Gangs And Crime In Latin America

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : DIANE Publishing
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Gangs And Crime In Latin America

Author by : United States. Congress
Languange : en
Publisher by : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
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Description : Gangs and crime in Latin America : hearing before the Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, first session, April 20, 2005.


Gangs And Crime In Latin America

Author by : United States. Congress. House. Committee on International Relations. Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Gangs And Crime In Latin America

Author by : United States. Congress. House. Committee on International Relations. Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Gangs In Central America

Author by : Clare Ribando Seelke
Languange : en
Publisher by : DIANE Publishing
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Description : Contents: (1) Background on Violent Crime; (2) Scope of the Gang Problem: Defining Gangs; Transnational Gangs; Factors Exacerbating the Gang Problem; Poverty and a Lack of Educ. and Employ. Opport.; Societal Stigmas; Role of the Media; Anti-Gang Law Enforce. Efforts; Prisons in Need of Reform; U.S. Deportations; (3) Country Anti-Gang Efforts: Mano Dura (Heavy-Handed) Anti-Gang Policies; Effects of Mano Dura Policies?; Alternative Approaches; Prospects for Country Prevention and Rehab. Efforts; Regional and Multilateral Efforts; OAS; Multilateral Develop. Banks and Donor Agencies; (4) U.S. Policy: Congressional Interest; U.S. Internat. Anti-Gang Efforts; State Dept.; Justice Dept.; USAID; Policy Approaches and Concerns.


Gangs And Crime In America

Author by : U. S. Government
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : Recognizing that gang activity is a complex, multi-faceted, and transnational phenomenon that is clearly in the national interest to address, the USAID Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean Office of Regional Sustainable Development (LAC/RSD) initiated the Central America and Mexico Gang Assessment to study the phenomenon and propose solutions in five countries - El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Nicaragua. The objectives of the Central America and Mexico Gang Assessment are to: (1) analyze the nature of gangs, their root causes, and other factors driving the phenomenon; (2) examine the transnational and regional aspects of gangs in Central America and Mexico, including the impact of deportation and immigration trends; (3) evaluate policies and programs and identify best practices in the assessment countries and the United States; and (4) provide strategic and programmatic recommendations to USAID about addressing the gang problem in the assessment countries. Gang members and gang networks are heterogeneous. Gang members in Central America and Mexico are not homogenous. There is no typology applicable to every gang or gang member, and not all gangs have the same objectives or engage in the same type of activities or with the same level of violence. Although each country has its own brand of gang problem, the factors driving gang activity throughout the region include a lack of educational and economic opportunities, marginalized urban areas, intra-familial violence and family disintegration, easy access to drugs and firearms, overwhelmed and ineffective justice systems, and the "revolving door" along the U.S.-Mexico border. U.S. Congressional Interest in Gang Issues * USAID Involvement in Addressing Gangs * Assessment Objectives * The Typology of Gangs in Central America and Mexico * Responses to Gang Activity: The Prevention-Intervention-Law Enforcement Continuum * The Gang Phenomenon in Central America and Mexico * The Transnational Nature of Gang Activity in Central America and Mexico * The Cost of Violence * The U.S. Experience Addressing Gang Activity * The Gang Problem at the Country Level and Country Responses * Working Towards the Solution: Donor Responses * Conclusions and Recommendations * A Summary of the Gang Problem in the Five Assessment Countries * Annex 1: El Salvador Profile * Acknowledgments * Historical Context * Nature of the Gang Phenomenon * Costs and Impacts of Gang Activity * Causes and Risk Factors of Gang Activity * Current Responses to Gangs * Individuals and Organizations Consulted * Annex 2: Guatemala Profile * Acknowledgments * Historical Context * Nature of the Gang Phenomenon * Costs and Impacts of Gang Activity * Causes and Risk Factors of Gang Activity * Current Responses to Gangs in Guatemala * Individuals and Organizations Consulted * Annex 3: Honduras Profile * Acknowledgments * Historical Context * Nature of the Gang Phenomenon in Honduras * Costs and Impacts of Gang Activity * Causes and Risk Factors of Gang Activity * Current Responses to Gangs * Individuals and Organizations Consulted * Annex 4: Southern and Northern Borders of Mexico Profile * Acknowledgments * Historical Context * Nature of the Gang Phenomenon in Mexico * Costs and Impacts of Gang Activity * Causes and Risk Factors of Gang Activity * Current Responses to Gangs * Individuals and Organizations Consulted * Annex 5: Nicaragua Profile * Acknowledgments * Historical Context. * Nature of the Gang Phenomenon in Nicaragua * Costs and Impacts of Gang Activity * Causes and Risk Factors of Gang Activity * Current Responses to Gangs * Individuals and Organizations Consulted


Crime Violence And The State In Latin America

Author by : Jonathan D. Rosen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : In this succinct text, Jonathan D. Rosen and Hanna Samir Kassab explore the linkage between weak institutions and government policies designed to combat drug trafficking, organized crime, and violence in Latin America. Using quantitative analysis to examine criminal violence and publicly available survey data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP) to conduct regression analysis, individual case studies on Colombia, Mexico, El Salvador, and Nicaragua highlight the major challenges that governments face and how they have responded to various security issues. Rosen and Kassab later turn their attention to the role of external criminal actors in the region and offer policy recommendations and lessons learned. Questions explored include: What are the major trends in organized crime in this country? How has organized crime evolved over time? Who are the major criminal actors? How has state fragility contributed to organized crime and violence (and vice versa)? What has been the government’s response to drug trafficking and organized crime? Have such policies contributed to violence? Crime, Violence and the State in Latin America is suitable to both undergraduate and graduate courses in criminal justice, international relations, political science, comparative politics, international political economy, organized crime, drug trafficking, and violence.


Gangs And Crime In Latin America

Author by : United States. Congress. House. Committee on International Relations. Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Maras

Author by : Thomas C. Bruneau
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Texas Press
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Description : Sensational headlines have publicized the drug trafficking, brutal violence, and other organized crime elements associated with Central America’s mara gangs, but there have been few clear-eyed analyses of the history, hierarchies, and future of the mara phenomenon. The first book to look specifically at the Central American gang problem by drawing on the perspectives of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds, Maras: Gang Violence and Security in Central America provides much-needed insight. These essays trace the development of the gangs, from Mara Salvatrucha to the 18th Street Gang, in Los Angeles and their spread to El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, and Nicaragua as the result of members’ deportation to Central America; there, they account for high homicide rates and threaten the democratic stability of the region. With expertise in areas ranging from political science to law enforcement and human rights, the contributors also explore the spread of mara violence in the United States. Their findings comprise a complete documentation that spans sexualized violence, case studies of individual gangs, economic factors, varied responses to gang violence, the use of intelligence gathering, the limits of state power, and the role of policy makers. Raising crucial questions for a wide readership, these essays are sure to spark productive international dialogues.


Drugs Gangs And Violence

Author by : Jonathan D. Rosen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Description : This book examines the nature of transnational organized crime and gangs, and how these diverse organizations contribute to violence, especially in so-called fragile states across Central and Latin America. While the nature of organized crime and violence differs depending on the context, the authors explain how and why states plagued by weak institutions tend to foster criminal organizations and violence, and why counter-crime initiatives often result in higher levels of violence. By examining the consequences of tough on crime policies (e.g., mano dura) in places like Mexico, El Salvador, and Colombia, the volume offers a new perspective on the link between state fragility, crime, and violence.


House Hearing 109th Congress

Author by : U.S. Government Printing Office (Gpo)
Languange : en
Publisher by : BiblioGov
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Description : The United States Government Printing Office (GPO) was created in June 1860, and is an agency of the U.S. federal government based in Washington D.C. The office prints documents produced by and for the federal government, including Congress, the Supreme Court, the Executive Office of the President and other executive departments, and independent agencies. A hearing is a meeting of the Senate, House, joint or certain Government committee that is open to the public so that they can listen in on the opinions of the legislation. Hearings can also be held to explore certain topics or a current issue. It typically takes between two months up to two years to be published. This is one of those hearings.


Transnational Organized Crime In Latin America And The Caribbean

Author by : R. Evan Ellis
Languange : en
Publisher by : Lexington Books
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Description : This book provides an overview of transnational organized crime in Latin America. It explores the geography of illicit activities, analyzes the relationships of specific groups, assesses the approaches of regional governments to combatting transnational organized crime, and recommends future action for regional governments and US policymakers.


Youth Violence In Latin America

Author by : G. Jones
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Description : This volume provides a systematic overview of the contemporary Latin American youth violence phenomenon. The authors focus specifically on youth gangs, juvenile justice issues, and applied research concerns, providing a rounded and balanced exploration of this increasingly important topic.


Linking Political Violence And Crime In Latin America

Author by : Kirsten Howarth
Languange : en
Publisher by : Lexington Books
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Description : This book examines the relationship between politics, crime, and violence in Latin America with the aim of moving away from overly simplified views of the region. Instead, it engages in deeper structural analysis, making use of a range of approaches with the wider aim of improving policies that seek to reduce the impact of crime-related violence.


Prisons And Crime In Latin America

Author by : Marcelo Bergman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : This groundbreaking work examines Latin America's prison crisis and the failure of mass incarceration policies. As crime rates rose over the past few decades, policy makers adopted incarceration as the primary response to public outcry. Yet, as the number of inmates increased, crime rates only continued to grow. Presenting new cross-national data based on extensive surveys of inmates throughout the region, this book explains the transformation of prisons from instruments of incapacitation, deterrence, and rehabilitation to drivers of violence and criminality. Bergman and Fondevila highlight the impacts of internal drug markets and the dramatic increase in the number of imprisoned women. Furthermore, they show how prisons are not isolated from society - they are sites of active criminal networks, with many inmates maintaining fluid criminal connections with the outside world. Rather than reducing crime, prisons have become an integral part of the crime problem in Latin America.


Organized Crime Groups In Latin America

Author by : Source Wikipedia
Languange : en
Publisher by : University-Press.org
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Description : Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 58. Chapters: Gangs in Latin America, Mara Salvatrucha, Organizations designated as terrorist in Latin America, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, Mexican Drug War, Salvadoran Civil War, United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia, Cali Cartel, Sinaloa Cartel, Norte del Valle Cartel, La Familia Michoacana, Medellin Cartel, Edwin Ramos, Netas, Sin Nombre, 18th Street gang, Los Negros, Comando Vermelho, Los Pepes, Peasant Self-Defense Forces of Cordoba and Uraba, Maras, Millionaire tour, Amigos dos Amigos, Los Quesitos. Excerpt: The Mexican Drug War is an ongoing armed conflict taking place among rival drug cartels, who fight each other for regional control, and Mexican government forces who seek to combat drug trafficking. Although Mexican drug cartels, or drug trafficking organizations, have existed for a few decades, they have become more powerful since the demise of Colombia's Cali and Medellin cartels in the 1990s. Mexican drug cartels now dominate the wholesale illicit drug market in the United States. Arrests of key cartel leaders, particularly in the Tijuana and Gulf cartels, have led to increasing drug violence as cartels fight for control of the trafficking routes into the United States. The U.S. Department of Justice estimates that the wholesale of illicit drug sale earnings range from $13.6 billion to $48.4 billion annually. Mexican drug traffickers increasingly smuggle money back into Mexico in cars and trucks, likely due to the effectiveness of U.S. efforts at monitoring electronic money transfers. Mexican ArmyGiven its geographic location, Mexico has long been used as a staging and transshipment point for narcotics, illegal immigrants and contraband destined for U.S. markets from Mexico, South America and elsewhere. During the 1980s and early 1990s, Colombia's Pablo Escobar was the main exporter of cocaine and...


More Money More Crime

Author by : Marcelo Bergman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : While worldwide crime is declining overall, criminality in Latin America has reached unprecedented levels that have ushered in social unrest and political turmoil. Despite major political and economic gains, crime has increased in every Latin American country over the past 25 years, currently making this region the most crime-ridden and violent in the world. Over the past two decades, Latin America has enjoyed economic growth, poverty and inequality reduction, rising consumer demand, and spreading democracy, but it also endured a dramatic outbreak of violence and property crimes. In More Money, More Crime, Marcelo Bergman argues that prosperity enhanced demand for stolen and illicit goods supplied by illegal rackets. Crime surged as weak states and outdated criminal justice systems could not meet the challenge posed by new profitably criminal enterprises. Based on large-scale data sets, including surveys from inmates and victims, Bergman analyzes the development of crime as a business in the region, and the inability-and at times complicity-of state agencies and officers to successfully contain it. While organized crime has grown, Latin American governments have lacked the social vision to promote sustainable upward mobility, and have failed to improve the technical capacities of law enforcement agencies to deter criminality. The weak state responses have only further entrenched the influence of criminal groups making them all the more difficult to dismantle. More Money, More Crime is a sobering study that foresees a continued rise in violence while prosperity increases unless governments develop appropriate responses to crime and promote genuine social inclusion.


Encounters With Violence In Latin America

Author by : Cathy McIlwaine
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : Latin America is both the world's most urbanized fastest developing regions, where the links between social exclusion, inequality and violence are clearly visible. The banal, ubiquitous nature of drug crime, robbery, gang and intra-family violence destabilizes countries' economies and harms their people and social structures. Encounters with Violence & Crime in Latin America explores the meaning of violence and insecurity in nine towns and cities in Columbia and Guatemala to create a framework of how and why daily violence takes place at the community level. It uses pioneering new methods of participatory urban appraisal to ask local people about their own perceptions of violence as mediated by family, gender, ethnicity and age. It develops a typology which distinguishes between the political, social, and economic violence that afflicts communities, and which assesses the costs of consequences of violence in terms of community cohesion and social capital. This gives voice to those whose daily lives and dominated by widespread aggression, and provides important new insights for researchers and policy-makers.


Violent Democracies In Latin America

Author by : Daniel M. Goldstein
Languange : en
Publisher by : Duke University Press
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Description : Despite recent political movements to establish democratic rule in Latin American countries, much of the region still suffers from pervasive violence. From vigilantism, to human rights violations, to police corruption, violence persists. It is perpetrated by state-sanctioned armies, guerillas, gangs, drug traffickers, and local community groups seeking self-protection. The everyday presence of violence contrasts starkly with governmental efforts to extend civil, political, and legal rights to all citizens, and it is invoked as evidence of the failure of Latin American countries to achieve true democracy. The contributors to this collection take the more nuanced view that violence is not a social aberration or the result of institutional failure; instead, it is intimately linked to the institutions and policies of economic liberalization and democratization. The contributors—anthropologists, political scientists, sociologists, and historians—explore how individuals and institutions in Latin American democracies, from the rural regions of Colombia and the Dominican Republic to the urban centers of Brazil and Mexico, use violence to impose and contest notions of order, rights, citizenship, and justice. They describe the lived realities of citizens and reveal the historical foundations of the violence that Latin America suffers today. One contributor examines the tightly woven relationship between violent individuals and state officials in Colombia, while another contextualizes violence in Rio de Janeiro within the transnational political economy of drug trafficking. By advancing the discussion of democratic Latin American regimes beyond the usual binary of success and failure, this collection suggests more sophisticated ways of understanding the challenges posed by violence, and of developing new frameworks for guaranteeing human rights in Latin America. Contributors: Enrique Desmond Arias, Javier Auyero, Lilian Bobea, Diane E. Davis, Robert Gay, Daniel M. Goldstein, Mary Roldán, Todd Landman, Ruth Stanley, María Clemencia Ramírez


Fear And Crime In Latin America

Author by : Lucía Dammert
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : The feeling of insecurity is a little known phenomenon that has been only partially explored by social sciences. However, it has a deep social, cultural and economic impact and may even contribute to define the very structures of the state. In Latin America, fear of crime has become an important stumbling block in the region's process of democratization. After long spells of dictatorships and civil wars, violence in the region was supposed to be under control yet crime rates have continued to skyrocket and citizens remain fearful. This analytical puzzle has troubled researchers and to date there is no publication which explores this problem. Based on a wealth of cutting edge qualitative and quantitative research, Lucía Dammert proposes a unique theoretical perspective which includes a sociological, criminological and political analysis to understand fear of crime. She describes its linkages to issues such as urban segregation, social attitudes, institutional trust, public policies and authoritarian discourses in Chile's recent past. Looking beyond Chile, Dammert also includes a regional comparative perspective allowing readers to understand the complex elements underpinning this situation. Fear and Crime in Latin America challenges many assumptions and opens an opportunity to discuss an issue that affects everyone with key societal and personal costs. As crime rates increase and states become even more fragile, fear of crime as a social problem will continue to have an important impact in Latin America.


Politics And History Of Violence And Crime In Central America

Author by : Sebastian Huhn
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Description : This book highlights historical explanations to and roots of present phenomena of violence, insecurity, and law enforcement in Central America. Violence and crime are among the most discussed topics in Central America today, and sensationalism and fear of crime is as present as the increase of private security, the re-militarization of law enforcement, political populism, and mano dura policies. The contributors to this volume discuss historical forms, paths, continuities, and changes of violence and its public and political discussion in the region. This book thus offers in-depth analysis of different patterns of violence, their reproduction over time, their articulation in the present, and finally their discursive mobilization.


Drug Cartel And Gang Violence In Mexico And Central America

Author by : Robert O. Kirkland
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : "Gives readers an overview of the issues associated with drugs, cartels, and gangs in Mexico and Central America. The readings are based on years of field research and interviews with regional leaders and local actors. The book examines the history and growth of Mexican drug cartels and the central role corruption plays in facilitating drug trafficking while simultaneously debilitating the Mexican state's efforts to confront them. The rise of Mexican community-based crime fighting is also discussed, as well as the changing role of Central American gangs, particularly in their relationship with Mexican drug-trafficking organizations. This edition includes new readings that feature current data and statistics on Mexican drug cartels and Central American gang violence, as well as an evaluation of Mexico's response to events in Jalisco from 2015-2018. Highly accessible, yet replete with valuable information and insight ... is ideal for courses in criminal justice, homeland security, and Latin American studies." -- Page 4 of cover.


Violence And Crime In Latin America

Author by : Gema Santamaría
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Oklahoma Press
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Description : According to media reports, Latin America is one of the most violent regions in the world—a distinction it held throughout the twentieth century. The authors of Violence and Crime in Latin America contend that perceptions and representations of violence and crime directly impact such behaviors, creating profound consequences for the political and social fabric of Latin American nations. Written by distinguished scholars of Latin American history, sociology, anthropology, and political science, the essays in this volume range from Mexico and Argentina to Colombia and Brazil in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, addressing such issues as extralegal violence in Mexico, the myth of indigenous criminality in Guatemala, and governments’ selective blindness to violent crime in Brazil and Jamaica. The authors in this collection examine not only the social construction and political visibility of violence and crime in Latin America, but the justifications for them as well. Analytically and historically, these essays show how Latin American citizens have sanctioned criminal and violent practices and incorporated them into social relations, everyday practices, and institutional settings. At the same time, the authors explore the power struggles that inform distinctions between illegitimate versus legitimate violence. Violence and Crime in Latin America makes a substantive contribution to understanding a key problem facing Latin America today. In its historical depth and ethnographic reach, this original and thought-provoking volume enhances our understanding of crime and violence throughout the Western Hemisphere.


Latin America At 200

Author by : Phillip Berryman
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Texas Press
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Description : Between 2010 and 2025, most of the countries of Latin America will commemorate two centuries of independence, and Latin Americans have much to celebrate at this milestone. Most countries have enjoyed periods of sustained growth, while inequality is showing modest declines and the middle class is expanding. Dictatorships have been left behind, and all major political actors seem to have accepted the democratic process and the rule of law. Latin Americans have entered the digital world, routinely using the Internet and social media. These new realities in Latin America call for a new introduction to its history and culture, which Latin America at 200 amply provides. Taking a reader-friendly approach that focuses on the big picture and uses concrete examples, Phillip Berryman highlights what Latin Americans are doing to overcome extreme poverty and underdevelopment. He starts with issues facing cities, then considers agriculture and farming, business, the environment, inequality and class, race and ethnicity, gender, and religion. His survey of Latin American history leads into current issues in economics, politics and governance, and globalization. Berryman also acknowledges the ongoing challenges facing Latin Americans, especially crime and corruption, and the efforts being made to combat them. Based on decades of experience, research, and travel, as well as recent studies from the World Bank and other agencies, Latin America at 200 will be essential both as a classroom text and as an introduction for general readers.


Gangs Crime

Author by : Alistair Fraser
Languange : en
Publisher by : SAGE
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Description : This book takes students on a guided tour of the gang phenomenon through history, as well as current representations of gangs in literature and media. It includes: - A detailed global overview of gang culture, covering, amongst others, Glasgow, Chicago, Hong Kong, and Shanghai - A chapter on researching gangs which covers quantitative and qualitative methods - Extra chapter features such as key terms, chapter overviews, study questions and further reading suggestions. Alistair Fraser brings together gang-literature and critical perspectives in a refreshingly new way, exploring ‘gangs’ as a social group with a long and fascinating history.


Gangs In Latin America

Author by : Source Wikipedia
Languange : en
Publisher by : University-Press.org
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 93
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Description : Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 44. Chapters: Gangs in Brazil, Gangs in Colombia, Gangs in Mexico, Hells Angels, Mara Salvatrucha, Sinaloa Cartel, La Familia Michoacana, Los Zetas Cartel, Beltran-Leyva Cartel, Mexican Mafia, Gulf Cartel, Juarez Cartel, Mongols, Netas, Vagos Motorcycle Club, Tijuana Cartel, 18th Street gang, Colima Cartel, Los Negros, Primeiro Comando da Capital, Cangaco, Sonora Cartel, Lampiao, Comando Vermelho, Black Eagles, La Linea, Logan Heights Gang, Guadalajara Cartel, Milenio Cartel, Oaxaca Cartel, Maras, Los Pelones, South Pacific Cartel, Gente Nueva, Amigos dos Amigos, List of gangs in Mexico. Excerpt: The Hells Angels Motorcycle Club (HAMC) is a worldwide one-percenter motorcycle gang and organized crime syndicate whose members typically ride Harley-Davidson motorcycles. In the United States and Canada, the Hells Angels are incorporated as the Hells Angels Motorcycle Corporation. Their primary motto is "When we do right, nobody remembers. When we do wrong, nobody forgets." Both the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Canadian Security Intelligence Service classify the Angels as one of the "big four" motorcycle gangs, contending that members carry out widespread violence, drug dealing, trafficking in stolen goods, and extortion. Members of the organization have continuously asserted that they are only a group of motorcycle enthusiasts who have joined to ride motorcycles together, to organize social events such as group road trips, fundraisers, parties, and motorcycle rallies. The Hells Angels were originally formed in 1948 in Fontana, California through an amalgamation of former members from different motorcycle clubs, such as The Pissed Off Bastards of Bloomington. The Hells Angels website denies the suggestion that any misfit or malcontent troops are connected with the motorcycle club. However, the website notes that the...