Geomaterials Under the Microscope

Geomaterials Under the Microscope
Author: Jeremy P. Ingham
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 192
Release: 2020-06-30
ISBN: 9780367577049
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Geomaterials Under the Microscope Book Excerpt:

Geomaterials are of enormous economic importance to the global construction industry. This is the first comprehensive guide to the petrography of geomaterials, making the petrographer's specialist knowledge available to practitioners, educators and students worldwide. The book provides some 350 superb quality colour photomicrographs of geomaterials plus concise explanations of their petrographic properties and how to interpret them. An introductory chapter gives an overview of geomaterials practice and a state-of-the-art review of petrographic techniques. Each of the subsequent chapters covers a different group of construction materials and includes an explanation of their history, manufacture and use construction. The text draws upon diverse published references to provide a unique summary of the properties and classify construction materials. Geomaterials Under the Microscope is a valuable resource for all those interested in modern and historic construction materials, be they microscopists or in the fields of geology architecture, surveying, engineering, construction, archaeology, conservation, materials science and forensic science. Book jacket.

Geomaterials Under the Microscope

Geomaterials Under the Microscope
Author: Jeremy Ingham
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 192
Release: 2010-12-15
ISBN: 184076600X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Geomaterials Under the Microscope Book Excerpt:

The first comprehensive guide to the petrography of geomaterials, making the petrographers specialist knowledge available to practitioners, educators and students worldwide interested in modern and historic construction materials.

Geomaterials in Cultural Heritage

Geomaterials in Cultural Heritage
Author: Marino Maggetti,Bruno Messiga
Publsiher: Geological Society of London
Total Pages: 368
Release: 2006
ISBN: 9781862391956
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Geomaterials in Cultural Heritage Book Excerpt:

Papers from a session of the 32nd International Geological Congress.

Xray CT for Geomaterials

Xray CT for Geomaterials
Author: Jun Otani,Yuzo Obara
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 402
Release: 2004-10-06
ISBN: 9781439834299
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Xray CT for Geomaterials Book Excerpt:

X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) scanning has been widely used for medical diagnosis. This technique is now attracting increasing interest as a tool in non-destructive testing in engineering. This book reports the early results of research into this application, with particular reference to deformation and failure of geomaterials. Presenting papers of the International Workshop on X-CT for Geomaterials at Kumamoto, Japan in 2003. The book is intended for researchers and professionals in the fields of geotechnical engineering, soil, rock and concrete engineering, and geology.

Sustainable Use of Traditional Geomaterials in Construction Practice

Sustainable Use of Traditional Geomaterials in Construction Practice
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Geological Society of London
Total Pages: 311
Release: 2016-08-02
ISBN: 1862397252
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Use of Traditional Geomaterials in Construction Practice Book Excerpt:

Geomaterials derived from the Earth’s crust and used in construction after appropriate processing are among the earliest raw materials exploited, processed and used by humans. Their numerous functional properties include accessibility, workability and serviceability, and these are explored within this volume. In modern society, sustainable use of raw materials, specifically those exploited in large volumes such as geomaterials for construction, raises questions of reducing extraction of primary resources and thus minimizing impacts on natural systems, and also employment of materials and technologies to lower emissions of deleterious substances into the atmosphere. This will be possible only if we fully understand the properties, processing and mode of use of traditional geomaterials. Although most of the papers within this volume were written by geologists, the contributions will also be of interest to those working in cultural heritage, monument conservation, civil engineering and architecture.

Understanding Light Microscopy

Understanding Light Microscopy
Author: Jeremy Sanderson
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 848
Release: 2019-03-04
ISBN: 1118696743
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Understanding Light Microscopy Book Excerpt:

Introduces readers to the enlightening world of the modern light microscope There have been rapid advances in science and technology over the last decade, and the light microscope, together with the information that it gives about the image, has changed too. Yet the fundamental principles of setting up and using a microscope rests upon unchanging physical principles that have been understood for years. This informative, practical, full-colour guide fills the gap between specialised edited texts on detailed research topics, and introductory books, which concentrate on an optical approach to the light microscope. It also provides comprehensive coverage of confocal microscopy, which has revolutionised light microscopy over the last few decades. Written to help the reader understand, set up, and use the often very expensive and complex modern research light microscope properly, Understanding Light Microscopy keeps mathematical formulae to a minimum—containing and explaining them within boxes in the text. Chapters provide in-depth coverage of basic microscope optics and design; ergonomics; illumination; diffraction and image formation; reflected-light, polarised-light, and fluorescence microscopy; deconvolution; TIRF microscopy; FRAP & FRET; super-resolution techniques; biological and materials specimen preparation; and more. Gives a didactic introduction to the light microscope Encourages readers to use advanced fluorescence and confocal microscopes within a research institute or core microscopy facility Features full-colour illustrations and workable practical protocols Understanding Light Microscopy is intended for any scientist who wishes to understand and use a modern light microscope. It is also ideal as supporting material for a formal taught course, or for individual students to learn the key aspects of light microscopy through their own study.

Thin Section Petrography Geochemistry and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Archaeological Ceramics

Thin Section Petrography  Geochemistry and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Archaeological Ceramics
Author: Patrick Sean Quinn
Publsiher: Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
Total Pages: 466
Release: 2022-07-07
ISBN: 1803272716
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Thin Section Petrography Geochemistry and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Archaeological Ceramics Book Excerpt:

Using over 400 colour figures of a diverse range of artefact types and archaeological periods from 50 countries worldwide, this book outlines the mineralogical, chemical and microstructural composition of ancient ceramics and provides comprehensive guidelines for their scientific study within archaeology.

Bifurcation and Degradation of Geomaterials in the New Millennium

Bifurcation and Degradation of Geomaterials in the New Millennium
Author: Kam-Tim Chau,Jidong Zhao
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 381
Release: 2014-12-29
ISBN: 3319135066
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bifurcation and Degradation of Geomaterials in the New Millennium Book Excerpt:

This book contains contributions to the 10th International Workshop on Bifurcation and Degradation in Geomaterials held in Hong Kong, May 28-30, 2014. This event marks the silver Jubilee anniversary of an international conference series dedicated to the research on localization, instability, degradation and failure of geomaterials since 1988 when its first workshop was organized in Germany. This volume of book collects the latest progresses and state-of-the-art research from top researchers around the world, and covers topics including multiscale modeling, experimental characterization and theoretical analysis of various instability and degradation phenomena in geomaterials as well as their relevance to contemporary issues in engineering practice. This book can be used as a useful reference for research students, academics and practicing engineers who are interested in the instability and degradation problems in geomechanics and geotechnical engineering.

Unsaturated Soils Advances in Geo Engineering

Unsaturated Soils  Advances in Geo Engineering
Author: D.G. Toll,C.E. Augarde,D. Gallipoli,S.J. Wheeler
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1006
Release: 2008-06-23
ISBN: 0203884434
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Unsaturated Soils Advances in Geo Engineering Book Excerpt:

Unsaturated Soils: Advances in Geo-Engineering comprises 136 contributions from leading international researchers and practitioners, presented at the First European Conference on Unsaturated Soils (Durham, UK, 2-4 July 2008). The papers report on the latest advances in geo-engineering aspects of unsaturated soils. It is the first collection to focu

Concrete Petrography

Concrete Petrography
Author: Alan B. Poole,Ian Sims
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1040
Release: 2016-12-19
ISBN: 1351722336
Category: Architecture
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Concrete Petrography Book Excerpt:

This classic reference has established the value of petrography as a powerful method for the investigation of concrete as a material. It provides an authoritative and well-illustrated review of concrete composition and textures, including the causes of defects, deterioration, and failure that can be identified using a petrological microscope. This new edition is entirely revised and updated and also greatly extended to take account of new scientific developments and significant improvements in instrumentation and to reflect current laboratory working practices, as well as to reflect new understanding of the performance of concrete and related materials. Now in full color throughout, Concrete Petrography, Second Edition provides case study examples, with appropriate explanatory discussions and practical advice on selecting, handling and preparing specimens. It assists and guides the engineer, the trainee and the experienced petrographer in understanding the scientific evidence that is basic to petrographic analysis and so will lead to more accurate and timely diagnosis and treatment of problems in structural concrete. This book includes: Contributions in specialist areas by internationally recognized experts Explanation of computer techniques as an aid to petrography Full coverage of inspection, sampling, and specimen preparation New sections covering recent technological development of equipment Guidance on observation of cement and concrete mineralogy and microfabrics Discussion and illustrative examples of deterioration and failure mechanisms New work and guidance on the determination of water/cement ratio New color illustrations and micrographs throughout Thorough updating of standards, other authoritative publications, and references A fully revised, extended, and updated glossary of optical and other properties

Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials

Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials
Author: Qiang Yang,Jian-Min Zhang,Hong Zheng,Yangping Yao
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 813
Release: 2012-08-22
ISBN: 3642328148
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials Book Excerpt:

The Second International Symposium on Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials: Advances and New Applications (IS-Model 2012), is to be held in Beijing, China, during October 15-16, 2012. The symposium is organized by Tsinghua University, the International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG), the Committee of Numerical and Physical Modeling of Rock Mass, Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering, and the Committee of Constitutive Relations and Strength Theory, China Institution of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, China Civil Engineering Society. This Symposium follows the first successful International Workshop on Constitutive Modeling held in Hong Kong, which was organized by Prof. JH Yin in 2007. Constitutive modeling of geomaterials has been an active research area for a long period of time. Different approaches have been used in the development of various constitutive models. A number of models have been implemented in the numerical analyses of geotechnical structures. The objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for researchers and engineers working or interested in the area of constitutive modeling to meet together and share new ideas, achievements and experiences through presentations and discussions. Emphasis is placed on recent advances of constitutive modeling and its applications in both theoretic and experimental aspects. Six famous scholars have been invited for the plenary speeches of the symposiums. Some prominent scholars have been invited to organize four specialized workshops on hot topics, including “Time-dependent stress-strain behavior of geomaterials”, “Constitutive modeling within critical state soil mechanics”, “Multiscale and multiphysics in geomaterials”, and “Damage to failure in rock structures”. A total of 49 papers are included in the above topics. In addition, 51 papers are grouped under three topics covering “Behaviour of geomaterials”, “Constitutive model”, and “Applications”. The editors expect that the book can be helpful as a reference to all those in the field of constitutive modeling of geomaterials.

Historic Mortars

Historic Mortars
Author: John J. Hughes,Jan Válek,Caspar J. W. P. Groot
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2018-07-06
ISBN: 3319916068
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Historic Mortars Book Excerpt:

This book presents a state of the art in mortar characterisation, experimentation with and applications of new mortars for conservation and repair of historic buildings. This volume includes the following topics: characterisation of historic mortars (methods, interpretation, application of results), development of new materials for conservation (compatibility, durability, mix designs), the history of mortar technology and fundamental experimental studies of material properties. The papers have been selected from those presented at the 3rd Historic Mortars Conference, held in Glasgow, Scotland, September 11-14th 2013. All the papers here underwent a two stage peer review process, for the conference and again for this volume. In some cases this has resulted in a revision and updating of content.

Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology

Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology
Author: Cristiano Nicosia,Georges Stoops
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2017-10-23
ISBN: 1118941055
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology Book Excerpt:

Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology goes beyond a mere review of current literature and features the most up to date contributions from numerous scientists working in the field. The book represents a groundbreaking and comprehensive resource covering the plethora of applications of micromorphology in archaeology. Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology offers researchers, students and professionals a systematic tool for the interpretation of thin sections of archaeological contexts. This important resource is also designed to help stimulate the use of micromorphology in archaeology outside Europe, where the technique is less frequently employed. Moreover, the authors hope to strengthen the proper application of soil micromorphology in archaeology, by illustrating its possibilities and referring in several cases to more specialized publications (for instance in the field of plant remains, pottery and phytoliths). Written for anyone interested in the topic, this important text offers: Contributions from most of the world's leading authorities on soil micromorphology A series of chapters on the major topics selected among the most recurrent in literature about archaeological soil micromorphology Systematic descriptions of all important micromorphological features Special analytical tools employed on thin sections, such as SEM/EDS, image analysis, fluorescence microscopy, mass spectrometry, among others Numerous cross-references 400 illustrated full-colour plates The resource provides the most current and essential information for archaeologists, geoarchaeologists, soil scientists and sedimentologists. Comprehensive in scope, Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology offers professionals and students a much-needed tool for the interpretation of thin sections of archaeological contexts.

Applied Mineralogy of Cement Concrete

Applied Mineralogy of Cement   Concrete
Author: Maarten A.T.M. Broekmans,Herbert Pöllmann
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 374
Release: 2018-12-17
ISBN: 1501508350
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Applied Mineralogy of Cement Concrete Book Excerpt:

Volume 74 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry contains a selection of papers on the applied mineralogy of cement and concrete, by far the most popular modern building material by volume, with an annual production exceeding 9 billion cubic meters, and steadily growing. Not even all 'concrete' topics can be covered by a single volume, but an interesting assortment was finally obtained. The seven chapters deal with mineralogy and chemistry of (alumina) clinker production and hydration (Pöllmann), alternative raw clinkering materials to reduce CO2 emission (Justnes), assessment of clinker constituents by optical and electron microscopy (Stutzman), industrial assessment of raw materials, cement and concrete using X-ray methods in different applications (Meier et al.), in situ investigation of clinker and cement hydration based on quantitative crystallographic phase analysis (Aranda et al.), characterization and properties of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) to improve cement and concrete properties (Snellings et al.), and deleterious alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concrete (Broekmans).

New Trends in Recycled Aggregate Concrete

New Trends in Recycled Aggregate Concrete
Author: Jorge de Brito,Chi Sun Poon,Baojian Zhan
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2019-07-15
ISBN: 3039211404
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Trends in Recycled Aggregate Concrete Book Excerpt:

This book is the result of a Special Issue published in Applied Sciences, entitled “New Trends in Recycled Aggregate Concrete". It identifies emerging research areas within the field of recycled aggregate concrete and contributes to the increased use of this eco-efficient material. Its contents are organised in the following sections: Upscaling the use of recycled aggregate concrete in structural design; Large scale applications of recycled aggregate concrete; Long-term behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete; Performance of recycled aggregate concrete in very aggressive environments; Reliability of recycled aggregate concrete structures; Life cycle assessment of recycled aggregate concrete; New applications of recycled aggregate concrete.

Landscape and History in the Lykos Valley

Landscape and History in the Lykos Valley
Author: Francesco D’Andria,Celal Şimşek
Publsiher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Total Pages: 275
Release: 2017-05-11
ISBN: 1443892297
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Landscape and History in the Lykos Valley Book Excerpt:

This book explores archaeological excavations and investigations into the history of the Lykos valley, Turkey. The contributions discuss the latest discoveries at the Ploutonion of Hierapolis; the excavations of the tabernae in Tripolis; the Lykos Valley in prehistory and the second millennium BC; the origins of the marble used in Hierapolis; and archaeo-botanic studies in Hierapolis, among others. Taken together, all the articles gathered here reveal the strong connections between the cities of the valley.

Ceramic Petrography The Interpretation of Archaeological Pottery Related Artefacts in Thin Section

Ceramic Petrography  The Interpretation of Archaeological Pottery   Related Artefacts in Thin Section
Author: Patrick Sean Quinn
Publsiher: Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
Total Pages: 264
Release: 2013-02-15
ISBN: 1789699428
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ceramic Petrography The Interpretation of Archaeological Pottery Related Artefacts in Thin Section Book Excerpt:

Thin section ceramic petrography is a versatile interdisciplinary analytical tool for the characterization and interpretation of archaeological pottery. Using over 200 photomicrographs of thin sections from a diverse range of artefacts, time periods and geographic regions, this provides comprehensive guidelines for their study within archaeology.

Salt Deterioration of Historic Mortars in Tropical Climate Analysis and Characterisation

Salt Deterioration of Historic Mortars in Tropical Climate  Analysis and Characterisation
Author: Isabela Wilfred Mtani
Publsiher: kassel university press GmbH
Total Pages: 229
Release: 2016-01-01
ISBN: 3737600740
Category: Buildings
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Salt Deterioration of Historic Mortars in Tropical Climate Analysis and Characterisation Book Excerpt:

The contribution of this study to the general body of knowledge is in providing an understanding of the thermodynamic behaviour of soluble salt mixtures in historic buildings located in the tropical marine zone of Tanzania. This tropical zone is found in the eastern part of the country along the Indian Ocean coast. This research is geared towards informing the general public, most of whom believe that salt crystallisation is the main cause of historic buildings deteriorating. This belief emanates from the understanding that historic buildings in a marine environment are highly susceptible to salt crystallisation, more so because they tend to receive daily oceanic spray which contains salt. The problem is aggravated by the encroachment of the ocean on these buildings. Salt crystallisation on these structures is further complicated by air pollution owing to rapid urbanisation in these areas. It is worth noting that salt crystallisation is an extremely complex process and its effect depend on many variables including climate. Ten historic buildings involved in this study are located in three different areas of the country. Eight historic buildings are located in the tropical climate 1 - 200 m from the Indian Ocean, and two historic buildings are located in inland Tanzania 190 km and 589 km from the ocean. These two historic buildings experience a modified tropical climate and semi-arid climate. The criteria for selecting the buildings considered variations and the extent of salt deterioration in different parts of the country.

The main goal of the study was to embark on a detailed analysis of the salt deterioration on Tanzanian historic buildings which has not hitherto been fully investigated and to provide a sustainable solution to the problem through climate control. This solution is needed, since there is no approved conservation programme and as a result of existing government budgetary constraints, very little conservation research has been done on any site or monuments except those registered under UNESCO. The research results of this project contributes to solving the existing monument research gap, thereby stimulating the initiation of a sustainable restoration programme, together with the provision of the much needed government research tools. This research provides information on the type of construction and building materials used during the construction of these buildings. Such information is vital in salt analysis and in futurerestoration, conservation and consolidation of these buildings, which provides a substantial income to the country through the tourist industry. There are also other factors like the preservation of the history and culture of the country and job creation.

The abundance of chloride (Cl-) ions of magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), and potasium (K+) in these buildings as identified by this study explains the survival of the historic buildings in the tropical marine areas of Tanzania. These ions can lead to the formation of halite (NaCl), sylvite (KCl), bischofite (MgCl2•6H2O), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and antarcticite (CaCl2•6H2O), depending on their presence and quantity in the walls of historic buildings. The results of ECOS/RUNSALT program indicate that salt is not the major problem because the major ions hitherto detected form salts like halite and sylvite, are mostly in liquid form. Under a high evaporation rate these salts easily migrate to the surface of the building’s walls whereby a supersaturated solution is formed leading to surface crystallisation. The surface crystallisation is evident in salt profile analysis by photospectrometry, whereby the quantity of soluble salt ions decreases with depth. The detachment of protective rendering, the peeling off of paint and efflorescence in the investigated historic buildings in tropical marine areas of Tanzania is evidence of surface crystallisation. Mirabilite (Na2SO4•10H2O), gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) and epsomite (MgSO4•7H2O) can crystallize in tropical areas. The SO42- and NO3- ions detected in these buildings are so scanty as not to cause ionic interactions needed for the formation of destructive sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) except in the Cooperation Building where SO42- is as high as 1.8 % w/w. However, this is not a trivial problem and should not be ignored, especially because of the destructive nature of Na2SO4 and the increase in air pollution.

Laboratory simulation of the three environmental conditions using two salts, Na2SO4 and NaCl, provided similar results on the exposure of lime mortar samples in 50% Relative Humidity (RH) and 20oC; 75% RH and 28oC and 85% RH and 28oC. Samples exposed to 85% RH and 28oC in a controlled environment showed enormous deterioration due to crystallisation of Na2SO4.

Subsequently, NaCl is the major salt and is always in the solution. Reducing this salt is necessary to avoid associated damage like the formation of microorganisms. Thehygroscopic nature of NaCl retards the drying of materials, hence keeping the walls moist all the time, creating a conducive environment for biocolonisation. Routine desalination is necessary to keep the wall dry. In future, Na2SO4 and magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) will be a problem. Therefore, the RH within a building located in a tropical marine environment should be protected from frequent RH variations to prevent the damage associated with sulphate salts, that is only if the current trend of air pollution (i.e. an increase of 6% (WHO, 2014)) is mantained or increased.

Aging Shaking and Cracking of Infrastructures

Aging  Shaking  and Cracking of Infrastructures
Author: Victor E. Saouma,M. Amin Hariri-Ardebili
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 1115
Release: 2021-04-13
ISBN: 3030574342
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Aging Shaking and Cracking of Infrastructures Book Excerpt:

This self-contained book focuses on the safety assessment of existing structures subjected to multi-hazard scenarios through advanced numerical methods. Whereas the focus is on concrete dams and nuclear containment structures, the presented methodologies can also be applied to other large-scale ones. The authors explains how aging and shaking ultimately lead to cracking, and how these complexities are compounded by their random nature. Nonlinear (static and transient) finite element analysis is hence integrated with both earthquake engineering and probabilistic methods to ultimately derive capacity or fragility curves through a rigorous safety assessment. Expanding its focus beyond design aspects or the state of the practice (i.e., codes), this book is composed of seven sections: Fundamentals: theoretical coverage of solid mechnics, plasticity, fracture mechanics, creep, seismology, dynamic analysis, probability and statistics Damage: that can affect concrete structures, such as cracking of concrete, AAR, chloride ingress, and rebar corrosion, Finite Element: formulation for both linear and nonlinear analysis including stress, heat and fracture mechanics, Engineering Models: for soil/fluid-structure interaction, uncertainty quantification, probablilistic and random finite element analysis, machine learning, performance based earthquake engineering, ground motion intensity measures, seismic hazard analysis, capacity/fragility functions and damage indeces, Applications to dams through potential failure mode analyses, risk-informed decision making, deterministic and probabilistic examples, Applications to nuclear structures through modeling issues, aging management programs, critical review of some analyses, Other applications and case studies: massive RC structures and bridges, detailed assessment of a nuclear containment structure evaluation for license renewal. This book should inspire students, professionals and most importantly regulators to rigorously apply the most up to date scientific methods in the safety assessment of large concrete structures.

Global Heritage Stone

Global Heritage Stone
Author: J.T. Hannibal,B.J. Cooper,S. Kramar
Publsiher: Geological Society of London
Total Pages: 348
Release: 2020-11-18
ISBN: 1786204088
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Global Heritage Stone Book Excerpt:

Heritage stones are building and ornamental stones that have special significance in human culture. The papers in this volume discuss a wide variety of such materials, including stones from Europe, Asia, North and South America, Africa and Australia. Igneous (basalt, porphyry, granite), sedimentary (sandstone, limestone) and metamorphic (marble, quartzite, gneiss, soapstone, slate) stones are featured. These have been utilized over long periods of time for a wide range of uses contributing to the historic fabric of the built environment. Many of these stones are of international significance, and so are potential Global Heritage Stone Resources, that is stones that have the requisite qualities for international recognition by the Heritage Stones Subcommission of the International Union of Geological Sciences. The papers bring together diverse information on these stones ranging from their geological setting and quarry locations to mechanical properties, current availability, and uses over time. As such the papers can serve as an entry into the literature on these important stones.