Description : Going "green" is becoming a major component of the mission for electronics manufacturers worldwide. While this goal seems simplistic, it poses daunting dilemmas. Yet, to compete effectively in the global economy, manufacturers must take the initiative to drive this crucial movement. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products provides you with a complete reference to design, develop, build, and install an electronic product with special consideration for the product’s environmental impacts during its whole life cycle. The author discusses how to integrate the state-of-the-art technologies of finite element method (FEM) modeling, simulation, and testing to create environmental sensible products of satisfying global environmental regulations, such as Restriction of Hazardous Substances (ROHS) compliance. He covers enabling techniques such as advanced fatigue life modeling, crack propagation analysis, and probabilistic robust design of lead-free electronics. The book also explores how risk engineering methodology empowers practitioners with effective tools such as buckling analysis of tin whiskers. With its emphasis on reducing parts, rationing materials, and reusing components to make products more efficient to build, green electronics intertwines today’s electronics with manufacturing strategies of global sourcing, concurrent engineering, and total quality. Implemented through product and process design, it can help you achieve sustainability to support future generations and at the same time preserve our natural resources. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products gives you the tools to create environmental sensible products while maintaining electronics quality and reliability.
Description : Successfully Design and Manufacture Reliable Environmentally-Friendly Electronic Products This state-of-the-art resource brings together contributions by a team of experts from the total electronics supply chain who show how to master the strategy, design, test and implementation issues of meeting global environmental regulations. Edited by the founder of the New England Lead-Free Consortium and filled with over 130 detailed illustrations, Green Electronics Design and Manufacturing features: Guidance for lead-free conversions while maintaining quality and reliability for printed circuit board production and rework of surface mount technology and palted through holes Restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) compliance for hex-chrome and future halogen free issues Detailed coverage of global environmental regulations and their impact on manufacturing and design processes Techniques for managing corporate strategy and project design teams for green products Proven methods for testing and analyzing green products Proven methods for dealing with the adverse results of green production such as tin whiskers and finish interactions Inside this Cutting-Edge Guide to Creating Green Electronic Products • Basics, Test Methods, and Experimental Techniques for Green Quality and Reliability • Electronics Industry Global Environmental Regulations • Managing Corporate Strategy, Design Projects, and Teams for Green Products • Converting to Lead-Free Electronics Manufacturing, Including Rework, for SMT, BGA, and PTH • Conversion Issues with Design Changes, Laminates, IC Packages, and Printed Circuit Boards • Adverse Consequences of Lead-Free, Including Tin Whiskers and Finish Interactions • Nanotechnology and Its Future in Electronics Applications
Description : Environmentally safe engineering is one of the hottest and most controversial topics in technical circles. Though many publications offer theory and intellectual discussion of the topic, this book provides practical, hands-on advice including hints and tips from the nation's top engineers. Green Electronics/Green Bottom Line offers practical advice for engineers and managers who want or need to incorporate environmental issues into the design process. The emerging discipline of Design for the Environment (DfE) combines engineering know-how with environmental awareness. Topics include international policy issues such as ISO 14000, materials selection (e.g., for recyclability), manufacturing concerns like no-flux processes, and design issues such as power consumption. Real-world cases show how these elements can be included in everyday designs. Each chapter opens with a topical cartoon and lively story, interview or editorial. The discussion will then move to specific engineering issues and their economic and social context. The last section explores larger possibilities and new directions still to be explored by engineers concerned with education, health, and environmental quality. Contributors include engineers from Motorola, Analog Devices, Dupont, Compaq, Nortel, AMD, and Apple Computer, and academics from universities in the US, Canada, the UK, and Europe, as well as the Rocky Mountain Institute. An everyday guide to environmentally sound electronics design Contributors include top engineers from the biggest electronics manufacturers and most prestigious universities Real-world cases illustrate topics giving concepts the reader can apply immediately
Description : Green Technology: An A-to-Z Guide explores the essential role of technology and its most recent developments toward a sustainable environment. Twofold in its definition, green technology includes the changing of existing technology toward energy conservation as well as the creation of new, clean technology aimed at utilizing renewable resources. With a primary focus on waste management, the volume presents more than 150 articles in A-to-Z format featuring such disciplines as nanoscience, biochemistry, information technology, and environmental engineering. Scholars and experts in their fields present a full range of topics from applications of green technology to The Green Grid global consortium to membrane technology and water purification systems to waste-to-energy technology. This work culminates in an outstanding reference available in both print and electronic formats for academic, university, and public libraries. Vivid photographs, searchable hyperlinks, an extensive resource guide, numerous cross references, and a clear, accessible writing style make the Green Society volumes ideal for classroom use as well as for research.
Description : Lead-free Electronics provides guidance on the design and use of lead-free electronics as well as technical and legislative perspectives. All the complex challenges confronting the elec-tronics industry are skillfully addressed: * Complying with state legislation * Implementing the transition to lead-free electronics, including anticipating associated costs and potential supply chain issues * Understanding intellectual property issues in lead-free alloys and their applications, including licensing and infringement * Implementing cost effective manufacturing and testing * Reducing risks due to tin whiskers * Finding lead-free solutions in harsh environments such as in the automotive and telecommunications industries * Understanding the capabilities and limitations of conductive adhesives in lead-free interconnects * Devising solutions for lead-free, flip-chip interconnects in high-performance integrated circuit products Each chapter is written by leading experts in the field and carefully edited to ensure a consistent approach. Readers will find all the latest information, including the most recent data on cyclic thermomechanical deformation properties of lead-free SnAgCu alloys and a comparison of the properties of standard Sn-Pb versus lead-free alloys, using the energy partitioning approach. With legislative and market pressure to eliminate the use of lead in electronics manufacturing, this timely publication is essential reading for all engineers and professionals in the electronics industry.
Description : ELECTRONICS MANUFACTUIRNG WITH LEAD-FREE, HALOGEN-FREE, AND CONDUCTIVE-ADHESTIVE MATERIALS This comprehensive guide provides cutting edge information on lead-free, halogen-free, and conductive-adhesive technologies and their application to low-cost, high-density, reliable, and green products. Essential for electronics manufacturing and packaging professionals who wish to master lead-free, halogen-free, and conductive-adhesive problem solving methods, and those demanding cost-effective designs and high-yield environmental benign manufacturing processes, this valuable reference covers all aspects of this fast-growing field. Written for design, materials, process, equipment, manufacturing, reliability, component, packaging, and system engineers, and technical and marketing managers in electronics and photonics packaging and interconnection, this book teaches a practical understanding of the cost, design, materials, process, equipment, manufacturing, and reliability issues of lead-free, halogen-free, and conductive-adhesive technologies. Among the topics explored: * Chip (wafer) level interconnects with lead-free solder bumps * Lead-free solder wafer bumping with micro-ball mounting and paste printing methods * Lead-free solder joint reliability of WLCSPs on organic and ceramic substrates * Chip (wafer) level interconnects with solderless bumps such as Ni-Au, Au, and Cu, Cu wires, Au wires, Au studs, and Cu studs * Design, materials, process, and reliability of WLCSPs with solderless interconnects on PCB/substrate * Halogen-free molding compounds for PQFP, PBGA, and MAP-PBGA packages * Environmentally benign die-attach films for PQFP and PBGA packages and lead-free die-attach bonding techniques for IC packaging * Environmental issues for conventional PCBs and substrates * Some environmentally conscious flame-retardants for PCBs and organic substrates * Emerging technologies for fabricating environmental friendly PCBs such as design for environment, green PCB manufacturing, and environmental safety * Lead-free soldering activities such as legislation, consortia programs, and regional preferences on lead-free solder alternatives * Criteria, development approaches, and varieties of alloys and properties of lead-free solders * Physical, mechanical, chemical, electrical, and soldering properties of lead-free solders * Manufacturing process and performance of lead-free surface finishes for both PCB and component applications * Implementation and execution challenges of lead-free soldering, especially for the reflow and wave soldering process * Fundamental understanding of electrically conductive adhesive (ECA) technology * Effects of lubricant removal and cure shrinkage on ECAs * Mechanisms underlying the contact resistance shifts of ECAs * Effects of electrolytes and moisture absorption on contact resistance shifts of ECAs * Stabilization of contact resistance of ECAs using various additives
Description : In today’s business world, competitiveness defines the industrial leading edge. Organizations and businesses of all sizes are adopting Lean manufacturing practices to increase efficiency and address worries about their bottom lines. In a detailed review of this staple of Lean manufacturing, Cellular Manufacturing: Mitigating Risk and Uncertainty outlines how cellular manufacturing can do just that. It demonstrates how this approach can help you and your teams build a variety of products with as little waste as possible. The book begins by presenting a survey of the current state of existing methods that can best be used in the handling of the bottleneck machines and parts problem, which results from the cellular manufacturing system design. It then explores how decision making under risk is used to help the designer select the best cell arrangement in case of probabilistic production volume and maximize the profit imposed by resource capacity constraints. The author then presents a method for the system design of a manufacturing cell that aims for profit maximization over a certain period of time. He also discusses robust design, illustrated with a real application. Put simply, cellular manufacturing integrates machinery and a small team of staff, directed by a team leader, so all the work on a product or part can be accomplished in the same cell eliminating resources that do not add value to the product. A concise yet unique reference, this book incorporates decision making under risk into cellular manufacturing. The text makes the link that ties cellular manufacturing to the bottom line. It helps you recognize savings opportunities from elimination of downtime between operations, decreased material handling costs, decreased work-in-progress inventory and associated costs, reduced opportunity for handling errors, decreased downtime spent waiting for supplies or materials, and reduced losses from defective or obsolete products.
Description : Six Sigma is a customer-based manufacturing approach to realizing fewer defects and thus lowering costs and increasing customer satisfaction. This is a rigorous engineering book detailing the gritty, statistical work involved in making the Six Sigma process work in the electronics industry.
Description : Lead-free solders are used extensively as interconnection materials in electronic assemblies and play a critical role in the global semiconductor packaging and electronics manufacturing industry. Electronic products such as smart phones, notebooks and high performance computers rely on lead-free solder joints to connect IC chip components to printed circuit boards. Lead Free Solder: Mechanics and Reliability provides in-depth design knowledge on lead-free solder elastic-plastic-creep and strain-rate dependent deformation behavior and its application in failure assessment of solder joint reliability. It includes coverage of advanced mechanics of materials theory and experiments, mechanical properties of solder and solder joint specimens, constitutive models for solder deformation behavior; numerical modeling and simulation of solder joint failure subject to thermal cycling, mechanical bending fatigue, vibration fatigue and board-level drop impact tests.