Description : This reference provides a complete discussion of the conversion from standard lead-tin to lead-free solder microelectronic assemblies for low-end and high-end applications. Written by more than 45 world-class researchers and practitioners, the book discusses general reliability issues concerning microelectronic assemblies, as well as factors specific to the tin-rich replacement alloys commonly utilized in lead-free solders. It provides real-world manufacturing accounts of the introduction of reduced-lead and lead-free technology and discusses the functionality and cost effectiveness of alternative solder alloys and non-solder alternatives replacing lead-tin solders in microelectronics.
Description : Micro-assembly is a key enabling technology for cost effective manufacture of new generations of complex micro products. It is also a critical technology for retaining mdustrial capabilities in high labour cost areas such as Europe since up to 80% of the production cost in some industries is attributed directly to assembly processes. With the continuous trend for product miniaturisation, the scientific and technologi cal developments in micro-assembly are expected to have a significant long-term economic, demographic and social impact. A distinctive feature of the process is that surface forces are often dominant over gravity forces, which determines a number of specific technical challenges. Critical areas which are currently being addressed include development of assembly systems with high positional accuracy, micro gripping methods that take into ac count the adhesive surface forces, high precision micro-feeding techniques and mi cro-joining processes. Micro-assembly has developed rapidly over the last few years and all the pre dictions are that it will remain a critical technology for high value products in a number of key sectors such as healthcare, communications, defence and aerospace. The key challenge is to match the significant technological developments with a new generation of micro products that will establish firmly micro-assembly as a core manufacturing process.
Description : Delineating a comprehensive theory, Advanced Vibration Analysis provides the bedrock for building a general mathematical framework for the analysis of a model of a physical system undergoing vibration. The book illustrates how the physics of a problem is used to develop a more specific framework for the analysis of that problem. The author elucidates a general theory applicable to both discrete and continuous systems and includes proofs of important results, especially proofs that are themselves instructive for a thorough understanding of the result. The book begins with a discussion of the physics of dynamic systems comprised of particles, rigid bodies, and deformable bodies and the physics and mathematics for the analysis of a system with a single-degree-of-freedom. It develops mathematical models using energy methods and presents the mathematical foundation for the framework. The author illustrates the development and analysis of linear operators used in various problems and the formulation of the differential equations governing the response of a conservative linear system in terms of self-adjoint linear operators, the inertia operator, and the stiffness operator. The author focuses on the free response of linear conservative systems and the free response of non-self-adjoint systems. He explores three method for determining the forced response and approximate methods of solution for continuous systems. The use of the mathematical foundation and the application of the physics to build a framework for the modeling and development of the response is emphasized throughout the book. The presence of the framework becomes more important as the complexity of the system increases. The text builds the foundation, formalizes it, and uses it in a consistent fashion including application to contemporary research using linear vibrations.
Description : Addresses the key aspects of modern soldering technology and the methods used in the manufacturing process of microelectronic chips and electronic circuit boards. Demonstrates how to control contamination during cleaning procedures. Covers material dynamics of heat soldering incurred during the assembly of diverse substances. Features techniques to assure reliability and quality control during the manufacturing process and emphasizes the importance of rework in the soldering industry.
Description : This thoroughly revised and updated three volume set continues to be the standard reference in the field, providing the latest in microelectronics design methods, modeling tools, simulation techniques, and manufacturing procedures. Unlike reference books that focus only on a few aspects of microelectronics packaging, these outstanding volumes discuss state-of-the-art packages that meet the power, cooling, protection, and interconnection requirements of increasingly dense and fast microcircuitry. Providing an excellent balance of theory and practical applications, this dynamic compilation features step-by-step examples and vital technical data, simplifying each phase of package design and production. In addition, the volumes contain over 2000 references, 900 figures, and 250 tables. Part I: Technology Drivers covers the driving force of microelectronics packaging - electrical, thermal, and reliability. It introduces the technology developer to aspects of manufacturing that must be considered during product development. Part II: Semiconductor Packaging discusses the interconnection of the IC chip to the first level of packaging and all first level packages. Electrical test, sealing, and encapsulation technologies are also covered in detail. Part III: Subsystem Packaging explores board level packaging as well as connectors, cables, and optical packaging.
Description : The topic of thin films is an area of increasing importance in materials science, electrical engineering and applied solid state physics; with both research and industrial applications in microelectronics, computer manufacturing, and physical devices. Advanced, high-performance computers, high-definition TV, broadband imaging systems, flat-panel displays, robotic systems, and medical electronics and diagnostics are a few examples of the miniaturized device technologies that depend on the utilization of thin film materials. This book presents an in-depth overview of the novel developments made by the scientific leaders in the area of modern dielectric films for advanced microelectronic applications. It contains clear, concise explanations of material science of dielectric films and their problem for device operation, including high-k, low-k, medium-k dielectric films and also specific features and requirements for dielectric films used in the packaging technology. A broad range of related topics are covered, from physical principles to design, fabrication, characterization, and applications of novel dielectric films.
Description : Proven 2D and 3D IC lead-free interconnect reliability techniques Reliability of RoHS-Compliant 2D and 3D IC Interconnects offers tested solutions to reliability problems in lead-free interconnects for PCB assembly, conventional IC packaging, 3D IC packaging, and 3D IC integration. This authoritative guide presents the latest cutting-edge reliability methods and data for electronic manufacturing services (EMS) on second-level interconnects, packaging assembly on first-level interconnects, and 3D IC integration on microbumps and through-silicon-via (TSV) interposers. Design reliable 2D and 3D IC interconnects in RoHS-compliant projects using the detailed information in this practical resource. Covers reliability of: 2D and 3D IC lead-free interconnects CCGA, PBGA, WLP, PQFP, flip-chip, lead-free SAC solder joints Lead-free (SACX) solder joints Low-temperature lead-free (SnBiAg) solder joints Solder joints with voids, high strain rate, and high ramp rate VCSEL and LED lead-free interconnects 3D LED and 3D MEMS with TSVs Chip-to-wafer (C2W) bonding and lead-free interconnects Wafer-to-wafer (W2W) bonding and lead-free interconnects 3D IC chip stacking with low-temperature bonding TSV interposers and lead-free interconnects Electromigration of lead-free microbumps for 3D IC integration