Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops

Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops
Author: Pardeep Singh,Anwesha Borthakur,Aditya Abha Singh,Ajay Kumar,Kshitij K. Singh
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 578
Release: 2020-11-20
ISBN: 0128209453
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops Book Excerpt:

Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops: A Global Perspective contains both theoretical and empirical evidence of a broad range of aspects of GM crop policies throughout the world. Emphasizing world agriculture production and ethics of GM crops, the book balances insights into the various discussions around the use of GM crops including soil health, effects on animals, environmental sustainability impact, and ethical issues. The book presents aspects of GM crop policies and prevailing controversies throughout the world, in 5 sections containing 23 chapters. Beginning with the discussion of the policies related to GM crops, the book dives deep into issues related to food insecurity, agricultural sustainability, food safety, and environmental risks. Section 5 also captures the recent advances in agricultural biotechnology encompassing research trends, the nano-biotech approach to plant genetic engineering, and other transformation techniques in crop development. The contributors of the book represent different backgrounds, providing a holistic overview of diverse approaches and perspectives. Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops: A Global Perspective is a valuable resource for researchers in agricultural policy and economics, agricultural biotechnology, soil science, genetic engineering, ethics, environmental management, sustainable development, and NGOs. Discusses ethics, varieties, research trends, success, and challenges of genetic modification Addresses both crop production and potential health impacts Includes extensive theoretical research and studies

GM Crop Policies and Challenges

GM Crop Policies and Challenges
Author: Pardeep Singh,Anwesha Borthakur,Rishikesh Singh,Ajay Kumar
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2022-01-17
ISBN: 9780323851459
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

GM Crop Policies and Challenges Book Excerpt:

Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops: Global Policies and Practices contains both theoretical and empirical evidence of a broad range of aspects of GM crop policies throughout the world. Emphasizing world agriculture production and ethics of GM crops, the book balances insights into the various discussions around the use of GM crops including soil health, effects on animals, environmental sustainability impact, and ethical issues. Modern agriculture is directly and explicitly characterized by the adoption of new technologies, their developmental processes and emerging scientific approaches. The recent trends of agriculture are not limited to capital-intensive agricultural production. GM is increasingly regarded as an option in transforming traditional agriculture practices to modern and more efficient means of feeding the world. This book will be useful for researchers in agricultural policy and economics, agricultural biotechnology, soil science, genetic engineering, ethics, environmental management, sustainable development and NGOs. Discusses ethics, varieties, research trends, and success stories of genetic modification Includes both crop production and human health impacts Compares and contrasts GM policies from around the world

The Politics of Precaution

The Politics of Precaution
Author: Robert L. Paarlberg
Publsiher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2001-09-17
ISBN: 0801868238
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Politics of Precaution Book Excerpt:

Genetically modified (GM) food crops have inspired increasing controversy over the past decade. By the mid-1990s they were widely grown in the U.S., Canada, and Argentina, but precautionary regulations continue to limit their use elsewhere. The restrictive policies of Europe and Japan toward GM crops have been much discussed. Less attention has been paid to the policies affecting the adoption of GM crops in the developing world, where their potential impact on the availability and quality of food is even greater. In this book Robert Paarlberg looks at the policy choices regarding GM food made by four important developing countries: Kenya, Brazil, India, and China. Of these, so far only China has approved the planting of GM crops. Paarlberg identifies five policy areas in which governments of developing countries can either support or discourage GM crops: intellectual property rights, biosafety, trade, food safety, and public research and investment. He notes that highly cautious biosafety policies have so far been the key reason that Kenya, Brazil, and India have hesitated to plant GM crops. These cautious policies have been strongly reinforced by international market forces and international diplomatic and NGO pressures. China has been less cautious toward GM crops, in part because there is less opportunity in China for international organizations or independent critics of GM crops to challenge official policy.

Biotechnology Regulation and Trade

Biotechnology Regulation and Trade
Author: Stuart J. Smyth,William A. Kerr,Peter W. B Phillips
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 275
Release: 2017-03-02
ISBN: 3319532952
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biotechnology Regulation and Trade Book Excerpt:

This book discusses the regulatory and trade challenges facing the global adoption of biotechnological products and offers strategies for overcoming these obstacles and moving towards greater global food security. The first section of the book establishes the context of the conflict, discussing the challenges of global governance, international trade, and the history of regulation of genetically modified (GM) crops. In this section, the authors emphasize the shift from exclusively science-based regulation to the more socio-economically focused framework established by the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, which was adopted in 2000. The second section of the book provides a snapshot of the current state of international GM crop adoption and regulation, highlighting the US, Canada, and the EU. The final section of the book identifies options for breaking the gridlock of regulation and trade that presently exist. This book adds to the current literature by providing new information about innovative agricultural technologies and encouraging debate by providing an alternative to the narratives espoused by environmental non-governmental organizations. This book will appeal to students of economics, political science, and policy analysis, as well as members of regulatory agencies and agricultural industry firms.

Regulating Next Generation Agri Food Biotechnologies

Regulating Next Generation Agri Food Biotechnologies
Author: Michael Howlett,David Laycock
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2013-05-07
ISBN: 1136338446
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Regulating Next Generation Agri Food Biotechnologies Book Excerpt:

Agri-food bio-technology policy and regulation is transitioning from an early period focused on genetic engineering technologies to ‘next-generation’ rules and regulatory processes linked to challenges originating in a wide variety of new technological processes and applications. Can lessons learned from past and current regulatory oversights of agricultural biotechnology – and other high-technology sectors – help us address new and emerging regulatory challenges in the agri-food genetics sector? The expert contributors in this volume discuss the experiences of a wide range of North American, European and Asian countries with high technology regulation to address four key questions related to the past and future development of agri-food genomics regulation across the globe. how unique is agri-food biotechology regulation, and how can it be evaluated using the existing tools of regulatory analysis developed in examinations of other sectors? is a ‘government to governance’ model of regulatory regime development found in many other sectors relevant in this rapidly evolving sphere of activity? is a stages model of regulatory regime development accurate? And, if so, at which stage are we currently positioned in the regulation of agri-food genomics products and technologies? what drives movement between stages in different countries and sectors? In assessing such drivers, what are the key links between sectoral (meso) developments and more general macro and micro developments such as international relations and administrative behaviour? By updating, extending and challenging earlier empirical and theoretical social science perspectives on agricultural bio-technological regulation, this volume helps to inform future policy formulation. It will be of interest to practitioners and students of biotechnology, agriculture, and science and technology policy, and regulatory processes more generally.

Genetically Modified Crops

Genetically Modified Crops
Author: Nuffield Council on Bioethics
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 164
Release: 1999
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Agronomy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetically Modified Crops Book Excerpt:

This report examines the ethical and social issues associated with the development and cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops, particularly in relation to: the scientific background and techniques used in genetic modification; the potential of GM crops; commercial and legal implications; implications for the developing world; consumer concerns; environmental concerns; regulation and policy issues.

Biological Resource Management in Agriculture Challenges and Risks of Genetically Engineered Organisms

Biological Resource Management in Agriculture Challenges and Risks of Genetically Engineered Organisms
Author: OECD
Publsiher: OECD Publishing
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2004-08-30
ISBN: 9264108785
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biological Resource Management in Agriculture Challenges and Risks of Genetically Engineered Organisms Book Excerpt:

This book discusses the often diverging risks and opportunities associated with genetically engineered organisms in terms of the environment, food safety, and economics and trade.

Governing the GM Crop Revolution

Governing the GM Crop Revolution
Author: Peter Gruhn,Robert L. Paarlberg,Francesco Goletti,Montague Yudelman
Publsiher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Total Pages: 36
Release: 2000
ISBN: 0896296385
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Governing the GM Crop Revolution Book Excerpt:

Towards a new regulatory framework for GM crops in the European Union

Towards a new regulatory framework for GM crops in the European Union
Author: Leire Escajedo San-Epifanio
Publsiher: Wageningen Academic Publishers
Total Pages: 210
Release: 2017-09-11
ISBN: 9086868452
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Towards a new regulatory framework for GM crops in the European Union Book Excerpt:

Aware of the significant potential of nascent biotechnologies, the European Economic Community (the predecessor to the European Union) was one of the first regions in the world to develop a regulatory framework for them. Back in the 1980s, the objective of Community member countries was to strengthen the standards of consensus and collaboration, and of environmental and health safety, as well as to promote an industrial sector of enormous potential. In spite of all effort, towards the end of the 1990s it was a widely accepted fact that a number of political and economic factors were blocking the development of biotechnology in Europe. From that crisis emerged what in some aspects is probably the most comprehensive and rigorous body of regulations for biotechnology in the world today. However, the very high technical level of those regulations did not prevent a new crisis which EU institutions aim to solve with a new regulatory framework. Thus, since March 2015, the way towards the third regulatory framework for Biotechnology in the EU has been open. Will this third regulatory framework finally offer sufficient guarantees to allow a healthy and sustainable development of biotechnology in the EU? What do we need to do so that 'third time is lucky'? In this work, a group of European and non-European experts, from different disciplines and approaches, discuss the past and the present, as well as the various possible futures, of Genetically Modified Crops in the EU.

Genetically modified crops in Africa

Genetically modified crops in Africa
Author: Falck-Zepeda, José Benjamin,Gruère, Guillaume P.,Sithole-Niang, Idah
Publsiher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Total Pages: 244
Release: 2013-10-02
ISBN: 0896297950
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetically modified crops in Africa Book Excerpt:

A variable climate, political instability, and other constraints have limited agricultural development in African countries south of the Sahara. Genetically modified (GM) crops are one tool for enhancing agricultural productivity and food security despite such constraints. Genetically Modified Crops in Africa: Economic and Policy Lessons from Countries South of the Sahara investigates how this tool might be effectively used by evaluating the benefits, costs, and risks for African countries of adopting GM crops. The authors gather together studies on GM crops’ economic effects and impact on trade, how consumers view such crops, and other issues. They find that GM crops have had, on average, a positive economic effect in the nations where they were used and identify future steps for enhancing GM crop adoption’s positive effects. Promising policy initiatives include making biosafety regulations that do not make GM crop development prohibitively expensive, fostering intraregional trade in GM crops, and providing more and better information about GM crops to consumers who might currently be skeptical of them. These and other findings in Genetically Modified Crops in Africa indicate ways biotechnology can contribute to economic development in Africa south of the Sahara.

International Trade and Policies for Genetically Modified Products

International Trade and Policies for Genetically Modified Products
Author: Robert Eugene Evenson,V. Santaniello
Publsiher: CABI
Total Pages: 208
Release: 2006
ISBN: 0851990568
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

International Trade and Policies for Genetically Modified Products Book Excerpt:

Part 1: Analytical Studies: 1.Biotechnology risks and project interdependence, Odin K. Knudsen and Pasquale L. Scandizzo. 2. Restricted monopoly R & D pricing: uncertainty, irreversibility and non-market effect, Robert D. Weaver and Justus Wesseler. 3. Biotechnology and the emergence of club behavior in agricultural trade, Monika Tothova and James F. Oehmke. 4. The labelling of genetically modified products in a global trading environment, Stefania Scandizzo. Part 2: Empirical trade studies: 5. Tree biotechnology: regulation and international trade, Roger A. Sedjo. 6. Commercialized products of biotechnology and trade pattern effects, Stuart Smyth, William A. Kerr and Kelley A. Davey. Part 3: Spillover dimensions: 7. The coexistence of GM and non-GM arable crops in the EU: economic and market considerations, Graham Brookes. 8. Research spillovers in biotech industry: The case of canola, Richard S. Gray, Stavroula Malla and Kien Tran. 9. Mergers, acquisitions and flows of agbiotech intellectual property, David Schimmelpfennig and John King. 10. The Impact of regulation on the development of new products in the food industry, Klaus Menrad and Knut Blind. Part 4: Intellectual property rights. 11. Patents versus plant varietal protection, Derek Eaton and Frank van Tongerun. 12. Governing innovative science: challenges facing the commercialization of plant-made pharmaceuticals, Stuart Smyth, George Khachatourians and Peter W.B. Phillips. 13. Are GURTs needed to remedy intellectual property failures and environmental Problems with GM Crops?, Geoff Budd. Part 5: Applied general equilibrium trade models 14. Economic effects of producing or banning G.M. crops, Janine Flatau and P. Michael Schmitz. 15. Opposition to genetically modified wheat and global food security, Faycal Haggui, Peter W.B. Phillips and Richard S. Gray. 16. International impacts of Bt cotton adoption, George B. Frisvold, Russell Trosvold, Russell Tronstad and Jeanne M. Reeves.

Meeting Policy Challenges for a Sustainable Bioeconomy

Meeting Policy Challenges for a Sustainable Bioeconomy
Author: OECD
Publsiher: OECD Publishing
Total Pages: 196
Release: 2018-04-19
ISBN: 9264292349
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Meeting Policy Challenges for a Sustainable Bioeconomy Book Excerpt:

This publication investigates key aspects surrounding the sustainability of bioeconomy development: the use of biomass as feedstock for future production; the design and building of biorefineries for the manufacture of a range of fuels, chemicals and materials, and also for electricity generation.

The Oxford Handbook of U S Environmental Policy

The Oxford Handbook of U S  Environmental Policy
Author: Sheldon Kamieniecki,Michael Kraft
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 764
Release: 2013
ISBN: 019974467X
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Oxford Handbook of U S Environmental Policy Book Excerpt:

Prior to the Nixon administration, environmental policy in the United States was rudimentary at best. Since then, it has evolved into one of the primary concerns of governmental policy from the federal to the local level. As scientific expertise on the environment rapidly developed, Americans became more aware of the growing environmental crisis that surrounded them. Practical solutions for mitigating various aspects of the crisis - air pollution, water pollution, chemical waste dumping, strip mining, and later global warming - became politically popular, and the government responded by gradually erecting a vast regulatory apparatus to address the issue. Today, politicians regard environmental policy as one of the most pressing issues they face. The Obama administration has identified the renewable energy sector as a key driver of economic growth, and Congress is in the process of passing a bill to reduce global warming that will be one of the most important environmental policy acts in decades. The Oxford Handbook of U.S. Environmental Policy will be a state-of-the-art work on all aspects of environmental policy in America. Over the past half century, America has been the world's leading emitter of global warming gases. However, environmental policy is not simply a national issue. It is a global issue, and the explosive growth of Asian countries like China and India mean that policy will have to be coordinated at the international level. The book will therefore focus not only on the U.S., but on the increasing importance of global policies and issues on American regulatory efforts. This is a topic that will only grow in importance in the coming years, and this will serve as an authoritative guide to any scholar interested in the issue.

Emerging Policy Issues in Synthetic Biology

Emerging Policy Issues in Synthetic Biology
Author: OECD
Publsiher: OECD Publishing
Total Pages: 168
Release: 2014-06-04
ISBN: 9264208429
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Emerging Policy Issues in Synthetic Biology Book Excerpt:

This book examines policy issues in synthetic biology including R&D funding, company investment, PPP arrangements and innovative financing, infrastructure requirements, education and training, intellectual property (IP), regulation, and public engagement.

Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability

Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 1894
Release: 2018-11-08
ISBN: 0128126884
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability Book Excerpt:

The Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability covers the hottest topics in the science of food sustainability, providing a synopsis of the path society is on to secure food for a growing population. It investigates the focal issue of sustainable food production in relation to the effects of global change on food resources, biodiversity and global food security. This collection of methodological approaches and knowledge derived from expert authors around the world offers the research community, food industry, scientists and students with the knowledge to relate to, and report on, the novel challenges of food production and sustainability. This comprehensive encyclopedia will act as a platform to show how an interdisciplinary approach and closer collaboration between the scientific and industrial communities is necessary to strengthen our existing capacity to generate and share research data. Offers readers a ‘one-stop’ resource on the topic of food security and sustainability Contains articles split into sections based on the various dimensions of Food Security and Food Sustainability Written by academics and practitioners from various fields and regions with a “farm to fork understanding Includes concise and accessible chapters, providing an authoritative introduction for non-specialists and readers from undergraduate level upwards, as well as up-to-date foundational content for those familiar with the field

The Limits to Governance

The Limits to Governance
Author: Theo Papaioannou
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 300
Release: 2016-03-03
ISBN: 1317025296
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Limits to Governance Book Excerpt:

Does the state still frame debates about new technology? Can policy-makers ensure the benefits of health developments through genomics while still satisfying the expectations of society and the economic imperatives? In this critique of the new governance agenda for research and innovation in life sciences, the authors discuss the world-wide policy decisions needed, with particular reference to genomics. They suggest the many facets of policy and could be treated as a government-governance continuum, where different aspects of genomics may sit at different points, and co-exist. Their findings offer valuable insights for the future and will help promote a global solution to this problem.

Environmental Pest Management

Environmental Pest Management
Author: Moshe Coll,Eric Wajnberg
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 448
Release: 2017-10-02
ISBN: 1119255554
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Pest Management Book Excerpt:

18.4 Characteristics of Top-down, Environmental Pest Management -- References -- Index -- EULA

Governing Risk in GM Agriculture

Governing Risk in GM Agriculture
Author: Michael Baram,Mathilde Bourrier
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2010-11-08
ISBN: 1139495402
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Governing Risk in GM Agriculture Book Excerpt:

This book addresses the issues and methods involved in governing risks posed by genetically modified (GM) agriculture. It examines the evolution of policies intended to ensure the safety of GM crops and food products in the United States and Europe and the regulatory approaches and other social controls employed to protect human health, the environment, conventional farming and foods, and the interests and rights of consumers. Discussion encompasses the cultural, political and economic forces that shape the design and application of the methods of risk governance, as well as other contextual features such as the influence of multinational companies seeking acceptance of their GM ventures. This discussion also examines the influence of the dynamic public discourse fostered by progressive concepts of risk governance and the approaches taken to meet its demands for transparency, public participation and appropriate consideration of public perceptions and values despite conflicting views of experts.

Food Farms and Solidarity

Food  Farms  and Solidarity
Author: Chaia Heller
Publsiher: Duke University Press
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2013-01-28
ISBN: 0822394804
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Food Farms and Solidarity Book Excerpt:

The Confédération Paysanne, one of France's largest farmers' unions, has successfully fought against genetically modified organisms (GMOs), but unlike other allied movements, theirs has been led by producers rather than consumers. In Food, Farms, and Solidarity, Chaia Heller analyzes the group's complex strategies and campaigns, including a call for a Europe-wide ban on GM crops and hormone-treated beef, and a protest staged at a McDonald's. Her study of the Confédération Paysanne shows the challenges small farms face in a postindustrial agricultural world. Heller also reveals how the language the union uses to argue against GMOs encompasses more than the risks they pose; emphasizing solidarity has allowed farmers to focus on food as a cultural practice and align themselves with other workers. Heller's examination of the Confédération Paysanne's commitment to a vision of alter-globalization, the idea of substantive alternatives to neoliberal globalization, demonstrates how ecological and social justice can be restored in the world.

Global food security ethical and legal challenges

Global food security  ethical and legal challenges
Author: Carlos M. Romeo Casabona,Leire Escajedo San Epifanio,Aitziber Emaldi Cirión
Publsiher: Wageningen Academic Publishers
Total Pages: 532
Release: 2010-08-10
ISBN: 9086867103
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Global food security ethical and legal challenges Book Excerpt:

Food security will exist when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life (as stated in the Rome Declaration in 1996). Given the dimension of the current global food crisis, food security means adopting effective and specific actions at individual, household, national, regional and global levels. Food security invites us to reflect upon ethical principles like human equity, justice between current and future generations, respect for human dignity and sustainable food production. We strive to maintain our basic ethical convictions and engage in societal debates about other important values. While we do this, we may have to change our ways of life and learn to create new priorities in the face of global responsibility. Science and technology are key tools to reach the Millenium Goals, providing both society and decision makers alike with relevant information and new options within an ethical framework. The contributions found in this publication bring together the perspectives of a diverse group of authors. Coming from the academic world, the public sector and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), they provide the latest views on ‘Global food security: ethical and legal challenges’.