provide service to many users at thesame time and frequency. This enables the system to serve the userswith uniformly good quality of service simultaneously, with low-costhardware and without using extra bandwidth and energy. To achievethis, proper resource allocation is needed. Among the availableresources, transmit power beamforming are the most important degrees offreedom to control the spectral efficiency and energy efficiency. Dueto the use of excessive number of antennas and low-end hardware at thebase station, new aspects of power allocation and beamforming compared to currentsystems arises. In the first part of the thesis, new uplink power allocation schemes that based on long term channel statistics isproposed. Since quality of the channel estimates is crucial in massive MIMO, in addition to data power allocation, joint power allocationthat includes the pilot power as additional variable should be considered. Therefore a new framework for power allocation thatmatches practical systems is developed, as the methods developed in the literature cannot be applied directly to massive MIMO systems. Simulation results confirm the advantages brought by the the proposed new framework. In the second part, we introduces a new approach to solve the joint precoding and power allocation for different objective in downlink scenarios by a combination of random matrix theory and optimization theory. The new approach results in a simplified problem that, though non-convex, obeys a simple separable structure. Simulation results showed that the proposed scheme provides large gains over heuristic solutions when the number of users in the cell is large, which is suitable for applying in massive MIMO systems. In the third part we investigate the effects of using low-end amplifiers at the basestations. The non-linear behavior of power consumption in these amplifiers changes the power consumption model at the basestation, thereby changes the power allocation and beamforming design. Different scenarios are investigated and resultsshow that a certain number of antennas can be turned off in some scenarios. In the last part we consider the use of non-orthogonal-multiple-access (NOMA) inside massive MIMO systems in practical scenarios where channel state information (CSI) is acquired through pilot signaling. Achievable rate analysis is carried out for different pilot signaling schemes including both uplink and downlink pilots. Numerical results show that when downlink CSI is available at the users, our proposed NOMA scheme outperforms orthogonal schemes. However with more groups of users present in the cell, it is preferable to use multi-user beamforming in stead of NOMA.

Physical Layer Security Issues in Massive MIMO and GNSS

Physical Layer Security Issues in Massive MIMO and GNSS
Author: Ziya Gülgün
Publsiher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Total Pages: 30
Release: 2021-02-10
ISBN: 917929698X
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physical Layer Security Issues in Massive MIMO and GNSS Book Excerpt:

Wireless communication technology has evolved rapidly during the last 20 years. Nowadays, there are huge networks providing communication infrastructures to not only people but also to machines, such as unmanned air and ground vehicles, cars, household appliances and so on. There is no doubt that new wireless communication technologies must be developed, that support the data traffic in these emerging, large networks. While developing these technologies, it is also important to investigate the vulnerability of these technologies to different malicious attacks. In particular, spoofing and jamming attacks should be investigated and new countermeasure techniques should be developed. In this context, spoofing refers to the situation in which a receiver identifies falsified signals, that are transmitted by the spoofers, as legitimate or trustable signals. Jamming, on the other hand, refers to the transmission of radio signals that disrupt communications by decreasing the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) on the receiver side. In this thesis, we analyze the effects of spoofing and jamming both on global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and on massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications. GNSS is everywhere and used to provide location information. Massive MIMO is one of the cornerstone technologies in 5G. We also propose countermeasure techniques to the studied spoofing and jamming attacks. More specifically, in paper A we analyze the effects of distributed jammers on massive MIMO and answer the following questions: Is massive MIMO more robust to distributed jammers compared with previous generation’s cellular networks? Which jamming attack strategies are the best from the jammer’s perspective, and can the jamming power be spread over space to achieve more harmful attacks? In paper B, we propose a detector for GNSS receivers that is able to detect multiple spoofers without having any prior information about the attack strategy or the number of spoofers in the environment.

Power Control for Multi Cell Massive MIMO

Power Control for Multi Cell Massive MIMO
Author: Amin Ghazanfari
Publsiher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Total Pages: 39
Release: 2019-10-07
ISBN: 9175190001
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Power Control for Multi Cell Massive MIMO Book Excerpt:

The cellular network operators have witnessed significant growth in data traffic in the past few decades. This growth occurs due to the increases in the number of connected mobile devices, and further, the emerging mobile applications developed for rendering video-based on-demand services. As the frequency bandwidth for cellular communication is limited, significant effort was dedicated to improve the utilization of the available spectrum and increase the system performance via new technologies. For example, 3G and 4G networks were designed to facilitate high data traffic in cellular networks in past decades. Nevertheless, there is a necessity for new cellular network technologies to accommodate the ever-growing data traffic demand. 5G is behind the corner to deal with the tremendous data traffic requirements that will appear in cellular networks in the next decade. Massive MIMO (multiple-input-multi-output) is one of the backbone technologies in 5G networks. Massive MIMO originated from the concept of multi-user MIMO. It consists of base stations (BSs) implemented with a large number of antennas to increase the signal strengths via adaptive beamforming and concurrently serving many users on the same time-frequency blocks. As an outcome of using Massive MIMO technology, there is a notable enhancement of both sum spectral efficiency (SE) and energy efficiency (EE) in comparison with conventional MIMO based cellular networks. Resource allocation is an imperative factor to exploit the specified gains of Massive MIMO. It corresponds to properly allocating resources in the time, frequency, space, and power domains for cellular communication. Power control is one of the resource allocation methods to deliver high spectral and energy efficiency of Massive MIMO networks. Power control refers to a scheme that allocates transmit powers to the data transmitters such that the system maximizes some desirable performance metric. In the first part of this thesis, we investigate reusing the resources of a Massive MIMO system, for direct communication of some specific user pairs known as device-to-device (D2D) underlay communication. D2D underlay can conceivably increase the SE of traditional Massive MIMO systems by enabling more simultaneous transmissions on the same frequencies. Nevertheless, it adds additional mutual interference to the network. Consequently, power control is even more essential in this scenario in comparison with conventional Massive MIMO systems to limit the interference that is caused between the cellular network and the D2D communication, thereby enabling their coexistence. In this part, we propose a novel pilot transmission scheme for D2D users to limit the interference to the channel estimation phase of cellular users in comparison with the case of sharing pilot sequences for cellular and D2D users. We also introduce a novel pilot and data power control scheme for D2D underlaid Massive MIMO systems. This method aims at assuring that D2D communication enhances the SE of the network in comparison with conventional Massive MIMO systems. In the second part of this thesis, we propose a novel power control approach for multi-cell Massive MIMO systems. The new power control approach solves the scalability issue of two well-known power control schemes frequently used in the Massive MIMO literature, which are based on the network-wide max-min and proportional fairness performance metrics. We first explain the scalability issue of these existing approaches. Additionally, we provide mathematical proof for the scalability of our proposed method. Our scheme aims at maximizing the geometric mean of the per-cell max-min SE. To solve this optimization problem, we prove that it can be rewritten in a convex form and then be solved using standard optimization solvers.

Signal Processing Aspects of Cell Free Massive MIMO

Signal Processing Aspects of Cell Free Massive MIMO
Author: Giovanni Interdonato
Publsiher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Total Pages: 35
Release: 2019-03-20
ISBN: 9176852245
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Signal Processing Aspects of Cell Free Massive MIMO Book Excerpt:

The fifth generation of mobile communication systems (5G) promises unprecedented levels of connectivity and quality of service (QoS) to satisfy the incessant growth in the number of mobile smart devices and the huge increase in data demand. One of the primary ways 5G network technology will be accomplished is through network densification, namely increasing the number of antennas per site and deploying smaller and smaller cells. Massive MIMO, where MIMO stands for multiple-input multiple-output, is widely expected to be a key enabler of 5G. This technology leverages an aggressive spatial multiplexing, from using a large number of transmitting/receiving antennas, to multiply the capacity of a wireless channel. A massive MIMO base station (BS) is equipped with a large number of antennas, much larger than the number of active users. The users are coherently served by all the antennas, in the same time-frequency resources but separated in the spatial domain by receiving very directive signals. By supporting such a highly spatially-focused transmission (precoding), massive MIMO provides higher spectral and energy efficiency, and reduces the inter-cell interference compared to existing mobile systems. The inter-cell interference is however becoming the major bottleneck as we densify the networks. It cannot be removed as long as we rely on a network-centric implementation, since the inter-cell interference concept is inherent to the cellular paradigm. Cell-free massive MIMO refers to a massive MIMO system where the BS antennas, herein referred to as access points (APs), are geographically spread out. The APs are connected, through a fronthaul network, to a central processing unit (CPU) which is responsible for coordinating the coherent joint transmission. Such a distributed architecture provides additional macro-diversity, and the co-processing at multiple APs entirely suppresses the inter-cell interference. Each user is surrounded by serving APs and experiences no cell boundaries. This user-centric approach, combined with the system scalability that characterizes the massive MIMO design, constitutes a paradigm shift compared to the conventional centralized and distributed wireless communication systems. On the other hand, such a distributed system requires higher capacity of back/front-haul connections, and the signal co-processing increases the signaling overhead. In this thesis, we focus on some signal processing aspects of cell-free massive MIMO. More specifically, we firstly investigate if the downlink channel estimation, via downlink pilots, brings gains to cell-free massive MIMO or the statistical channel state information (CSI) knowledge at the users is enough to reliably perform data decoding, as in conventional co-located massive MIMO. Allocating downlink pilots is costly resource-wise, thus we also propose resource saving-oriented strategies for downlink pilot assignment. Secondly, we study further fully distributed and scalable precoding schemes in order to outperform cell-free massive MIMO in its canonical form, which consists in single-antenna APs implementing conjugate beamforming (also known as maximum ratio transmission).

Advanced Computing and Intelligent Technologies

Advanced Computing and Intelligent Technologies
Author: Monica Bianchini,Vincenzo Piuri,Sanjoy Das,Rabindra Nath Shaw
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 649
Release: 2021-07-21
ISBN: 9811621640
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Computing and Intelligent Technologies Book Excerpt:

This book gathers selected high-quality research papers presented at International Conference on Advanced Computing and Intelligent Technologies (ICACIT 2021) held at NCR New Delhi, India, during March 20–21, 2021, jointly organized by Galgotias University, India, and Department of Information Engineering and Mathematics Università Di Siena, Italy. It discusses emerging topics pertaining to advanced computing, intelligent technologies, and networks including AI and machine learning, data mining, big data analytics, high-performance computing network performance analysis, Internet of things networks, wireless sensor networks, and others. The book offers a valuable asset for researchers from both academia and industries involved in advanced studies.

5G and Beyond

5G and Beyond
Author: Xingqin Lin,Namyoon Lee
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 543
Release: 2021-03-25
ISBN: 3030581977
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

5G and Beyond Book Excerpt:

This book provides an accessible and comprehensive tutorial on the key enabling technologies for 5G and beyond, covering both the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art 5G standards. The book begins with a historical overview of the evolution of cellular technologies and addresses the questions on why 5G and what is 5G. Following this, six tutorial chapters describe the fundamental technology components for 5G and beyond. These include modern advancements in channel coding, multiple access, massive multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO), network densification, unmanned aerial vehicle enabled cellular networks, and 6G wireless systems. The second part of this book consists of five chapters that introduce the basics of 5G New Radio (NR) standards developed by 3GPP. These include 5G architecture, protocols, and physical layer aspects. The third part of this book provides an overview of the key 5G NR evolution directions. These directions include ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC) enhancements, operation in unlicensed spectrum, positioning, integrated access and backhaul, air-to-ground communication, and non-terrestrial networks with satellite communication.

Information Theoretic Perspectives on 5G Systems and Beyond

Information Theoretic Perspectives on 5G Systems and Beyond
Author: Ivana Marić,Shlomo Shamai (Shitz),Osvaldo Simeone
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-04-06
ISBN: 1108271367
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Information Theoretic Perspectives on 5G Systems and Beyond Book Excerpt:

Understand key information-theoretic principles that underpin the design of next-generation cellular systems with this invaluable resource. This book is the perfect tool for researchers and graduate students in the field of information theory and wireless communications, as well as for practitioners in the telecommunications industry.

Foundations of MIMO Communication

Foundations of MIMO Communication
Author: Robert W. Heath Jr,Angel Lozano
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2018-12-06
ISBN: 1108577083
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Foundations of MIMO Communication Book Excerpt:

Understand the fundamentals of wireless and MIMO communication with this accessible and comprehensive text. Viewing the subject through an information theory lens, but also drawing on other perspectives, it provides a sound treatment of the key concepts underpinning contemporary wireless communication and MIMO, all the way to massive MIMO. Authoritative and insightful, it includes over 330 worked examples and 450 homework problems, with solutions and MATLAB code and data available online. Altogether, this is an excellent resource for instructors and graduate students, as well as an excellent reference for researchers and practicing engineers.

Cyberspace Data and Intelligence and Cyber Living Syndrome and Health

Cyberspace Data and Intelligence  and Cyber Living  Syndrome  and Health
Author: Huansheng Ning
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2019-12-10
ISBN: 9811519250
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cyberspace Data and Intelligence and Cyber Living Syndrome and Health Book Excerpt:

This two-volume set (CCIS 1137 and CCIS 1138) constitutes the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cyberspace Data and Intelligence, Cyber DI 2019, and the International Conference on Cyber-Living, Cyber-Syndrome, and Cyber-Health, CyberLife 2019, held under the umbrella of the 2019 Cyberspace Congress, held in Beijing, China, in December 2019. The 64 full papers presented together with 18 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 160 submissions. The papers are grouped in the following topics: cyber data, information and knowledge; cyber and cyber-enabled intelligence; communication and computing; cyber philosophy, cyberlogic and cyber science; and cyber health and smart healthcare.

Advanced Wireless Transmission Technologies

Advanced Wireless Transmission Technologies
Author: Hong-Chuan Yang,Mohamed-Slim Alouini
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-01-30
ISBN: 1108349757
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Wireless Transmission Technologies Book Excerpt:

Elucidating fundamental design principles by means of accurate trade-off analysis of relevant design options using suitable mathematical tools, this is the first book to provide a coherent treatment of transmission technologies essential to current and future wireless systems. Develop in-depth knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of wireless transmission technologies in supporting high-quality wireless transmission services, and foster a thorough understanding of various design trade-offs, to help identify an ideal choice for your own application requirements. Key technologies such as advanced diversity combining, multi-user scheduling, multi-user multi-antenna transmission, relay transmission, and cognitive radio are examined, making this an essential resource for senior graduate students, researchers, and engineers working in wireless communications.

Spectrum Sharing

Spectrum Sharing
Author: Constantinos B. Papadias,Tharmalingam Ratnarajah,Dirk T. M. Slock
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 456
Release: 2020-04-20
ISBN: 1119551498
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spectrum Sharing Book Excerpt:

Combines the latest trends in spectrum sharing, both from a research and a standards/regulation/experimental standpoint Written by noted professionals from academia, industry, and research labs, this unique book provides a comprehensive treatment of the principles and architectures for spectrum sharing in order to help with the existing and future spectrum crunch issues. It presents readers with the most current standardization trends, including CEPT / CEE, eLSA, CBRS, MulteFire, LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U), LTE WLAN integration with Internet Protocol security tunnel (LWIP), and LTE/Wi-Fi aggregation (LWA), and offers substantial trials and experimental results, as well as system-level performance evaluation results. The book also includes a chapter focusing on spectrum policy reinforcement and another on the economics of spectrum sharing. Beginning with the historic form of cognitive radio, Spectrum Sharing: The Next Frontier in Wireless Networks continues with current standardized forms of spectrum sharing, and reviews all of the technical ingredients that may arise in spectrum sharing approaches. It also looks at policy and implementation aspects and ponders the future of the field. White spaces and data base-assisted spectrum sharing are discussed, as well as the licensed shared access approach and cooperative communication techniques. The book also covers reciprocity-based beam forming techniques for spectrum sharing in MIMO networks; resource allocation for shared spectrum networks; large scale wireless spectrum monitoring; and much more. Contains all the latest standardization trends, such as CEPT / ECC, eLSA, CBRS, MulteFire, LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U), LTE WLAN integration with Internet Protocol security tunnel (LWIP) and LTE/Wi-Fi aggregation (LWA) Presents a number of emerging technologies for future spectrum sharing (collaborative sensing, cooperative communication, reciprocity-based beamforming, etc.), as well as novel spectrum sharing paradigms (e.g. in full duplex and radar systems) Includes substantial trials and experimental results, as well as system-level performance evaluation results Contains a dedicated chapter on spectrum policy reinforcement and one on the economics of spectrum sharing Edited by experts in the field, and featuring contributions by respected professionals in the field world wide Spectrum Sharing: The Next Frontier in Wireless Networks is highly recommended for graduate students and researchers working in the areas of wireless communications and signal processing engineering. It would also benefit radio communications engineers and practitioners.

MIMO Wireless Communications over Generalized Fading Channels

MIMO Wireless Communications over Generalized Fading Channels
Author: Brijesh Kumbhani,Rakhesh Singh Kshetrimayum
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 268
Release: 2017-07-12
ISBN: 1138033030
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

MIMO Wireless Communications over Generalized Fading Channels Book Excerpt:

MIMO systems have been known to better the quality of service for wireless communication systems. This book discusses emerging techniques in MIMO systems to reduce complexities and keep benefits unaffected at the same time. It discusses about benefits and shortcomings of various MIMO technologies like spatial multiplexing, space time coding, spatial modulation, transmit antenna selection and various power allocation schemes to optimize the performance. Crux of the book is focus on MIMO communication over generalized fading channels as they can model the propagation of signals in a non-homogeneous environment. Relevant MATLAB codes are also included in the appendices. Book is aimed at graduate students and researchers in electronics and wireless engineering specifically interested in electromagnetic theory, antennas and propagation, future wireless systems, signal processing.