GPS for Land Surveyors Third Edition

GPS for Land Surveyors  Third Edition
Author: Jan Van Sickle
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 284
Release: 2001-03-01
ISBN: 9781575040752
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

GPS for Land Surveyors Third Edition Book Excerpt:

The GPS Signal - Biases and Solutions - The Framework - Receivers and Methods - Coordinates - Planning a Survey - Observing - Postprocessing - RTK and DGPS.

GPS for Land Surveyors

GPS for Land Surveyors
Author: Jan Van Sickle
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2008-05-05
ISBN: 0203305221
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

GPS for Land Surveyors Book Excerpt:

Since the last edition of this international bestseller, GPS has grown to become part of a larger international context, the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Both GPS and GNSS technologies are becoming ever more important in the everyday practice of survey and mappers. With GPS for Land Surveyors, Third Edition, a book written by a land s

Laying Down the Lines

Laying Down the Lines
Author: Judy Larmour
Publsiher: Brindle and Glass
Total Pages: 340
Release: 2005
ISBN: 9781897142042
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Laying Down the Lines Book Excerpt:

Between the Fourth Meridian and the Continental Divide is a vast land with some of the most varied landscapes, difficult terrain, and treacherous climates in Canada. The challenge of exploring, surveying and mapping the territory now known as Alberta holds some of the most fascinating stories in the 100-year-old province's history. From the first excursions of David Thompson and John Palliser to the ongoing work of surveying for industry and development, from the first hand-drawn maps and sextants to modern satellite imaging and computer modeling, historian Judy Larmour captures the grand arcs and the fascinating details of the dramatic centuries-long struggle to find and mark place.

Land Surveying Simplified

Land Surveying Simplified
Author: Paul L. Gay
Publsiher: Lulu.com
Total Pages: 106
Release: 2016-06-25
ISBN: 1365206211
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Land Surveying Simplified Book Excerpt:

"This is a book about boundary surveying. It is written for anyone who is interested in how surveys are performed. The book would also be useful for land surveying students who are interested in developing an overall view of how land surveyors go about surveying a parcel of land. This book will provide the reader with a background on boundary surveying techniques and some of the common legal issues which govern boundary establishment. A primary purpose of this book is to acquaint people who are not land surveyors with the principles used by land surveyors to establish boundary lines. The information in this book will be useful to home owners, real estate agents, attorneys, engineers, city planners, building officials, students, bankers, title researchers, GIS practitioners and others. I hope this book will be an important resource for those who have questions relating to boundaries and land surveying in general."--Back cover.

Subdividing the Land

Subdividing the Land
Author: Gaby M. Neunzert
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 172
Release: 2010-11-11
ISBN: 1439827486
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Subdividing the Land Book Excerpt:

Ideally, every tract of land has a description on paper and a physical survey on the ground. When boundary disputes arise, all parties concerned must quickly learn the vocabulary and processes involved with real estate. Written for anyone dealing in real estate transactions, Subdividing the Land: Metes and Bounds and Rectangular Survey Systems provides this background. It defines key legal terms, examines key concepts of Metes and Bounds, the structure of the U.S. Land Survey System and offers many illustrations and tables that clearly explain the concepts. Each state has its own property laws, but the book's material is generic enough to be applicable across the entire United States and even Canada. Taking into account that local laws may be influenced by many factors, the book also covers the roots of English property laws and the effects of French, Spanish, and Mexican legacies. The author discusses topics such as water law, mining claims, and the Metes and Bounds and Torrens system of property registry. He provides a section of basic legal concepts applicable to land transactions and a glossary of special or semi-technical terms. Unlike most other topics related to surveying, there is no math associated with the topics given; yet the subjects can be complex and tricky. Subdividing the Land is a resource of many interrelated topics, and thus presents a knowledge base for land surveyors and the background for handling many types of land transactions conducted by real estate agents, engineers, architects, and lawyers.

Geospatial Technologies in Land Resources Mapping Monitoring and Management

Geospatial Technologies in Land Resources Mapping  Monitoring and Management
Author: G. P. Obi Reddy,S. K. Singh
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 638
Release: 2018-09-11
ISBN: 331978711X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Geospatial Technologies in Land Resources Mapping Monitoring and Management Book Excerpt:

This book offers an overview of geospatial technologies in land resources mapping, monitoring and management. It consists of four main sections: geospatial technologies - principles and applications; geospatial technologies in land resources mapping; geospatial technologies in land resources monitoring; and geospatial technologies in land resources management. Each part is divided into detailed chapters that include illustrations and tables. The authors, from leading institutes, such as the ICAR-NBSS&LUP, IIT-B, NRSC, ICRISAT, share their experiences and offer case studies to provide advanced insights into the field. It is a valuable resource for the scientific and the teaching community, extension scientists at research institutes and agricultural universities/colleges as well as those involved in planning and managing land resources for sustainable agriculture and livelihood security.

Land Surveying Simplified

Land Surveying Simplified
Author: Paul L Gay
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 170
Release: 2021-02-21
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Land Surveying Simplified Book Excerpt:

This is a book about boundary surveying. It is written for anyone who is interested in learning about how boundary surveys are performed. The book will provide the reader with a background on basic boundary surveying techniques and some of the common legal issues encountered during boundary surveying. This is the second edition of the book which substantially enlarges upon the first edition. A chapter on easements has been added. There is more detail on Global Navigational Systems (GNSS or GPS). Lower cost survey grade GNSS receivers are now widely available so surveyors are now able to take advantage of this technology. GNSS can save considerable time and cost while increasing the reliability and permanence of surveys. Nevertheless, use of GNSS has certain limitations which cannot be ignored, and this book discusses some of these issues. The second edition also goes into more detail on state plane coordinate systems which are an integral part of GNSS surveying. Prior to the widespread use of GNSS connecting a survey to state plane was often cost prohibitive but now that GNS is commonly used it is easy and commonplace to have surveys tied to state plane. The second edition discusses the state plane coordinate system and the benefits of using it. At the college level, Land Surveying is usually taught in civil engineering departments. In many ways this makes sense because there is a close relationship between the disciplines of civil engineering and land surveying. In fact, many practicing civil engineers are also licensed as land surveyors. However, there are substantial differences between the professions, particularly with regard to knowledge of the laws relating to real property which all boundary surveyors must understand. For this reason, many states make it unlawful for licensed civil engineers to practice boundary surveying unless they are also licensed as a land surveyor. In many respects boundary surveying has more to do with the legal studies division of a university than the engineering division. In fact, when prospective surveyors take the licensing exams at both the national and local levels, substantial portions of these examinations are legal questions relating to boundaries, easements, professional practice and other legal issues that a lawyer, rather than a civil engineer, may feel more comfortable with. You can't learn to be a competent surveyor by taking a course, acquiring a degree or reading a book - although all of these things help to provide the necessary foundation. Boundary surveying includes the disciplines of mathematics, engineering, science and law. Becoming a licensed boundary surveyor requires years of experience. Although no book can hope to provide this experience, my hope is that this book will provide the reader with some insight into the techniques which surveyors use and the issues which surveyors face on a daily basis. Boundary locations are sometimes difficult to establish with a high level of certainty. With modern electronic measuring devices, surveyors can measure thousands of feet within fractions of a foot simply by pressing a button or clicking on a computer screen. And it only takes a few seconds to get the measurement. It may seem paradoxical that even with this ability surveyors are sometimes unable to determine the actual extent of ownership within several feet - and, occasionally, a great number of feet! This book will help the reader to understand why such uncertainties exist. We will also consider what remedies and solutions may be available to a surveyor.

A Guide to Understanding Land Surveys

A Guide to Understanding Land Surveys
Author: Stephen V. Estopinal
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 249
Release: 2009
ISBN: 0470230584
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Guide to Understanding Land Surveys Book Excerpt:

The nonsurveyor's definitive land survey sourcebook?now extensively updated Over the last several decades, the Internet has allowed individuals with a non-technical background to assume more control of land surveys. But without a clear understanding of how to accurately use land survey data, and faced with the challenges of communicating specific requirements to a professional land surveyor, conflicts often arise that lead to litigation. A Guide to Understanding Land Surveys bridges the ever-expanding communication gap between the users of land boundary information and professional land surveyors. This indispensable guide clearly explains the functions and procedures required in every survey (routine or otherwise), and the role of a surveyor in their investigation and re-establishment. It is a must-have resource for title attorneys, paralegals, realtors, government agents, and others who rely on the information gathered and presented by land surveys. Written in nontechnical language and supported by numerous line drawings, A Guide to Understanding Land Surveys not only helps readers gain a strong familiarity with a survey, plat, or land description, but enables them to accurately evaluate it, detect any inadequacies, and make the proper adjustments to obtain approval. The Third Edition of A Guide to Understanding Land Surveys has been expanded with thirty percent new material and is fully updated to reflect the latest practice guidelines and technology, including the use of GPS and GIS in land boundary re-establishment. Also included is important new material on how technology should be interpreted in assessing the quality and accuracy of a land survey.

Basic GIS Coordinates

Basic GIS Coordinates
Author: Jan Van Sickle
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 196
Release: 2017-07-06
ISBN: 1498774636
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Basic GIS Coordinates Book Excerpt:

Coordinates are integral building tools for GIS, cartography, surveying and are vital to the many applications we use today such as smart phones, car navigation systems and driverless cars. Basic GIS Coordinates, Third Edition grants readers with a solid understanding of coordinates and coordinate systems and how they operate as well as valuable insight into what causes them to malfunction. This practical and comprehensive guide lays out the foundation of a coordinate system and the implications behind building it as it elaborates on heights, two coordinate systems, and the rectangular system.The previous editions described horizontal and vertical datums such as the North American Datum 1983 (NAD 83) and the North American Vertical Datum 1988 (NAVD 88). Both will be replaced in 2022 or thereabouts. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) plans to replace NAD83 with a new semi-dynamic terrestrial reference frame for North America and a new vertical datum will replace NAVD88. The foundation of the new vertical datum will be a temporally tracked gravimetric geoid. The interim period is intended to smooth the transition to the new paradigm and this new edition explores the changes and provides assistance in understanding them.

Surveying for Engineers

Surveying for Engineers
Author: John Uren,Bill Price
Publsiher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Total Pages: 816
Release: 2018-03-13
ISBN: 1137052791
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Surveying for Engineers Book Excerpt:

The fifth edition of this classic textbook sets out the essential techniques needed for a solid grounding in the surveying. The popular and trusted textbook covers the traditional topics such as levelling, measurement of angles, measuring distances, and how to carry out traversing and compute coordinates, as well as the latest technological advances. It is packed with clear illustrations, exercises and worked examples, making it both a comprehensive study aid for students and a reliable reference tool for practitioners. This text is aimed at students studying surveying as either part of a civil engineering, building or construction course or as a separate discipline. It is also useful for students who undertake surveying as an elective subject and is a useful resource for practising surveyors. New to this Edition: - The latest developments in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) particularly the introduction of network RTK and OS Net and their applications - Recent developments in survey instruments, methods and digital technologies including image processing with total stations and laser planners, developments in data processing and integration and updates on Ordnance Survey mapping products

Surveying and Land Information Systems

Surveying and Land Information Systems
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1998
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Cartography
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Surveying and Land Information Systems Book Excerpt:

A Text Book on GPS Surveying

A Text Book on GPS Surveying
Author: Jayanta Kumar Ghosh, Ph.d.,Dr Jayanta Kumar Ghosh Ph D
Publsiher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2015-12-28
ISBN: 9781522952749
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Text Book on GPS Surveying Book Excerpt:

The objective of this book is to provide insights into understanding GPS Surveying and positioning concisely in a systematic manner. The book contains six chapters, one annexure followed by bibliography. The first chapter aims at introducing Global Positioning System (GPS) for land surveying. It starts with a brief history of development of NAVSTAR (NAVigational System for Timing And Ranging) GPS followed by advantages of GPS in land surveying and principle of positioning using GPS. The chapter concludes with an overview of elements of GPS in surveying and positioning. The objective of Chapter 2 is to provide basic information about GPS for surveying. It starts with architecture of GPS followed by contents of GPS signal, GPS system time. It discusses the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) explaining its coordinate system, geoid, ellipsoid, earth gravitational model etc followed by its relationships with other geodetic systems. The chapter also discusses on GPS augmentation systems and modernization steps. Chapter 3 aims at providing fundamental information required for GPS surveying. The chapter explains the different methods for GPS surveying, equipments, field operations and quality analysis of GPS observations. The chapter concludes with accuracy standards to be followed for GPS surveying. Aim of chapter 4 is to explain the content of GPS observations. It discusses the GPS observables and fundamental relations to determine unknown positions. It also provides the different errors associated with observations. The chapter concludes with criterion for assessment of quality of GPS Observables. Chapter 5 discusses processing steps involved in determination of positions from GPS observables. It explains the operations involved in pre-processing and positioning followed by criterion for assessment of GPS positions. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion on salient modules of a GPS data processing software. Chapter 6 aims at locating GPS position geo-spatially through network adjustment. It discusses least square network adjustment models and methods, processing strategies, steps for network adjustments and criterion for output quality. The chapter concludes with a worked out example on network adjustment, as detailed theoretically. The book further contains one annexure stating the steps involved for conversion of navigation data to determine satellite positions in ECEF system. Towards the end, the book contains a list of books which have been referred in writing this book. Manuscript has been thoroughly checked through plagiarism software to avoid any copyright violation. However, to make the book more understandable, standard names and symbols have been used from original literatures. To summarize, the book provides a sequence of topics aiming to basic understanding and carrying out land surveying as well as processing for geo-spatial positioning using GPS. The book is meant to serve as an introductory text book on GPS surveying and is expected to be useful for students as well as field surveyors looking for insights into GPS surveying.

Basic GIS Coordinates Second Edition

Basic GIS Coordinates  Second Edition
Author: Jan Van Sickle
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2010-04-21
ISBN: 1420092324
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Basic GIS Coordinates Second Edition Book Excerpt:

Coordinates are the foundation of GIS, cartography, and surveying, to name just a few fields. Computers have an astounding capacity for repetition and they possess a superior ability to handle the mathematics behind coordinate manipulation—but they are very bad at interpreting coordinates and coordinate systems. Basic GIS Coordinates, Second Edition clearly illustrates the basic principles of coordinate systems, covering ellipsoids, datums, and plane coordinates as they are used in GIS and GPS. Keeping in mind that it is ultimately incumbent on humans to ensure the correct use of coordinate systems, this book explains complex topics in a logical progression, presenting them in a way that is neither too complicated nor oversimplified. This new edition of a bestseller expands the material with updates on what has occurred in the field during the past five years, especially in the World Geodetic System and International Terrestrial Reference Frame. It also addresses the upcoming GNSS constellations and coordinate implications. Details how to build a coordinate system Addresses different methods of leveling, as well as measuring and modeling of height and gravity Explores two-coordinate (state-plane, UTM) systems Discusses initial points and other aspects of the rectangular system Covers the geoid and the concepts of elevation There are thousands of horizontal geodetic datums and Cartesian coordinate systems currently sanctioned by governments around the world to describe our planet electronically and on paper. Even if a computer has done nothing wrong, coordinate errors can often occur and lead to potentially disastrous miscalculations. This book is a valuable tool to help readers develop an understanding of how coordinate systems work—and how they sometimes don’t.

GPS Satellite Surveying

GPS Satellite Surveying
Author: Alfred Leick
Publsiher: Wiley-Interscience
Total Pages: 560
Release: 1995-02-06
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

GPS Satellite Surveying Book Excerpt:

With the advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS), a new age has dawned for surveying and navigation. Using a network of orbiting satellites, GPS now makes it possible for ground-based technicians with hand-held monitors to determine their positions with a degree of precision previously unachievable by traditional surveying methods. GPS has the potential to revolutionize the entire practice of surveying, to give increased significance to the numerical records of surveyors, and to make available to many practicing surveyors measurement techniques that until recently were available to very few. To meet the needs of surveyors, engineers, and others for the latest, most complete information on this breakthrough technology, Alfred Leick has updated his classic introduction to the field. GPS Satellite Surveying, Second Edition, includes all the material that made the first edition the standard work on the subject and provides up-to-date information on the most recent developments. Comprehensive and thorough in its presentation, GPS Satellite Surveying is designed to help the modern land information specialist gain full use of GPS surveying techniques and a firm understanding of the resulting measurements. The range of its coverage includes: * Complete and mathematically rigorous theory of positioning with GPS that integrates astronomy, time, statistics, geodesy, and electronics * Explanation of the geodetic foundations of GPS positioning * Latest techniques of GPS positioning, such as ambiguity fixing on-the-fly (OTF) and rapid static * Differential GPS (DGPS), with applications for aircraft navigation * Full treatment of least-squares adjustment, including an extended discussion of the reliability of geodetic networks-material found in no other text * Emphasis on elements common to surveying and precise navigation in order to provide a unified-theory perspective on GPS positioning Of related interest... GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS: Principles and Applications, Volume 1: Principles, Volume 2: Applications Edited by David J. Maguire, Michael F. Goodchild, and David W. Rhind Featuring the work of internationally renowned specialists, this benchmark reference is the most thorough synthesis of the concepts, viewpoints, and issues underlying GIS. Volume 1 describes the major intellectual, organizational, and technical forces integral to GIS development, as well as digital representation and technical, functional, organizational, and display issues. Volume 2 reviews national and international GIS programs in addition to its socioeconomic, environmental, and management applications. 1991 (0-470-21789-8) 1,096 pp. 2-volume set BOUNDARY CONTROL AND LEGAL PRINCIPLES Fourth Edition Curtis M. Brown, Walter G. Robillard, and Donald A. Wilson The Fourth Edition of this classic is marked by the precision of its summary of land boundary law and its clarity of presentation. It provides indispensable coverage of the science of measurements, the evaluation of evidence, and laws and customs that define boundaries. Includes time-tested coverage of the legal elements required to understand boundary location and the state and Federal laws that govern the usage of these legal elements. Common law and legal principles, summarized from extensive research of court cases, are presented clearly and concisely. 1995 (0-471-08384-4) 450 pp. SOLVING PROBLEMS IN SURVEYING: A. Bannister and R. Baker Designed as an essential preparation guide to surveying exams, Solving Problems in Surveying features a wealth of problems drawn from past exams, each amply supported with basic theory. Not only are solutions and worked examples provided, but the book also includes simple computer programs, written in BASIC, covering topics frequently encountered. Featuring a clear methodology for problem solving mastery, Solving Problems in Surveying is essential for researchers and students in civil engineering. 1989 (0-470-21426-0) 332 pp.

Geomatics Engineering

Geomatics Engineering
Author: Clement A. Ogaja
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2016-04-19
ISBN: 1439895112
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Geomatics Engineering Book Excerpt:

Traditionally, land surveyors experience years of struggle as they encounter the complexities of project planning and design processes in the course of professional employment or practice. Giving beginners a leg up and working professionals added experience, Geomatics Engineering: A Practical Guide to Project Design provides a practical guide to contemporary issues in geomatics professionalism, ethics, and design. It explores issues encountered during the project design and the request for proposal process commonly used for soliciting professional geomatics engineering services. Designed to develop critical thinking and problem solving, this book: reflects the natural progression of project design considerations, including how the planning, information gathering, design, scheduling, cost estimating, and proposal writing fit into the overall scheme of project design process presents the details of contemporary issues such as standards and specifications, professional and ethical responsibilities, and policy, social, and environmental issues that are pertinent to geomatics engineering projects demonstrates the important considerations when planning or designing new projects focuses on the proposal development process and shows how to put together a project cost estimate, including estimating quantities and developing unit and lump-sum costs Based on experience of past projects, the book identifies priority areas of attention for planning new projects. Presenting the nuts and bolts of geomatics projects, the author provides an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility, the impact of engineering solutions in a global and social context, as well as a host of other contemporary issues such as budgetary and scheduling constraints.

Plane and Geodetic Surveying

Plane and Geodetic Surveying
Author: Aylmer Johnson
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 276
Release: 2014-06-04
ISBN: 1466589566
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plane and Geodetic Surveying Book Excerpt:

Plane and Geodetic Surveying blends together theory and practice, conventional techniques and satellite-based methods, to provide the ideal book for students of surveying. It gives detailed guidance on how and when the principal surveying instruments (total stations, levels and navigational satellite receivers) should be used. It fully and clearly

Land Surveyor in training

Land Surveyor in training
Author: George M. Cole
Publsiher: Professional Publications Incorporated
Total Pages: 84
Release: 2001
ISBN: 9781888577709
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Land Surveyor in training Book Excerpt:

- A complete, 170-problem practice exam - Step-by-step solutions are included

Land Surveyor Reference Manual

Land Surveyor Reference Manual
Author: Andrew L. Harbin
Publsiher: Professional Publications Incorporated
Total Pages: 482
Release: 2001
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Surveying
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Land Surveyor Reference Manual Book Excerpt:

The Land Surveyor Reference Manual is the book most used to prepare for the Fundamentals of Land Surveying (formerly called the LSIT) exam. It is also a complete review of important techniques unique to the land surveying profession. In addition to 29 chapters covering every major topic in the discipline, it provides a concise review of the math necessary to perform surveying functions.

The Management of Setting Out in Construction

The Management of Setting Out in Construction
Author: Institution of Civil Engineers
Publsiher: Thomas Telford
Total Pages: 83
Release: 1997
ISBN: 9780727726148
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Management of Setting Out in Construction Book Excerpt:

There are few tasks in surveying that carry more onerous responsibilities than setting out. The financial cost of mistakes can be horrendous and completely out of proportion to the perceived value of the task. Setting out is just one part of a complex series of processes which spans the whole project from inception to final construction and beyond. Accurate and efficient setting out is essential if any civil engineering project is to meet the stringent financial targets imposed upon it by modern construction systems.

Basic GIS Coordinates

Basic GIS Coordinates
Author: Jan Van Sickle
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2004-05-27
ISBN: 9780203491485
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Basic GIS Coordinates Book Excerpt:

Computers tend to be very good at repetition and very bad at interpretation. People, on the other hand, are poor at repetition, because we can get bored or distracted. We are, however, excellent at interpretation, if we have the proper information. Basic GIS Coordinates is about providing some of the critical information needed to understand coordinate systems and effectively interpret GIS technology. GIS is emerging in all facets of business and government at an incredible rate; GIS and mapping professionals must have a clear understanding of coordinate systems. Basic GIS Coordinates explains how coordinates tie the real world to its electronic image in the computer. It is about understanding how these systems work, and how they sometimes don't work. It examines how points that are expected to be in one location are in reality somewhere completely different, even when the computer has done everything exactly as it was told. Basic GIS Coordinates explains the progression of ideas that are the foundation of coordinate systems without overwhelming you with supporting mathematics. It is a user-friendly study for those who need to apply GIS technology and resulting coordinates. From the basics of coordinate systems to specific practical examples, this book covers GIS coordinates without pages of complicated math; yet it is not oversimplified. This volume analyzes state plane coordinates, UTM coordinates, and the rectangular system in a concise format. To help you apply the information, each chapter concludes with review questions and answers.