Human Caspases and Neuronal Apoptosis in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Human Caspases and Neuronal Apoptosis in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Author: Anil Gupta
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 242
Release: 2021-12-07
ISBN: 0128201223
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Human Caspases and Neuronal Apoptosis in Neurodegenerative Diseases Book Excerpt:

Human Caspases and Neuronal Apoptosis in Neurodegenerative Diseases elucidates elaborately the role of caspase enzymes implicated in the initiation of molecular events leading to neuronal apoptosis in the neurodegenerative disease. The book starts with introduction to neuropathology, neurogenetics, and epidemiology of neurodegenerative disease and illustrates the involvement of human caspases, neuronal apoptosis, apoptotic pathways, genetic polymorphisms, and several other factors and underlying mechanisms in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. An important focus in all chapters is the intricate mechanisms and interplay that occur during or leading to neuron death in neurodegenerative diseases, along with disease pathobiology. Provides in-depth knowledge about neurotoxic potential of transition metals, impaired mitochondrial dynamics in the brain neurons, mutant proteins Aß peptide, tau protein, a-synuclein, huntingtin protein and formation of Lewy bodies, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, ubiquitin proteasome dysregulation, and many others in neurodegenerative diseases Elucidates neurogenetics of gene APP, gene PSEN1, gene APOE, gene LRRK2, gene DJ1, and others in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases Explains caspases-mediated neuronal apoptosis in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease covering amyloidogenesis, caspase-activated DNase, rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase 1, mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1, role of synaptic loss, microglial TREM2 receptor, microglial LRP1 receptor, microglial advanced glycation end-product receptor, astrocytic glial a 7 subtypes of nAChR, NLRP3 inflammasome, P2X purinoreceptors, miRNAs, and many other factors Demonstrates the role of caspases and apoptosis in Parkinson's disease covering truncation of a-synuclein, neuroinflammation, parkin protein, activation of microglial cells, extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis, ?tau314, and several other factors Explains etiopathogenesis of Huntington's disease through covering clinically important topics as role of exon 1 HTT protein, ubiquitous nature of huntingtin, length of expanded polyglutamine tract, classically and alternately activated microglia, nuclear factor kappa B, kynurenine signaling pathway, tumor suppressor protein, PGC-1a gene, advanced glycation end-products, autophagy, and many other significant topics

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neurodegenerative Diseases
Author: Uday Kishore
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 642
Release: 2013-05-15
ISBN: 9535110888
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neurodegenerative Diseases Book Excerpt:

This book highlights the pathophysiological complexities of the mechanisms and factors that are likely to be involved in a range of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, other Dementia, Parkinson Diseases and Multiple Sclerosis. The spectrum of diverse factors involved in neurodegeneration, such as protein aggregation, oxidative stress, caspases and secretase, regulators, cholesterol, zinc, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, etc, have been discussed in the context of disease progression. In addition, novel approaches to therapeutic interventions have also been presented. It is hoped that students, scientists and clinicians shall find this very informative book immensely useful and thought-provoking.

Human Caspases and Neuronal Apoptosis in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Human Caspases and Neuronal Apoptosis in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Author: Anil Gupta
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 242
Release: 2021-12-17
ISBN: 0128204435
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Human Caspases and Neuronal Apoptosis in Neurodegenerative Diseases Book Excerpt:

Human Caspases and Neuronal Apoptosis in Neurodegenerative Diseases elucidates elaborately the role of caspase enzymes implicated in the initiation of molecular events leading to neuronal apoptosis in the neurodegenerative disease. The book starts with introduction to neuropathology, neurogenetics, and epidemiology of neurodegenerative disease and illustrates the involvement of human caspases, neuronal apoptosis, apoptotic pathways, genetic polymorphisms, and several other factors and underlying mechanisms in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. An important focus in all chapters is the intricate mechanisms and interplay that occur during or leading to neuron death in neurodegenerative diseases, along with disease pathobiology. Provides in-depth knowledge about neurotoxic potential of transition metals, impaired mitochondrial dynamics in the brain neurons, mutant proteins Aß peptide, tau protein, a-synuclein, huntingtin protein and formation of Lewy bodies, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, ubiquitin proteasome dysregulation, and many others in neurodegenerative diseases Elucidates neurogenetics of gene APP, gene PSEN1, gene APOE, gene LRRK2, gene DJ1, and others in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. Explains caspases-mediated neuronal apoptosis in pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease covering amyloidogenesis, caspase-activated DNase, rho-associated coiled coil–containing protein kinase 1, mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1, role of synaptic loss, microglial TREM2 receptor, microglial LRP1 receptor, microglial advanced glycation end-product receptor, astrocytic glial a 7 subtypes of nAChR, NLRP3 inflammasome, P2X purinoreceptors, miRNAs, and many other factors Demonstrates the role of caspases and apoptosis in Parkinson’s disease covering truncation of a-synuclein, neuroinflammation, parkin protein, activation of microglial cells, extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis, ?tau314, and several other factors Explains etiopathogenesis of Huntington’s disease through covering clinically important topics as role of exon 1 HTT protein, ubiquitous nature of huntingtin, length of expanded polyglutamine tract, classically and alternately activated microglia, nuclear factor kappa B, kynurenine signaling pathway, tumor suppressor protein, PGC-1a gene, advanced glycation end-products, autophagy, and many other significant topics.

Role of Proteases in the Pathophysiology of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Role of Proteases in the Pathophysiology of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Author: Abel Lajtha,Naren L. Banik
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 302
Release: 2007-05-08
ISBN: 0306468476
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Role of Proteases in the Pathophysiology of Neurodegenerative Diseases Book Excerpt:

Researchers seeking problems that offer more hope of success often avoid subjects that seem to be difficult to approach experimentally, or subjects for which experimental results are difficult to interpret. The breakdown part of protein turnover in vivo, particularly in nervous tissue, was such a subject in the past – it was difficult to measure and difficult to explore the mechanisms involved. For factors that influence protein metabolism, it was thought that protein content, function, and distribution are controlled only by the synthetic mechanisms that can supply the needed specificity and response to stimuli. The role of breakdown was thought to be only a general metabolic digestion, elimination of excess polypeptides. We now know that the role of breakdown is much more complex: it has multiple functions, it is coupled to turnover, and it can affect protein composition, function, and synthesis. In addition to eliminating abnormal proteins, breakdown has many modulatory functions: it serves to activate and inactivate enzymes, modulate membrane function, alter receptor channel properties, affect transcription and cell cycle, form active peptides, and much more. The hydrolysis of peptide bonds often involves multiple steps, many enzymes, and cycles (such as ubiquination), and often requires the activity of enzyme complexes. Their activation, modification, and inactivation can thus play an important role in biological functions, with numerous families of proteases participating. The specific role of each remains to be elucidated.

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neurodegenerative Diseases
Author: M. Flint Beal,Anthony E. Lang,Albert C. Ludolph
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2005-06-02
ISBN: 1139443453
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neurodegenerative Diseases Book Excerpt:

Neurodegenerative diseases are major contributors to disability and disease, with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases the most prevalent. This major reference reviews the rapidly advancing knowledge of pathogenesis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in the context of a comprehensive survey of each disease and its clinical features. The editors and contributors are among the leading experts in the field internationally. Covering basic science, diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches, the book focuses on all aspects of neurodegenerative disease, including the normal aging process. The dementias, prion diseases, Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonisms, neurodegenerative ataxias, motor neuron diseases, degenerative diseases with chorea, iron and copper disorders, and mitochondrial diseases, are all methodically presented and discussed, with extensive illustrations. In each case the underlying genetics, neuropathological and clinical issues are fully reviewed, making this the most complete as well as the most authoritative reference available to clinicians and neuroscientists.

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neurodegenerative Diseases
Author: Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 574
Release: 2011-12-09
ISBN: 953307485X
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neurodegenerative Diseases Book Excerpt:

Neurodegenerative Diseases - Processes, Prevention, Protection and Monitoring focuses on biological mechanisms, prevention, neuroprotection and even monitoring of disease progression. This book emphasizes the general biological processes of neurodegeneration in different neurodegenerative diseases. Although the primary etiology for different neurodegenerative diseases is different, there is a high level of similarity in the disease processes. The first three sections introduce how toxic proteins, intracellular calcium and oxidative stress affect different biological signaling pathways or molecular machineries to inform neurons to undergo degeneration. A section discusses how neighboring glial cells modulate or promote neurodegeneration. In the next section an evaluation is given of how hormonal and metabolic control modulate disease progression, which is followed by a section exploring some preventive methods using natural products and new pharmacological targets. We also explore how medical devices facilitate patient monitoring. This book is suitable for different readers: college students can use it as a textbook; researchers in academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies can take it as updated research information; health care professionals can take it as a reference book, even patients' families, relatives and friends can take it as a good basis to understand neurodegenerative diseases.

Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders
Author: G. Ali Qureshi,S. Hasan Parvez
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 794
Release: 2007-03-22
ISBN: 9780080489490
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders Book Excerpt:

Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance in pro-oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis that leads to the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species. Brain cells are continuously exposed to reactive oxygen species generated by oxidative metabolism, and in certain pathological conditions defense mechanisms against oxygen radicals may be weakened and/or overwhelmed. DNA is a potential target for oxidative damage, and genomic damage can contribute to neuropathogenesis. It is important therefore to identify tools for the quantitative analysis of DNA damage in models on neurological disorders. This book presents detailed information on various neurodegenerative disorders and their connection with oxidative stress. This information will provide clinicians with directions to treat these disorders with appropriate therapy and is also of vital importance for the drug industries for the design of new drugs for treatment of degenerative disorders. * Contains the latest information on the subject of neurodegenerative disorders * Reflects on various factors involved in degeneration and gives suggestions for how to tackle these problems

Role of Proteases in the Pathophysiology of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Role of Proteases in the Pathophysiology of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Author: Abel Lajtha,Naren L. Banik
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2001-07-31
ISBN: 9780306465796
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Role of Proteases in the Pathophysiology of Neurodegenerative Diseases Book Excerpt:

This book looks at the role of proteases, which are enzymes that digest proteins, and the various roles that proteases play in the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, ALS, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, as well as numerous other neuromuscular diseases.

Apoptosis Techniques and Protocols

Apoptosis Techniques and Protocols
Author: Andréa C. LeBlanc
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 250
Release: 2008-02-06
ISBN: 1592591884
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Apoptosis Techniques and Protocols Book Excerpt:

In this revised and expanded second edition, seasoned experts describe in step-by-step detail their best state-of-the-art techniques for studying neuronal cell death. These readily reproducible methods solve a wide variety of research problems, including the detection of the key proteins involved in neuronal apoptosis.

Neurochemical Mechanisms in Disease

Neurochemical Mechanisms in Disease
Author: John P. Blass
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 844
Release: 2010-12-01
ISBN: 1441971041
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neurochemical Mechanisms in Disease Book Excerpt:

This newest volume of Advances in Neurobiology deals with the Neurochemistry of disease, with chapters covering both human diseases and animal “model” diseases.

Neuroinflammation

Neuroinflammation
Author: Paul L. Wood
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 420
Release: 2002-12-18
ISBN: 159259297X
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neuroinflammation Book Excerpt:

In this thoroughly updated and revised edition of his much praised book, Paul L. Wood and a panel of leading researchers capture these new developments in a masterful synthesis of what is known today about the inflammatory mediators and cells involved in neurodegenerative diseases. This second edition contains extensive updates on the mediators produced by microglia and their role in neuroinflammatory-induced neuronal lysis. There is also increased coverage of the animal models used in the study of neuroinflammatory mechanisms, of the new imaging methods that allow the noninvasive evaluation of microglial activation in human neurodegernerative disorders, and of the role of neuroinflammation in amyloid-dependent neuronal lysis.

Motor Neuron Disease Research Progress

Motor Neuron Disease Research Progress
Author: Raffaele L. Mancini
Publsiher: Nova Publishers
Total Pages: 330
Release: 2008
ISBN: 9781604561555
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Motor Neuron Disease Research Progress Book Excerpt:

The motor neuron diseases (or motor neuron diseases) (MND) are a group of progressive neurological disorders that destroy motor neurons, the cells that control voluntary muscle activity such as speaking, walking, breathing, and swallowing. Neurological examination presents specific signs associated with upper and lower motor neuron degeneration. Signs of upper motor neuron damage include spasticity, brisk reflexes and the Babinski sign. Signs of lower motor neuron damage include weakness and muscle atrophy. Every muscle group in the body requires both upper and lower motor neurons to function. It is a common misconception that "upper" motor neurons control the arms, while "lower" motor neurons control the legs. The signs described above can occur in any muscle group, including the arms, legs, torso, and bulbar region. Symptoms usually present between the ages of 50-70, and include progressive weakness, muscle wasting, and muscle fasciculations; spasticity or stiffness in the arms and legs; and overactive tendon reflexes. Patients may present with symptoms as diverse as a dragging foot, unilateral muscle wasting in the hands, or slurred speech. This new book presents the latest research from around the globe.

Neurodegeneration and Prion Disease

Neurodegeneration and Prion Disease
Author: David R. Brown
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 498
Release: 2005-05-06
ISBN: 9780387239224
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neurodegeneration and Prion Disease Book Excerpt:

This is the first and only book on the subject of prions to cover the cause of cell death in the disease. It covers the full range of competing theories on the subject, from broad description and basic points up to the final details of the basic science.

Encyclopedia of Neuroscience Volume 1

Encyclopedia of Neuroscience  Volume 1
Author: Larry R. Squire
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 12505
Release: 2009-06-12
ISBN: 0080963935
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encyclopedia of Neuroscience Volume 1 Book Excerpt:

The Encyclopedia of the Neuroscience explores all areas of the discipline in its focused entries on a wide variety of topics in neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry and other related areas of neuroscience. Each article is written by an expert in that specific domain and peer reviewed by the advisory board before acceptance into the encyclopedia. Each article contains a glossary, introduction, a reference section, and cross-references to other related encyclopedia articles. Written at a level suitable for university undergraduates, the breadth and depth of coverage will appeal beyond undergraduates to professionals and academics in related fields.

Multiple Sclerosis As A Neuronal Disease

Multiple Sclerosis As A Neuronal Disease
Author: Stephen Waxman
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2005-05-27
ISBN: 9780080489414
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Multiple Sclerosis As A Neuronal Disease Book Excerpt:

This book examines the role of neurons in multiple sclerosis (MS) and the changes that occur in neurons as a result of MS. It places MS in a new and important perspective that not only explains the basis for symptom production, remission, and progress in MS, but also promises to open up new therapeutic possibilities. * Brings together the latest information from clinical, pathological, imaging, molecular, and pharmacological realms to explore the neurobiology of Multiple Sclerosis * Places MS in a new and important perspective that promises to open up new therapeutic avenues * Superbly illustrated and referenced

Handbook of the Neuroscience of Aging

Handbook of the Neuroscience of Aging
Author: Patrick R. Hof,Charles V. Mobbs
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 710
Release: 2010-05-22
ISBN: 9780080954059
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of the Neuroscience of Aging Book Excerpt:

A single volume of 85 articles, the Handbook of the Neurobiology of Aging is an authoritative selection of relevant chapters from the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, the most comprehensive source of neuroscience information assembled to date (AP Oct 2008). The study of neural aging is a central topic in neuroscience, neuropsychology and gerontology. Some well-known age-related neurological diseases include Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, but even more common are problems of aging which are not due to disease but to more subtle impairments in neurobiological systems, including impairments in vision, memory loss, muscle weakening, and loss of reproductive functions, changes in body weight, and sleeplessness. As the average age of our society increases, diseases of aging become more common and conditions associated with aging need more attention by doctors and researchers. This book offers an overview of topics related to neurobiological impairments which are related to the aging brain and nervous system. Coverage ranges from animal models to human imaging, fundamentals of age-related neural changes and pathological neurodegeneration, and offers an overview of structural and functional changes at the molecular, systems, and cognitive levels. Key pathologies such as memory disorders, Alzheimer's, dementia, Down syndrome, Parkinson's, and stroke are discussed, as are cutting edge interventions such as cell replacement therapy and deep brain stimulation. There is no other current single-volume reference with such a comprehensive coverage and depth. Authors selected are the internationally renowned experts for the particular topics on which they write, and the volume is richly illustrated with over 100 color figures. A collection of articles reviewing our fundamental knowledge of neural aging, the book provides an essential, affordable reference for scientists in all areas of Neuroscience, Neuropsychology and Gerontology. * The most comprehensive source of up-to-date data on the neurobiology of aging, review articles cover: normal, sensory and cognitive aging; neuroendocrine, structural and molecular factors; and fully address both patholgy and intervention * Chapters represent an authoritative selection of relevant material from the most comprehensive source of information about neuroscience ever assembled, (Encyclopedia of Neuroscience), synthesizing information otherwise dispersed across a number of journal articles and book chapters, and saving researchers the time consuming process of finding and integrating this information themselves * Offering outstanding scholarship, each chapter is written by an expert in the topic area and over 20% of chapters feature international contributors, (representing 11 countries) * Provides more fully vetted expert knowledge than any existing work with broad appeal for the US, UK and Europe, accurately crediting the contributions to research in those regions * Fully explores various pathologies associated with the aging brain (Alzheimer's, dementia, Parkinson's, memory disorders, stroke, Down's syndrome, etc.) * Coverage of disorders and key interventions makes the volume relevant to clinicians as well as researchers * Heavily illustrated with over 100 color figures

Molecular and Cellular Biology of Neuroprotection in the CNS

Molecular and Cellular Biology of Neuroprotection in the CNS
Author: Christian Alzheimer
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 501
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 1461501237
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Molecular and Cellular Biology of Neuroprotection in the CNS Book Excerpt:

Given the very limited capacity of regeneration in the brain, protecting neurons that are on the brink of death is a major challenge for basic and clinical neuroscience, with implications for a broad spectrum of acute and chronic neurological and psychiatric diseases. This book brings together leading experts from neurobiology, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, neuroimmunology and clinical neuroscience to highlight the most recent milestones in this rapidly evolving field. The book will serve as a reference for both basic neuroscientists and clinicians interested in an authoritative update on the molecular and cellular biology of neuroprotection and its promises for new therapeutic strategies.

Parkinson s Disease

Parkinson s Disease
Author: Richard Nass,Serge Przedborski
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 686
Release: 2011-04-28
ISBN: 9780080559582
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Parkinson s Disease Book Excerpt:

Parkinson’s disease is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by the irreversible loss of dopamine neurons. Despite its high prevalence in society and many decades of research, the origin of the pathogenesis and the molecular determinants involved in the disorder has remained elusive. Confounding this issue is the lack of experimental models that completely recapitulate the disease state. The identification of a number of genes thought to play a role in the cell death, and development of both toxin and genetic models to explore the function of the genes both in unaffected and diseased cells are now providing new insights into the molecular basis of the neurodegeneration, as well as therapeutic approaches. In this reference, we will describe the advances and the advantages that various invertebrates, cell culture, rodents, and mammals provide in the identification of the molecular components and mechanisms involved in the cell death, and outline the opportunities that these systems provide in drug discovery. Comprehensive and critical assessment of the utility of various model systems to identify the molecular components and pathways involved in Parkinson’s disease Describes the power of toxin and genetic models to identify novel therapeutic targets and compounds that can be used in PD Current overviews of current status of PD research and discovery from bench-to-bedside Provides novel insights and views on where the future of PD research may lead Provides a powerful teaching tool and template to explore the utility of model systems to identify molecular pathways, molecular targets, and therapeutics that are applicable to a variety of neurological diseases

Molecular Neurology

Molecular Neurology
Author: Stephen Waxman
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 600
Release: 2010-07-26
ISBN: 9780080546186
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Molecular Neurology Book Excerpt:

Why a book on molecular neurology? Molecular neuroscience is advancing at a spectacular rate. As it does so, it is revealing important clues to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of neurological diseases, and to the therapeutic targets that they present. Medicines work by targeting molecules. The more specific the targeting, the more specific the actions, and the fewer the side effects. Molecular Neurology highlights, for graduate and MD-PhD students, research fellows and research-oriented clinical fellows, and researchers in the neurosciences and other biomedical sciences, the principles underlying molecular medicine as related to neurology. Written by internationally recognized experts, this well-illustrated and well-referenced book presents the most up-to-date principles and disease examples relevant to molecular neurology, and reviews the concepts, strategies, and latest progress in this field. This book will interest anyone studying the molecular basis of neurology, or developing new therapies in neurology. Describes the newest molecular aspects of neurological disorders Provides an introduction to neurological disorders for basic scientists Updates clinicians and clinical researchers on the most recent developments

Greenfield s Neuropathology Two Volume Set

Greenfield s Neuropathology   Two Volume Set
Author: Seth Love,Arie Perry,James Ironside,Herbert Budka
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1988
Release: 2018-10-08
ISBN: 1498729053
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Greenfield s Neuropathology Two Volume Set Book Excerpt:

Greenfield's Neuropathology, the world’s leading neuropathology reference, provides a comprehensive account of the pathological findings in neurological disease, their biological basis, and their clinical manifestations. The book’s detailed advice on pathological assessment and interpretation is based on clear descriptions of molecular and cellular processes and reactions that are relevant to the development of the nervous system, as well as its normal and abnormal functioning. The information is presented in an accessible way to readers working within a range of disciplines in the clinical neurosciences, and neuropathological findings are placed within the context of a broader diagnostic process. New for the Ninth Edition: Features online and downloadable digital formats with rapid search functions, annotation and bookmarking facilities, image collections, and live reference links Contains many color illustrations and high-quality clinical photographs to help with interpretation and understanding Includes more than 1000 new photographs and drawings Incorporates new design elements, such as alternate colour coding of chapters for easier navigation Known for its thorough yet practical approach, Greenfield's continues to provide trusted information to all neuropathologists and those in related specialties, including neurologists, neurosurgeons, general pathologists, neuroradiologists, and clinical neuroscientists.