Grammar Modules

Author by : Sue Morris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Hueber Verlag
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Description : Die Kopiervorlagen Grammar Modules ergänzen den fortgeschrittenen Englischunterricht in Schule und Erwachsenenbildung. Jedes Modul enthält einen Kurztext und Verständnisfragen sowie ein worksheet mit Übungen für die Gruppen und Partnerarbeit.


The Modular Architecture Of Grammar

Author by : Jerrold M. Sadock
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : A model of grammar using several independent, simultaneous modules, which allows each module to be simpler than the current theory.


Modular Design Of Grammar

Author by : I. Wayan Arka
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Total Read : 26
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Description : This volume presents the latest research in linguistic modules and interfaces in Lexical-Functional Grammar. It draws on data from a range of typologically diverse languages, including Arabic, Icelandic, Kelabit, Polish, and Urdu, and will be of interest to all those working on linguistic interfaces from a variety of theoretical standpoints.


Functional Grammar And Verbal Interaction

Author by : Mike Hannay
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Benjamins Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 51
Total Download : 270
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Description : Functional Grammar (FG) as set out by Simon Dik is the ambitious combination of a functionalist approach to the study of language with a consistent formalization of the underlying structures which it recognizes as relevant. The present volume represents the attempts made within the FG framework to expand the theory so as to cover a wider empirical domain than is usual for highly formalized linguistic theories, namely that of written and spoken discourse, while retaining its methodological precision. The book covers an array of phenomena, both from monologue and from dialogue material, relating to discourse structure, speaker aims and goals, action theory, the flow of information, illocutionary force, modality, etc. The central question underlying most of the contributions concerns the relation between, and the division of labour between the existing grammatical module of FG on the one hand, and a discourse or pragmatic module capable of handling such discourse phenomena on the other. What emerges are new proposals for the formal treatment of for instance illocutionary force and the informational status of constituents. Many of the data discussed are from ‘real’ language rather than being invented, and samples from various languages other than English (Spanish, Polish, Latin, French) are examined and used as illustrations of the theoretical problem to be solved. Readership: theoretical linguists and discourse and conversation analysts


Hyperchinese

Author by : Jing-heng Sheng Ma
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 59
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Description : Hyperchinese: The Grammar Modules are designed to help students focus on problem areas and common pitfalls that typically surface as they try to get a handle on core grammar concepts. Winner of EDUCOM`s 1993 Higher Education Software Award (Foreign Languages), this CD-ROM is the perfect complement to any beginning Chinese language course, and can also be used as a self-study program for beginning level students trying to master the fundamentals of Chinese. The 14 modules are primarily supplemental, and can be used in conjunction with any Chinese language textbook and in any order. Corresponding to lessons in the Chinese Unmasked textbook, each module is prefaced by an introductory unit. Each unit includes an introduction to grammar points, a presentation of grammar points, and drill exercises to practice grammar points. Grammar Module topics include Numbers; Measures; Locality; Time; The Markers le and guo; Zhe, Zai, Na; Adverbs; Auxiliary Verbs, Coverbs; Forms and Patterns for Comparison; Ba Constructions; Bei Constructions; Shie Constructions, and Resultative Verb Compounds. Compatible with Mac platforms through OS 8.


A New Architecture For Functional Grammar

Author by : J. Lachlan Mackenzie
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter
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Total Read : 40
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Description : This volume, which represents a major advance on Simon Dik's final statement of the theory (1997), lays the foundation for the future evolution of FG towards a Functional Discourse Grammar. It rises to the double challenge of specifying the interface between discourse and grammar and of detailing the expression rules that link semantic representation and morphosyntactic form. The opening chapter, by Kees Hengeveld, sets out in programmatic form a new architecture for FG which both preserves the best of the traditional model and offers a place for numerous recent insights. The remaining chapters are devoted to refining and developing the programme laid down by Hengeveld, bringing in data from a range of languages as well as theoretical insights inspired by adjoining frameworks. Of special interest are an account by Matthew Anstey of how current proposals arise from the history of FG and various chapters in which the model is brought much closer to an account of real-time language production, notably including the first ever detailed account of the workings of expression rules, by Dik Bakker and Anna Siewierska. The final chapter, also by Hengeveld, draws together the findings of the various chapters, culminating in an elaborated model that represents the most sophisticated statement of Functional Grammar currently available. The volume thus gives a coherent account of FG as a theory which combines formal explicitness with a broad account of language functions.


Functionalism And Grammar

Author by : T. Givón
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Benjamins Publishing
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Total Read : 54
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Description : This book is Prof. Givón's long-awaited critical examination of the fundamental theoretical and methodological underpinnings of the functionalist approach to grammar. It challenges functionalists to take their own medicine and establish non-circular empirical definitions of both 'function' and 'structure'. Ideological hand-waving, however fervent and right-thinking, is seldom an adequate substitute for analytic rigor and empirical responsibility. If the reductionist extremism of the various structuralist schools is to be challenged on solid intellectual grounds, the challenge cannot itself be equally extreme in its reductionism. The book is divided into nine chapters: 1. Prospectus, somewhat jaundiced (overview) 2. Markedness as meta-iconicity: Distributional and cognitive correlates of syntactic structure 3. The functional basis of grammatical typology 4. Modal prototypes of truth and action 5. Taking structure seriously: Constituency and the VP node 6. Taking structure seriously II: Grammatical relations and clause union 7. The distribution of grammar in text: On interpreting conditional associations 8. Coming to terms with cognition: Coherence in text vs. coherence in mind 9. On the co-evolution of language, mind and brain.


From First Words To Grammar

Author by : Elizabeth Bates
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 84
Total Download : 500
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Description : This book is a comprehensive study of the passage from first words to grammar in a sample of children large enough to permit systematic analysis of individual differences in style and rate of development. The authors provide a large body of information about first words and early grammatical development in qualitative and quantitative patterns that are useful not only for researchers in the field, but for speech/language pathologists and early childhood educators interested in the assessment of early language. The results support a unified functionalist approach to language development, and have implications for the way we think about the structure and breakdown of language under normal and abnormal conditions.


Grammar Modules

Author by : Susan Morris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 79
Total Download : 166
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Rhythmic Grammar

Author by : Julia Schlüter
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 18
Total Download : 312
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Description : This groundbreaking book highlights a phonological preference, the Principle of Rhythmic Alternation, as a factor in grammatical variation and change in English from the early modern period to the present. Though frequently overlooked in earlier research, the phonetically motivated avoidance of adjacent stresses is shown to exert an influence on a wide variety of phenomena in morphology and syntax. Based on in-depth analyses of extensive electronic databases, the book presents 20 exemplary studies from different structural categories. Among them are much-debated as well as novel issues, including the double comparative worser, 'predicative only' a- adjectives, variant past participles, the placement of the degree modifier quite, the order of conjuncts in binomials, the negation of attributive adjectives and sentence adverbs, variable adverbial marking, the use or omission of the infinitive marker, and the a- prefix before - ing forms. The studies provide qualitative and quantitative evidence of the importance of rhythmic alternation in synchronic variation as well as diachronic change, without neglecting interactions with a set of competing functional tendencies. Thus, the book contributes essential aspects to the description and explanation of the phenomena considered, calling for a fundamental revision of current thinking about the interface between phonology and morphosyntax. In addition, the empirical findings are brought to bear on theoretical discussions of more general interest, yielding a critical assessment of the merits and limitations of two nonmodular linguistic theories: Optimality Theory and spreading activation models. The latter type is developed into a comprehensive conception integrating functional factors such as the Principle of Rhythmic Alternation in an overarching framework for language variation and change. The wide range of subject areas covered makes the volume essential reading and a source of inspiration for linguists with interests as diverse as the phonology-morphosyntax interface, English grammar, the history of English, functional linguistics, Optimality Theory, as well as neuro- and psycholinguistics.


English Grammar

Author by : Angela Downing
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
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Total Read : 10
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Description : Presenting a course on English grammar, this book includes many entries and examples of language in use. It is useful reading for non-native speakers of English.


Spoken Language Corpus And Linguistic Informatics

Author by : Yuji Kawaguchi
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Benjamins Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 54
Total Download : 167
File Size : 41,6 Mb
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Description : Printbegrænsninger: Der kan printes 10 sider ad gangen og max. 40 sider pr. session


Interfaces In Functional Discourse Grammar

Author by : Lucia Contreras-García
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
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Total Read : 78
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Description : In grammar design, a basic distinction is made between derivational and modular architectures. This raises the question of which organization of grammar can deal with linguistic phenomena more appropriately. The studies contained in the present volume explore the interface relations between different levels of linguistic representation in Functional Discourse Grammar as presented in Hengeveld and Mackenzie (2008) and Keizer (2015). This theory analyses linguistic expressions at four linguistic levels: interpersonal, representational, morphosyntactic and phonological. The articles address issues such as the possible correspondences and mismatches between those levels as well as the conditions which constrain the combinations of levels in well-formed expressions. Additionally, the theory is tested by examining various grammatical phenomena with a focus both on the English language and on typological adequacy: anaphora, raising, phonological reduction, noun incorporation, reflexives and reciprocals, serial verbs, the passive voice, time measurement constructions, coordination, nominal modification, and connectives. Overall, the volume provides both theoretical and descriptive insights which are of relevance to linguistics in general.


Grammatical Theory In The United States

Author by : P. H. Matthews
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Total Read : 80
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Description : A history of linguistic theory in America, focusing on Chomsky and Bloomfield


Code Generation With Templates

Author by : Jeroen Arnoldus
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 29
Total Download : 467
File Size : 48,6 Mb
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Description : Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presented. The template metalanguage does not need to be Turing-complete to be useful. A non-Turing-complete metalanguage enforces separation of concerns between the view and model. Second, syntactical correctness of all languages of the templates and generated code is ensured. This includes the syntactical correctness of the template metalanguage and the output language. Third, case studies show that the achieved goals are applicable in practice. It is even shown that syntactical correctness helps to prevent cross-site scripting attacks in web applications. The target audience of this book is twofold. The first group exists of researcher interested in the mathematical background of templates. The second group exists of users of templates. This includes designers of template engines on one side and programmers and web designers using templates on the other side


Corpus Based Perspectives In Linguistics

Author by : Yuji Kawaguchi
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Benjamins Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 27
Total Download : 216
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Description : UBLI has conducted field surveys since 2002 and built spoken language corpora for French, Spanish, Italian (Salentino dialect), Russian, Malaysian, Turkish, Japanese, and Canadian multilinguals. This volume features new research presented at the UBLI second workshop on Corpus Linguistics – Research Domain, which was held on September 14, 2006. The first part consisting of eleven presentations to this workshop shows a wide range of subjects within the area of corpus-based research, such as dictionary, linguistic atlas, dialect, translation, ancient texts, non-standard texts, sociolinguistics, second language acquisition, and natural language processing. The second part of this volume comprises ten additional contributions to both written and spoken corpora by the members and research assistants of UBLI.


Studies In Functional Discourse Grammar

Author by : J. Lachlan Mackenzie
Languange : en
Publisher by : Peter Lang
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 88
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Description : This book contains eight studies on Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), with work by FDG's foremost proponents, who provide both an introduction to the theory and a glimpse of current research projects. FDG derives its name from taking the discourse act as the basic unit of linguistic analysis. Each such unit receives four parallel analyses displaying its interpersonal, representational, morphosyntactic and phonological characteristics respectively. What is striking about the emergence of FDG is that it enters into lively debate with various other contemporary frameworks that share its functionalist orientation. This facet of FDG is highlighted in this book, every chapter of which brings out the interconnectedness of current theoretical trends.


The Oxford Handbook Of Universal Grammar

Author by : Ian Roberts
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 93
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Description : This handbook provides a critical guide to the most central proposition in modern linguistics: the notion, generally known as Universal Grammar, that a universal set of structural principles underlies the grammatical diversity of the world's languages. Part I considers the implications of Universal Grammar for philosophy of mind and philosophy of language, and examines the history of the theory. Part II focuses on linguistic theory, looking at topics such as explanatory adequacy and how phonology and semantics fit into Universal Grammar. Parts III and IV look respectively at the insights derived from UG-inspired research on language acquisition, and at comparative syntax and language typology, while part V considers the evidence for Universal Grammar in phenomena such as creoles, language pathology, and sign language. The book will be a vital reference for linguists, philosophers, and cognitive scientists.


The Oxford Reference Guide To Lexical Functional Grammar

Author by : Mary Dalrymple
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 24
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Description : This volume is the most comprehensive reference work to date on Lexical Functional Grammar. The authors provide detailed and extensive coverage of the analysis of syntax, semantics, morphology, prosody, and information structure, and how these aspects of linguistic structure interact in the nontransformational framework of LFG. The book is divided into three parts. The first part examines the syntactic theory and formal architecture of LFG, with detailed explanations and comprehensive illustration, providing an unparalleled introduction to the fundamentals of the theory. Part two explores non-syntactic levels of linguistic structure, including the syntax-semantics interface and semantic representation, argument structure, information structure, prosodic structure, and morphological structure, and how these are related in the projection architecture of LFG. Chapters in the third part illustrate the theory more explicitly by presenting explorations of the syntax and semantics of a range of representative linguistic phenomena: modification, anaphora, control, coordination, and long-distance dependencies. The final chapter discusses LFG-based work not covered elsewhere in the book, as well as new developments in the theory. The volume will be an invaluable reference for graduate and advanced undergraduate students and researchers in a wide range of linguistic sub-fields, including syntax, morphology, semantics, information structure, and prosody, as well as those working in language documentation and description.


Lexical Structures

Author by : Heinz J Giegerich
Languange : en
Publisher by : Edinburgh University Press
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Description : An original study of both structural entitiesoriginating in the lexicon, and the structural characteristics of thelexicon as a module of formal grammar, this book makes two contributions toour understanding of the formal grammar of English. Firstly, it presents acoherent theory of 'compounding' in English. There is a long-standingbut unresolved dispute in the literature as to whether certain constructions(e.g. LONDON ROAD, DENTAL TREATMENT) are compound words or syntacticphrases. The question is important because in other cases the distinction isclear-cut (RING ROAD, FREE TREATMENT respectively), and because it impingeson central assumptions regarding the organisation of the grammar.Secondly,the book suggests an alternative to the commonly assumed sharp division ofthe grammar into the 'lexicon' and the 'syntax'. The lexicon-syntaxdistinction facilitates important new insights in the nature of compoundingin English. However, Heinz Giegerich argues that the Lexicalist assumptionof a sharp divide between the modules cannot be upheld: the two modulesoverlap, such that there are constructions in English that aresimultaneously compound and phrase. He suggests an alternative, tripartite,structure comprising three successive, and significantly overlapping,modules: the lexicon proper, the morphology and the syntax.The bookillustrates a grammar that is rather different from that envisaged inLexicalism (while still retaining that theory's basic insights) andprovides a better understanding of some of the most recalcitrant problems inEnglish word formation.


Grammar And Communication

Author by : K. V. Tirumalesh
Languange : en
Publisher by : Allied Publishers
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 51
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Functional Perspectives On Grammar And Discourse

Author by : Christopher Butler
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Benjamins Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 47
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Description : This book, a tribute to Angela Downing, consists of twenty papers taking a broadly functional perspective on language, with topics ranging from the general (grammar as an evolutionary product, text comprehension, integrative linguistics) to particular aspects of the grammars of languages (Bulgarian, English, Icelandic, Spanish, Swedish). The more specific papers are sequenced according to Halliday s division into ideational, textual and interpersonal aspects of the grammar, and cover a wide range of areas, including aspect, argument structure, noun phrase/nominal group structure and nominalisations, pronominal clitics, theme in relation to writing skills, discourse structures and markers, the role of attention in conversation, the functions of topic, phatic communion, subjectification, formulaic language and modality. A recurrent theme in the volume is the use of corpus materials in order to base functional descriptions on authentic productions. Overall, the volume constitutes a panoramic but nevertheless detailed view of some important current trends in functional linguistics.


Morphosyntactic Expression In Functional Grammar

Author by : Casper de Groot
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter
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Total Read : 44
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Description : Morphological and syntactic issues have received relatively little attention in Functional Grammar, due to the fact that this grammatical model, given its functional orientation, was primarily concerned with developing its pragmatic and semantic components. Now that these have been solidly developed, this book turns to the further development of the syntactic and morphological components of the model. Two recent developments receive pride of place: Bakker's Dynamic Expression Model and Hengeveld and Mackenzie's Functional Discourse Grammar. The first model aims at accounting for the complex interactions that one finds in many languages between the sets of expression rules that have to account for form on the one hand and those that establish order on the other. The second model takes a further step by considering morphosyntactic and phonological representations to be part of the underlying structure of the grammar rather than as the output of that grammar, contrary to the original assumptions in FG. The book accordingly contains synopses of these two proposals as well as applications of these to a variety of linguistic phenomena. Further articles provide detailed analyses of a range of semantic and pragmatic categories and their morphosyntactic expression in a wide variety of languages. The articles in this book contain data on some 60 different languages, including focused articles on phenomena in Arabic, Danish, English, Lengua de Señas Española, Mapudungun, Plains Cree, and Tanggu. In all, the contributions to this volume show that the issue of morphosyntactic expression in Functional Grammar is very much alive and moving into promising new directions, while at the same time contributing to a better understanding of a large number of morphosyntactic phenomena in a wide variety of languages.


Organizing Grammar

Author by : Hans Broekhuis
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter
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Total Read : 33
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Description : Henk van Riemsdijk has long been known as one of Europe’s most important linguists. His seminal ideas have been influential in developing generative grammar in Europe and beyond. As the initiator, co-founder, and chair of the GLOW society, he made the society the leading platform of European generative linguistics. He has also been editor of the series Studies in Generative Grammar since its foundation. As a teacher and supervisor, he has inspired generations of students. On the occasion of his relocation from the Netherlands to Italy, his friends, students and colleagues celebrate his work with this collection of essays on numerous topics of current theoretical interest.


Pragmatics And Autolexical Grammar

Author by : Etsuyo Yuasa
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Benjamins Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 64
Total Download : 680
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Description : This book presents papers in honor of Jerry Sadock’s rich legacy in pragmatics and Autolexical Grammar. Highlights of the pragmatics section include Larry Horn on almost, barely, and assertoric inertia; William Lycan on Sadock’s resolution of the Performadox with truth1 and truth2; and Jay Atlas on Moore’s Paradox and the truth value of propositions of belief. Highlights of the Autolexical Grammar section include Fritz Newmeyer’s comparison of the minimalist, autolexical, and transformational treatments of English nominals; Barbara Abott’s extension of Sadock’s PRO-less syntax to a PRO-less semantics of the infinitival complements of know how; and Haj Ross’s syntactic connections between semantically related English pseudoclefts. Encompassing a range of languages (Aleut, Bangla, Greenlandic, Japanese, and a home-based sign language) and extending into psycholinguistics (language acquisition, sentence processing, and autism) this volume will interest a range of readers, from theoretical linguists and philosophers of language to applied linguists and exotic language specialists.


Investigations In Universal Grammar

Author by : Stephen Crain
Languange : en
Publisher by : MIT Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 10
Total Download : 864
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Description : This introductory guide to language acquisition research is presented within the framework of Universal Grammar, a theory of the human faculty for language. The authors focus on two experimental techniques for assessing children's linguistic competence: the Elicited Production task, a production task, and the Truth Value Judgment task, a comprehension task. Their methodologies are designed to overcome the numerous obstacles to empirical investigation of children's language competence. They produce research results that are more reproducible and less likely to be dismissed as an artifact of improper experimental procedure. In the first section of the book, the authors examine the fundamental assumptions that guide research in this area; they present both a theory of linguistic competence and a model of language processing. In the following two sections, they discuss in detail their two experimental techniques.


Mathematics Of Program Construction

Author by : Claude Bolduc
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
Total Download : 503
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Description : The LNCS series reports state-of-the-art results in computer science research, development, and education, at a high level and in both printed and electronic form. Enjoying tight cooperation with the R&D community, with numerous individuals, as well as with prestigious organizations and societies, LNCS has grown into the most comprehensive computer science research forum available. The scope of LNCS, including its subseries LNAI and LNBI, spans the whole range of computer science and information technology including interdisciplinary topics in a variety of application fields. In parallel to the printed book, each new volume is published electronically in LNCS Online.


L2 Grammatical Representation And Processing

Author by : Dr. Deborah Arteaga
Languange : en
Publisher by : Multilingual Matters
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 17
Total Download : 371
File Size : 43,9 Mb
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Description : The chapters in this volume, all written by experts in the field, present an array of new research on second language acquisition (SLA) that touches on several current theoretical debates in the field and present a rich range of new empirical data and a number of innovative findings. The studies address questions relating to ultimate attainment, first language transfer, universal properties of SLA, processing and second language (L2) grammar, and explore a number of grammatical features of the L2: tense, aspect, modality, specificity, definiteness, gender, number, anaphora. These themes are complemented by the study of pragmatic competence in sociocultural aspects of register use. The students investigated in the studies range from heritage speakers to naturalistic learners, to instructed learners and immigrants. Another distinctive feature of this book is the inclusion of pedagogical recommendations based on L2 research, making the book relevant for both SLA researchers and language teachers.


Eurogrammar

Author by : R. J. C. Smits
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 80
Total Download : 886
File Size : 51,7 Mb
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The Art Of Academic Writing

Author by : Mike Peterson, Ph.D.
Languange : en
Publisher by : Lulu.com
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 79
Total Download : 811
File Size : 52,6 Mb
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Description :