Description : Improvements in safety in the air and in space can be achieved through better ergonomics, better work environments, and other efforts of the traditional avionic psychology that directly affect human behaviors and performance. Not limited to just the aerospace field, this book discusses adaptive probabilistic predictive modeling in human-in-the-loop situations. This involves situations where human performance and equipment reliability contributes jointly to the success and safety of a mission. This book gets you familiar with a new, powerful, flexible, and effective approach to making outcomes from missions successful and safe.
Description : Human-in-the-Loop Simulations is a compilation of articles from experts in the design, development, and use of human-in-the-loop simulations. The first section of the handbook consists of papers on fundamental concepts in human-in-the-loop simulations, such as object-oriented simulation development, interface design and development, and performance measurement. The second section includes papers from researchers who utilized HITL simulations to inform models of cognitive processes to include decision making and metacognition. The last section describes human-in-the-loop processes for complex simulation models in trade space exploration and epidemiological analyses. Human-in-the-Loop Simulations is a useful tool for multiple audiences, including graduate students and researchers in engineering and computer science.
Description : In the past years there has been considerable effort to move robots from industrial environments to our daily lives where they can collaborate and interact with humans to improve our life quality. One of the key challenges in this direction is to make a suitable robot control system that can adapt to humans and interactively learn from humans to facilitate the efficient and safe co-existence of the two. The applications of such robotic systems include: service robotics and physical human-robot collaboration, assistive and rehabilitation robotics, semi-autonomous cars, etc. To achieve the goal of integrating robotic systems into these applications, several important research directions must be explored. One such direction is the study of skill transfer, where a human operator’s skilled executions are used to obtain an autonomous controller. Another important direction is shared control, where a robotic controller and humans control the same body, tool, mechanism, car, etc. Shared control, in turn invokes very rich research questions such as co-adaptation between the human and the robot, where the two agents can benefit from each other’s skills or must adapt to each other’s behavior to achieve effective cooperative task executions. The aim of this Research Topic is to help bridge the gap between the state-of-the-art and above-mentioned goals through novel multidisciplinary approaches in human-in-the-loop robot control and learning.
Description : Threats in the 21st century are increasingly complex, requiring multiple perspectives and disciplines to understand and anticipate challenges. National security issues will require consideration of the insights that might be gained through social science analysis in order to provide broader understanding of both challenges and potential solutions. Many of the challenges and potential missions faced by the Department of Defense (DoD) will be multi-faceted in their most fundamental nature. To better understand these issues, their origins, and potential solutions, we need to think clearly about insights provided about the psychological and social dynamics impacting complex security problems. We can anticipate military operations and missions in a networked, dynamic global environment where modern media, the pace of technological change, and speed of events overlay often long standing historic social legacies and conflicts. We can turn to the social sciences to better understand the intersection of new technologies and legacies and, therefore, assist in crafting strategies to deal with current and emerging issues.This white paper discusses the validity concepts and validation of the social sciences in the context of applied and operational settings. It focuses on a key issue: How do we gauge the degree to which our frameworks, models, and measures of human social behaviors correspond to the real issues with which DoD operators are concerned? It addresses these issues from several perspectives: 1. Scientific Validation in Social Science: What concepts are appropriate for assessing the "goodness" of the social science within the scope of DoD missions? 2. Determining Mission Applicability: Social sciences play roles at various phases of military planning. Will these necessitate varying degrees of validation? 3. The need to develop military social scientists to bridge the gap between social sciences as an academic discipline and their potential applications in strategic, operational, and tactical decision making.1. Overview * 2. Background * 3. What Does Validation Mean? Scientific Validation in Social Science * 4. UK "Fitness for Purpose" Approach to Reliability and Validation * 5. How Operators Should Use Input They Receive From the Social Sciences Mainly Working Outside Their Realm (Determining Mission Applicability) * 6. Thoughts on the Need to Develop Military Social Scientists * 7. Observations and Conclusions
Description : The first book focusing on one of the hottest new topics in Internet of Things systems research and development Studies estimate that by 2020 we will have a vast Internet of Things (IoT) network comprising 26 billion connected devices, including everything from light bulbs to refrigerators, coffee makers to cars. From the beginning, the concept of cyber-physical systems (CPS), or the sensing and control of physical phenomena through networks of devices that work together to achieve common goals, has been implicit in the IoT enterprise. This book focuses on the increasingly hot topic of Human-in-the-loop Cyber-Physical Systems (HiTLCPS)—CPSs that incorporate human responses in IoT equation. Why have we not yet integrated the human component into CPSs? What are the major challenges to achieving HiTLCPS? How can we take advantage of ubiquitous sensing platforms, such as smartphones and personal devices to achieve that goal? While mature HiTLCPS designs have yet to be achieved, or a general consensus reached on underlying HiTLCPS requirements, principles, and theory, researchers and developers worldwide are on the cusp of realizing them. With contributions from researchers at the cutting edge of HiTLCPS R&D, this book addresses many of these questions from the theoretical and practical points of view. An essential primer on a rapidly emerging Internet-of-Things concept, focusing on human-centric applications Discusses new topics which, until now, have only been available in research papers scattered throughout the world literature Addressed fundamental concepts in depth while providing practical insights into the development of complete HiTLCPS systems Includes a companion website containing full source-code for all of the applications described This book is an indispensable resource for researchers and app developers eager to explore HiTL concepts and include them into their designs. It is also an excellent primer for advanced undergraduates and graduate students studying IoT, CPS, and HiTLCPS.
Description : Through these research efforts, we emphasize the importance of human involvement in machine learning and study how to incorporate human guidance into the machine learning process while ensuring the scalability of the algorithms. The long-term goal of the research in this dissertation is to facilitate the notion of human-in-the-loop machine learning and stimulate research to realize this idea on more machine learning tasks.