God And Reason In The Middle Ages

Author by : Edward Grant
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : This book shows how the Age of Reason actually began during the late Middle Ages.


Philosophy And Theology In The Middle Ages

Author by : G. R. Evans
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : In the ancient world being a philosopher was a practical alternative to being a christian. Philosophical systems offered intellectual, practical and moral codes for living. By the Middle Ages however philosophy was largely, though inconsistently, incorporated into Christian belef. From the end of the Roman Empire to the Reformation and Renaissance of the sixteenth century Christian theologians had a virtual monopoly on higher education. The complex interaction between theology and philosophy, which was the result of the efforts of Christian leaders and thinkers to assimilate the most sophisticated ideas of science and secular learning into their own system of thought, is the subject of this book. Augustine, as the most widely read author in the Middle Ages, is the starting point. Dr Evans then discusses the classical sources in general which the medieval scholar would have had access to when he wanted to study philosophy and its theological implications. Part I ends with an analysis of the problems of logic, language and rhetoric. In Part II the sequence of topics - God, cosmos, man follow the outline of the summa, or systematic encyclopedia of theology, which developed from the twelfth century as a text book framework. Does God exist? What is he like? What are human beings? Is there a purpose to their lives? These are the great questions of philosophy and religion and the issues to which the medieval theologian addressed himself. From `divine simplicity' to ethics and politics, this book is a lively introduction to the debates and ideas of the Middle Ages.


A History Of Natural Philosophy

Author by : Edward Grant
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : This book describes how natural philosophy and exact mathematical sciences joined together to make the Scientific Revolution possible.


An Introduction To Medieval Philosophy

Author by : Joseph W. Koterski
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Description : By exploring the philosophical character of some of the greatest medieval thinkers, An Introduction to Medieval Philosophy provides a rich overview of philosophy in the world of Latin Christianity. Explores the deeply philosophical character of such medieval thinkers as Augustine, Boethius, Eriugena, Anselm, Aquinas, Bonaventure, Scotus, and Ockham Reviews the central features of the epistemological and metaphysical problem of universals Shows how medieval authors adapted philosophical ideas from antiquity to apply to their religious commitments Takes a broad philosophical approach of the medieval era by,taking account of classical metaphysics, general culture, and religious themes


Life In The Middle Ages Volume 1 2 Religion Folk Lore And Superstition Chronicles Science And Art

Author by : G. G. Coulton
Languange : en
Publisher by : CUP Archive
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Description : Life in the Middle Ages will appeal to readers who want to get behind the generalizations of historians by reference to the raw material. This collection of documents covers a wide field. The topics range form clergy and laity, saints and sinners, to love, battles, pageants and some details of everyday life. The extracts are drawn from documentary material in six languages and the majority were translated for this collection; they represent thirty years' study among all kinds of medieval writings and have been chosen as specially representative of the period. The full collection is now published in two parts. The first encompasses 'Religion, Folklore and Superstition', and 'Chronicles, Science and Art', and the second, 'Men and Manners', and 'Monks, Friars and Nuns'.


Theology And The Scientific Imagination

Author by : Amos Funkenstein
Languange : en
Publisher by : Princeton University Press
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Description : Theology and the Scientific Imagination is a pioneering work of intellectual history that transformed our understanding of the relationship between Christian theology and the development of science. Distinguished scholar Amos Funkenstein explores the metaphysical foundations of modern science and shows how, by the 1600s, theological and scientific thinking had become almost one. Major figures like Descartes, Leibniz, Newton, and others developed an unprecedented secular theology whose debt to medieval and scholastic thought shaped the trajectory of the scientific revolution. The book ends with Funkenstein’s influential analysis of the seventeenth century’s “unprecedented fusion” of scientific and religious language. Featuring a new foreword, Theology and the Scientific Imagination is a pathbreaking and classic work that remains a fundamental resource for historians and philosophers of science.


The Foundations Of Modern Science In The Middle Ages

Author by : Edward Grant
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : This 1997 book views the substantive achievements of the Middle Ages as they relate to early modern science.


God And The Goddesses

Author by : Barbara Newman
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Pennsylvania Press
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Description : Contrary to popular belief, the medieval religious imagination did not restrict itself to masculine images of God but envisaged the divine in multiple forms. In fact, the God of medieval Christendom was the Father of only one Son but many daughters—including Lady Philosophy, Lady Love, Dame Nature, and Eternal Wisdom. God and the Goddesses is a study in medieval imaginative theology, examining the numerous daughters of God who appear in allegorical poems, theological fictions, and the visions of holy women. We have tended to understand these deities as mere personifications and poetic figures, but that, Barbara Newman contends, is a mistake. These goddesses are neither pagan survivals nor versions of the Great Goddess constructed in archetypal psychology, but distinctive creations of the Christian imagination. As emanations of the Divine, mediators between God and the cosmos, embodied universals, and ravishing objects of identification and desire, medieval goddesses transformed and deepened Christendom's concept of God, introducing religious possibilities beyond the ambit of scholastic theology and bringing them to vibrant imaginative life. Building a bridge between secular and religious conceptions of allegorized female power, Newman advances such questions as whether medieval writers believed in their goddesses and, if so, in what manner. She investigates whether the personifications encountered in poetic fictions can be distinguished from those that appear in religious visions and questions how medieval writers reconcile their statements about the multiple daughters of God with orthodox devotion to the Son of God. Furthermore, she examines why forms of feminine God-talk that strike many Christians today as subversive or heretical did not threaten medieval churchmen. Weaving together such disparate texts as the writings of Latin and vernacular poets, medieval schoolmen, liturgists, and male and female mystics and visionaries, God and the Goddesses is a direct challenge to modern theologians to reconsider the role of goddesses in the Christian tradition.


God S Philosophers

Author by : James Hannam
Languange : en
Publisher by : Icon Books Ltd
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Description : This is a powerful and a thrilling narrative history revealing the roots of modern science in the medieval world. The adjective 'medieval' has become a synonym for brutality and uncivilized behavior. Yet without the work of medieval scholars there could have been no Galileo, no Newton and no Scientific Revolution. In "God's Philosophers", James Hannam debunks many of the myths about the Middle Ages, showing that medieval people did not think the earth is flat, nor did Columbus 'prove' that it is a sphere; the Inquisition burnt nobody for their science nor was Copernicus afraid of persecution; no Pope tried to ban human dissection or the number zero. "God's Philosophers" is a celebration of the forgotten scientific achievements of the Middle Ages - advances which were often made thanks to, rather than in spite of, the influence of Christianity and Islam. Decisive progress was also made in technology: spectacles and the mechanical clock, for instance, were both invented in thirteenth-century Europe. Charting an epic journey through six centuries of history, "God's Philosophers" brings back to light the discoveries of neglected geniuses like John Buridan, Nicole Oresme and Thomas Bradwardine, as well as putting into context the contributions of more familiar figures like Roger Bacon, William of Ockham and Saint Thomas Aquinas.


After God With Reason Alone Saikat Guha Commemorative Volume

Author by : Saikat Guha
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge Scholars Pub
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Description : Saikat Guha (1974-2008) wrote prolifically on many topics. Trained as a philosopher and physicist, Guha was interested in topics ranging from sexual ethics to Bell's Theorem to Anselm's ontological argument to Augustine's persecution of the Donatists - though he was primarily a metaphysician. Guha studied at the University of Texas at Austin, Boise State University, the University of Washington at Seattle, and Syracuse University. He wrote more than one hundred papers from roughly 1997-2006, five of which are published here. Three of these papers reformulate some of Aquinas' key doctrines on God: his first, second, and third ways, and his account of how necessity of being entails absolute perfection. The fourth paper considers whether Ockham's razor requires the presumption of atheism. The fifth paper presents a logical model of the doctrine of the Trinity in order to prove that the doctrine can be understood without logical contradiction.


The Genesis Of Science

Author by : James Hannam
Languange : en
Publisher by : Simon and Schuster
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Description : The Not-So-Dark Dark Ages What they forgot to teach you in school: People in the Middle Ages did not think the world was flat The Inquisition never executed anyone because of their scientific ideologies It was medieval scientific discoveries, including various methods, that made possible Western civilization’s “Scientific Revolution” As a physicist and historian of science James Hannam debunks myths of the Middle Ages in his brilliant book The Genesis of Science: How the Christian Middle Ages Launched the Scientific Revolution. Without the medieval scholars, there would be no modern science. Discover the Dark Ages and their inventions, research methods, and what conclusions they actually made about the shape of the world.


Whose Will Be Done

Author by : John Dyck
Languange : en
Publisher by : Lexington Books
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Description : This collection of essays considers the relationship of sovereignty and religion in numerous contexts. Designed for scholars and students of political theory, philosophy, and religion, the essays contained in this volume will stimulate debate in the classroom and beyond.


Western Philosophy

Author by : James Nicholas Jordan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Pearson
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Description : Twenty-six hundred years ago, among the Ionian Greeks, there arose the kind of reasoned inquiry after truth that characterizes philosophy in Western civilization. A path with many twists and turns (and desolate stretches as well) is traceable from this ancient beginning to the types of philosophy pursued in the West today. The aim of the present volume is to acquaint the reader with landmarks along this path as far as the end of the Middle Ages, until about 1350, when the Renaissance began its work of shaping the modern era. Western philosophers of the Ancient and Medieval periods have had great influence not only upon later philosophers but also upon the general culture of the West. Politics, religion, the arts, the sciences, the very notions that pass for common sense -- all have been complexly affected, directly and indirectly, by the philosophical methods and findings of Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Plotinus, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, Ockham, and others to be examined herein. Some knowledge of these thinkers is essential to any real understanding of the whys and wherefores of Western cultural history. Moreover, because most of the philosophicl issues investigated in modern times first came up in Ancient or Medieval discussions, a grasp of the latter is necessary to a just estimate of more recent discussions and to an avoidance of blind alleys and delayed insights in one's own philosophical reflections. It is also true that the ideas and intellectual careers of Ancient and Medieval philosophers are matters of absorbing interest on their own account. Simply as personalities these thinkers are extraordinary, and their respective contributions toward overcoming the "reign of chaos and old night" are among the noblest of human achievements. - Introductory note.


Peter Abelard

Author by : Leif Grane
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : Originally published in 1970, Peter Abelard provides an exploration into the social and religious background to the story of Abelard and Heloise. The book presents the twelfth century as an age of renaissance, which saw the revival of Greek philosophy and Roman law, a renaissance just as important as that which was to come three centuries later. Through an examination of the life of Peter Abelard, the book offers an insight into this age of enlightenment in which dialects flourished and religious thought began to break away from the bonds of traditionalism. Peter Abelard will appeal to those with an interest in religious and social history, medieval history, and the story of Abelard and Heloise.


A Companion To Philosophy In The Middle Ages

Author by : Jorge J. E. Gracia
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Description : This comprehensive reference volume features essays by some of the most distinguished scholars in the field. Provides a comprehensive "who's who" guide to medieval philosophers. Offers a refreshing mix of essays providing historical context followed by 140 alphabetically arranged entries on individual thinkers. Constitutes an extensively cross-referenced and indexed source. Written by a distinguished cast of philosophers. Spans the history of medieval philosophy from the fourth century AD to the fifteenth century.


Vengeance In The Middle Ages

Author by : Paul R. Hyams
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : This volume aims to balance the traditional literature available on medieval feuding with an exploration of other aspects of vengeance and culture in the Middle Ages. A diverse assortment of interdisciplinary essays from scholars in Europe and North America contest or enlarge traditional approaches to and interpretations of vengeance in the Middle Ages. Each essay attempts to clarify the multifaceted experience of vengeance within a specific medieval context”a particular region, a particular text, a particular social movement. By asking what relationship a distinct factor like authorship or religion has with the concept of vengeance, each author points towards the breadth of meanings of medieval vengeance, and to the heart of the deeper and broader questions that spur scholarly interest in the subject. Geographically, the essays in the volume highlight Western Europe (particularly the Anglo-Norman world), Scotland, Ireland, Spain, and Portugal. Thematically, the essays are concerned with heroic cultures of vengeance, vengeance as a legal and political tool, Christian justification and expression of vengeance, literature and the distinction between discourse and reality, and the emotions of vengeance. Methodologically, these interdisciplinary studies incorporate tools borrowed from anthropology, the study of emotion, and modern social and literary theories. This volume is aimed at professional scholars and graduate students within the broad field of medieval studies, including the subfields of history, literature, and religious studies, and is intended to inspire further research on medieval vengeance. However, this collection will also prove interesting to non-medievalists interested in the history of emotion, the justification of human conflict, and the concept of feud and its applicability to specific historical periods.


The Nature Of Natural Philosophy In The Late Middle Ages Studies In Philosophy And The History Of Philosophy Volume 52

Author by : Edward Grant
Languange : en
Publisher by : CUA Press
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Description : In this volume, distinguished scholar Edward Grant identifies the vital elements that contributed to the creation of a widespread interest in natural philosophy, which has been characterized as the "Great Mother of the Sciences."


The Spirit Of Mediaeval Philosophy

Author by : Etienne Gilson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press
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Description : **** A reprint of Gilson's estimable book of 1936 (Sheed and Ward) (endorsed by BCL3). These 20 lectures were delivered as Gifford Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR


Physical Science In The Middle Ages

Author by : Edward Grant
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : This concise introduction to the history of physical science in the Middle Ages begins with a description of the feeble state of early medieval science and its revitalization during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, as evidenced by the explosion of knowledge represented by extensive translations of Greek and Arabic treatises. The content and concepts that came to govern science from the late twelfth century onwards were powerfully shaped and dominated by the science and philosophy of Aristotle. It is, therefore, by focussing attention on problems and controversies associated with Aristotelian science that the reader is introduced to the significant scientific developments and interpretations formulated in the later Middle Ages. The concluding chapter presents a new interpretation of the medieval failure to abandon the physics and cosmology of Aristotle and explains why, despite serious criticisms, they were not generally repudiated during this period. As detailed critical bibliography completes the work.


A History Of Jewish Philosophy In The Middle Ages

Author by : Colette Sirat
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : Jewish medieval philosophy has formed the subject of much research over the past thirty years since the appearance of Gutmann's Philosophies of Judaism, resulting in greater understanding and a new need for summation. This important work, now available in paperback, aims to supply that need, and devotes ample discussion to the major figures of the period like Saadiah Gaon, Maimonides, Abraham Ibn Ezra and Judah Halevi. It also gives much attention to the discussion and presentation of texts by lesser known authors clustering around the greater men and movements.


Magic In The Middle Ages

Author by : Richard Kieckhefer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Total Read : 49
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Description : How was magic practised in medieval times? How did it relate to the diverse beliefs and practices that characterised this fascinating period? In Magic in the Middle Ages Richard Kieckhefer surveys the growth and development of magic in medieval times. He examines its relation to religion, science, philosophy, art, literature and politics before introducing us to the different types of magic that were used, the kinds of people who practised magic, and the reasoning behind their beliefs. In addition, he shows how magic served as a point of contact between the popular and elite classes, how the reality of magical beliefs is reflected in the fiction of medieval literature, and how the persecution of magic and witchcraft led to changes in the law. This book places magic at the crossroads of medieval culture, shedding light on many other aspects of life in the middle ages.


The Intellectual Life Of Western Europe In The Middle Ages

Author by : Richard C. Dales
Languange : en
Publisher by : BRILL
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Description : A connected account of European thought from the Patristic age through the mid-fourteenth century, and emphasizing educational systems, the interaction between the popular and elite cultures, and medieval humanism; with excellent interpretive chapters on science and philosophy.


Soldiers Of Christ

Author by : Thomas F. X. Noble
Languange : en
Publisher by : A&C Black
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Description : To understand European culture and society in the Middle ages it is essential to understand the role of Christianity. And there is no better way to understand that role than to study that religion's greatest human heroes, the saints. For if medieval Christians regarded God as their king, then the saints were the Christian nobility, human members of the divine court. The purpose of Soldiers of Christ: Saints and Saints' Lives from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is to present some of the most significant records of the lives of those people considered to be saints. In exploring these works the reader will be presented with rich evidence about the development of religion and society in western Europe from the late Roman empire to the great changes that transformed European society around the year 1000. Each text is newly annotated and prefaced by the editors, and a general introduction on saints and saints' lives makes this volume ideal for students and general readers alike. Included are lives of Martin of Tours, Augustine of Hippo, Germanus of Auxerre, Boniface of Crediton, Strum, Willibrord, Benedict of Aniane, Leoba, Willehad of Northumbria, and Gerald of Aurillac, as well as the Hodoeporicon of Saint Willibald.


Dissent And Philosophy In The Middle Ages

Author by : Ernest L. Fortin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Lexington Books
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Description : Dissent and Philosophy in the Middle Ages offers scholars of Dante's Divine Comedy an integral understanding of the political, philosophical, and religious context of the medieval masterwork. First penned in French by Ernest L. Fortin, one of America's foremost thinkers in the fields of philosophy and theology, Dissidence et philosophie au moyen-%ge brings to light the complexity of Dante's thought and art, and its relation to the central themes of Western civilization. Available in English for the first time through this superb translation by Marc A. LePain, Dissent and Philosophy will make a supremely important contribution to the discussion of Dante as poet, theologian, and philosopher.


Boethius In The Middle Ages

Author by : Maarten J. F. M. Hoenen
Languange : en
Publisher by : BRILL
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Description : The German philosophical culture of the Middle Ages is inextricable linked to the thought of Albert the Great. This volume brings together 14 papers, which deal with Albert's influence from the points of view of mysticism, philosophy, and the history of universities.


Christendom And Christianity In The Middle Ages

Author by : Adriaan Hendrik Bredero
Languange : en
Publisher by : Eerdmans Publishing Company
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Description : Though buffetted on all sides by rapid and at times cataclysmic social, political, and economic change, the medieval church was able to make adjustments that kept it from becoming simply a fossil from the past rather than an enduring institution of salvation. The dynamic interaction between the medieval church and society gives form to this compelling and well-informed study by Adriaan Bredero. By considering medieval Christianity in full relation to its historical context, Bredero elucidates complex medieval realities - many of which run counter to common modern notions about the Middle Ages. Bredero moves beyond the usual treatment of history by framing his overall discussion in terms of a fascinating and relevant question: To what extent is Christianity today still molded by medieval society? The book begins with an overview of religion and the church in medieval society, from the early Christianization of Western Europe through the fifteenth century. Bredero counters earlier romanticized assessments of the Middle Ages as a thoroughly Christian period by arriving at a definition of Christendom, not in its original sense as the empire of Charlemagne, but rather as "the countries, people, and matters which stood under the influence of Christ." Other chapters develop the following topics: medieval conceptions of reality that are prone to modern misunderstanding, such as a view of time that distinguished the distant, "ancient" past - an ideal, golden age - from the recent, "modern" past - an inferior, sub-Christian time - a concept that led to the rise of millenarianism; the role of Jerusalem in Western Christian thought - as a goal for pilgrims, a motivation for the Crusades, and a source of holy relics; the "Truce of God" movement as an attempt by bishops to restore peace, along with an analysis of its motives, limitations, and consequences; the rise of the Cistercian and Cluniac orders as reform movements within monasticism, with particular attention to the role of Bernard of Clairvaux; the veneration of saints, the nature of sainthood, and the growing authority of the pope in determining who was to be called a "saint"; Peter Abelard and his peculiar adversities; the evolution from the ideals of Francis of Assisi to the lifestyle of the Franciscan order. In an important and particularly intriguing chapter, Bredero deals with anti-Jewish feelings in the Middle Ages, examining how both the medieval church and society at large persecuted the Jews.