Hyaluronan in Cancer Biology

Hyaluronan in Cancer Biology
Author: Robert Stern
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 468
Release: 2009-03-07
ISBN: 9780080921082
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hyaluronan in Cancer Biology Book Excerpt:

Hyaluronan biology is being recognized as an important regulator of cancer progression. Paradoxically, both hyaluronan (HA) and hyaluronidases, the enzymes that eliminate HA, have also been correlated with cancer progression. Hyaluronan, a long-chain polymer of the extracellular matrix, opens up tissue spaces through which cancer cells move and metastasize. It also confers motility upon cells through interactions of cell-surface HA with the cytoskeleton. Embryonic cells in the process of movement and proliferation use the same strategy. It is an example of how cancer cells have commandeered normal cellular processes for their own survival and spread. There are also parallels between cancer and wound healing, cancer occasionally being defined as a wound that does not heal. The growing body of literature regarding this topic has recently progressed from describing the association of hyaluronan and hyaluronidase expression associated with different cancers, to understanding the mechanisms that drive tumor cell activation, proliferation, drug resistance, etc. No one source, however, discusses hyaluronan synthesis and catabolism, as well as the factors that regulate the balance. This book will offer a comprehensive summary and cutting-edge insight into Hyaluronan biology, the role of the HA receptors, the hyaluronidase enzymes that degrade HA, as well as HA synthesis enzymes and their relationship to cancer. * Offers a comprehensive summary and cutting-edge insight into Hyaluronan biology, the role of the HA receptors, the hyaluronidase enzymes that degrade HA, as well as HA synthesis enzymes and their relationship to cancer * Chapters are written by the leading international authorities on this subject, from laboratories that focus on the investigation of hyaluronan in cancer initiation, progression, and dissemination * Focuses on understanding the mechanisms that drive tumor cell activation, proliferation, and drug resistance

Hyaluronan Signaling and Turnover

Hyaluronan Signaling and Turnover
Author: Melanie Simpson,Paraskevi Heldin
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 418
Release: 2014-07-26
ISBN: 0128003936
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hyaluronan Signaling and Turnover Book Excerpt:

Advances in Cancer Research provides invaluable information on the exciting and fast-moving field of cancer research. Here, once again, outstanding and original reviews are presented on a variety of topics. This volume covers hyaluronan signaling and turnover. Provides information on cancer research Outstanding and original reviews Suitable for researchers and students

Chemistry and Biology of Hyaluronan

Chemistry and Biology of Hyaluronan
Author: Hari G. Garg,Charles A. Hales
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 624
Release: 2004-07-14
ISBN: 9780080472225
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chemistry and Biology of Hyaluronan Book Excerpt:

It was probably the French chemist Portes, who first reported in 1880 that the mucin in the vitreous body, which he named hyalomucine, behaved differently from other mucoids in cornea and cartilage. Fifty four years later Karl Meyer isolated a new polysaccharide from the vitreous, which he named hyaluronic acid. Today its official name is hyaluronan, and modern-day research on this polysaccharide continues to grow. Expertly written by leading scientists in the field, this book provides readers with a broad, yet detailed review of the chemistry of hyaluronan, and the role it plays in human biology and pathology. Twenty-seven chapters present a sequence leading from the chemistry and biochemistry of hyaluronan, followed by its role in various pathological conditions, to modified hylauronans as potential therapeutic agents and finally to the functional, structural and biological properties of hyaluronidases. Chemistry and Biology of Hyaluronan covers the many interesting facets of this fascinating molecule, and all chapters are intended to reach the wider research community. Comprehensive look at the chemistry and biology of hyaluronans Essential to Chemists, Biochemists and Medical researchers Broad yet detailed review of this rapidly growing research area

Tumor Microenvironment

Tumor Microenvironment
Author: Alexander Birbrair
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 181
Release: 2020-04-07
ISBN: 3030401464
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Tumor Microenvironment Book Excerpt:

Revealing essential roles of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression, this volume focuses on the extracellular matrix components of the tumor during cancer development. Further, it teaches readers about the roles of distinct constituents of the tumor microenvironment and how they affect cancer development. Topics include heparan sulphate, hyaluronan, fibronectin, perlecan, glypican, matrix metalloproteinases, and much more. Taken alongside its companion volumes, Tumor Microenvironment: Extracellular Matrix Components – Part A updates us on what we know about the different aspects of the tumor microenvironment, as well as apprises us on the future advances in the field. For the newest generation of researchers, this volume serves as a useful introduction to the history of scientists’ focus on the tumor microenvironment, and explores how this knowledge is currently applied in cancer treatments. The book is an essential text for advanced cell biology and cancer biology students, as well as for scientists seeking an update on the developments in tumor microenvironment research. All of the chapter authors are renowned international experts in the field of cancer biology, and in the specific subfields that are the focus of their chapters.

Receptor mediated Targeting to Enhance Therapeutic Efficacy of Chemotherapeutic Agents

Receptor mediated Targeting to Enhance Therapeutic Efficacy of Chemotherapeutic Agents
Author: Kush Nimish Shah
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 500
Release: 2014
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Biology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Receptor mediated Targeting to Enhance Therapeutic Efficacy of Chemotherapeutic Agents Book Excerpt:

Dr. Paul Ehlrich introduced the concept of targeted drug delivery in 1904. With the advancement in technology, and molecular biology techniques, several new targeting moieties have been developed in the past two decades. These targeting molecules improve the therapeutic efficacy of the drug, and alleviate systemic toxicity. Drug delivery devices, including, nanoparticles and polymer-drug pendant chains have been thoroughly investigated for targeting applications. Cancer has been the focus for development of efficient targeted drug delivery devices and new therapies because of poor prognosis, and socio-economic impact. One of the main aims of this research is to design and develop a targeted drug delivery device with the goal of achieving receptor mediated targeting to the tumor and alleviate systemic toxicity. Therefore, peptide targeted nanoparticles and hyaluronan based self-targeting polymer-chain pendant system have been developed and tested with two novel chemotherapeutic agents, resveratrol and MOMIPP. Peptides Lyp1 and p160 have been chosen for targeting L-tyrosine polyphosphate nanoparticles because of their ability to selectively bind with certain breast cancers. Lyp1 targeted nanoparticles show 5 and 7 fold greater attachment to MB157 and MB231 cells, while p160 targeted nanoparticles exhibit 3-fold greater attachment to MCF7 cells, under physiological flow compared to untargeted nanoparticles or non-cancerous cells. This attachment is stable since the attached nanoparticles do not detach at shear stresses encountered in the tumor interstitium. Hyaluronan, a hydrophilic biopolymer plays an important role in tumor development and metastasis, hence, several cancers over-express hyaluronan binding receptors, CD44 and RHAMM. The availability of multiple functional groups on hyaluronan allows for attachment of drugs, therefore, hyaluronan is an ideal candidate for development of self-targeted drug delivery device. Hyaluronan conjugates exhibit enhanced attachment to CD44 over-expressing MB157 cells compared to non-conjugated drug. Further, hyaluronan conjugated resveratrol and MOMIPP exhibit up to 12-fold greater toxicity against certain cancers in vitro. Hyaluronan also shows enhanced attachment to breast cancer cells under physiological flow conditions compared to noncancerous cells. Animals injected with hyaluronan conjugates via tail-vein show greater accumulation in the tumors compared to kidneys and livers, which translates to a reduced tumor mass. Thus, these hyaluronan conjugates suggest hyaluronan's potential as a "magic bullet" to target and deliver therapeutic agents specifically to the cell of interest.

Liu tsu fa pao t an ching Shan hui ta shih lu P ang ch shih y lu

Liu tsu fa pao t an ching  Shan hui ta shih lu  P ang ch   shih y   lu
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 349
Release: 2022
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Liu tsu fa pao t an ching Shan hui ta shih lu P ang ch shih y lu Book Excerpt:

Encyclopedia of Cell Biology

Encyclopedia of Cell Biology
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 3008
Release: 2015-08-07
ISBN: 0123947960
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encyclopedia of Cell Biology Book Excerpt:

The Encyclopedia of Cell Biology offers a broad overview of cell biology, offering reputable, foundational content for researchers and students across the biological and medical sciences. This important work includes 285 articles from domain experts covering every aspect of cell biology, with fully annotated figures, abundant illustrations, videos, and references for further reading. Each entry is built with a layered approach to the content, providing basic information for those new to the area and more detailed material for the more experienced researcher. With authored contributions by experts in the field, the Encyclopedia of Cell Biology provides a fully cross-referenced, one-stop resource for students, researchers, and teaching faculty across the biological and medical sciences. Fully annotated color images and videos for full comprehension of concepts, with layered content for readers from different levels of experience Includes information on cytokinesis, cell biology, cell mechanics, cytoskeleton dynamics, stem cells, prokaryotic cell biology, RNA biology, aging, cell growth, cell Injury, and more In-depth linking to Academic Press/Elsevier content and additional links to outside websites and resources for further reading A one-stop resource for students, researchers, and teaching faculty across the biological and medical sciences

Hyaluronan CD44 Interactions Decrease the Metastatic Potential of Breast Cancer Cells

Hyaluronan CD44 Interactions Decrease the Metastatic Potential of Breast Cancer Cells
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 6
Release: 2007
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hyaluronan CD44 Interactions Decrease the Metastatic Potential of Breast Cancer Cells Book Excerpt:

The adhesion receptor CD44 is known to decrease the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells in vivo. This study focuses on understanding the mechanisms by which CD44 inhibits breast cancer cell invasion. We have found that the interaction between CD44 and Hyaluronan leads to decreased phosphorylation of FAK. Additionally, this interaction also leads to decreased transcription of the metalloprotease MMP9. Together, these mechanisms provide significant insight into how CD44 inhibits the movement of breast cancer cells away from their primary site.

Extracellular Matrix in Tumor Biology

Extracellular Matrix in Tumor Biology
Author: Rolf A. Brekken,Dwayne Stupack
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 115
Release: 2017-08-04
ISBN: 3319609076
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Extracellular Matrix in Tumor Biology Book Excerpt:

This volume provides an overview on the influence of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) on tumor progression. It covers topics such as signaling induced by structural ECM proteins including collagen and fibronectin, the control of ECM deposition and the turnover in tumors. Also discussed are the migration of cells through basement membranes and the function of proteoglycans including lumican and veriscan in tumor progression. Biomaterial-based in-vitro models as well as C. elegans models of the tumor microenvironment are used to show how these models can lead to a greater understanding of the disease mechanisms that promote cancer progression. The book addresses researchers working on cancer biology or ECM, and oncologists alike.

Interaction between Hyaluronic Acid and Its Receptors CD44 RHAMM Regulates the Activity of Inflammation and Cancer

Interaction between Hyaluronic Acid and Its Receptors  CD44  RHAMM  Regulates the Activity of Inflammation and Cancer
Author: David Naor
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2016-07-18
ISBN: 2889199134
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Interaction between Hyaluronic Acid and Its Receptors CD44 RHAMM Regulates the Activity of Inflammation and Cancer Book Excerpt:

The biological outcome of Hyaluronan (also hyaluronic acid, abbreviated HA) interaction with its CD44 or RHAMM receptors recently attracted much attention within the scientific community owing to a Nature article by Tian X et al. (Nature 2013; 499:346-9). The article described a life span exceeding 30 years in naked mole rats, whereas the maximal lifespan of mice, to which the naked mole rat is related, is only 4 years. This observation is accompanied by the finding that the naked mole rat, in contrast to the mouse, does not develop spontaneous tumors during this exceptional longevity. The article provides evidence that interaction of long tissue HA (6000-12,000 kDa) of the naked mole rat with cell surface CD44, in contrast to the interaction of short tissue HA (less than 3000 kDa) with the mouse CD44, makes the difference. More specifically, this communication shows that the interaction of short HA with fibroblasts’ CD44 imposes on them susceptibility for malignant transformation, whereas the corresponding interaction with long HA imposes on the fibroblasts a resistance to malignant transformation. The article does not explain the mechanism that underlines these findings. However, the articles, that will be published in the proposed Research Topic in the Inflammation section of Frontiers in Immunology, can bridge not only this gap, but also may explain why interaction between short HA and cell surface CD44 (or RHAMM, an additional HA receptor) enhances the development of inflammatory and malignant diseases. Furthermore, the articles included in the proposed Frontiers Research Topic will show that cancer cells and inflammatory cells share several properties related to the interaction between short HA and cell surface CD44 and/or RHAMM. These shared properties include: 1. Support of cell migration, which allows tumor metastasis and accumulation of inflammatory cells at the inflammation site; 2. Delivery of intracellular signaling, which leads to cell survival of either cancer cells or inflammatory cells; 3. Delivery of intracellular signaling, which activates cell replication and population expansion of either cancer cells or inflammatory cells; and 4. Binding of growth factors to cell surface CD44 of cancer cells or inflammatory cells (i.e., the growth factors) and their presentation to cells with cognate receptors (endothelial cells, fibroblasts), leading to pro-malignant or pro-inflammatory activities. Going back to the naked mole rat story, we may conclude from the proposed articles of this Frontiers Research Topic that the long HA, which displays anti-malignant effect, interferes with the above described pro-malignant potential of the short HA (perhaps by competing on the same CD44 receptor). Extrapolating this concept to Inflammation, the same mechanism (competition?) may be valid for inflammatory (and autoimmune) activities. If this is the case, long HA may be used for therapy of both malignant and inflammatory diseases. Moreover, targeting the interaction between short HA and CD44 (e.g. by anti-CD44 blocking antibodies) may display also a therapeutic effect on both malignant and inflammatory diseases, an issue that encourages not only fruitful exchange of views, but also practical experimental collaboration.

Evaluation of Hyaluronan Metabolism as a Therapeutic Target in the Treatment of Breast Cancer

Evaluation of Hyaluronan Metabolism as a Therapeutic Target in the Treatment of Breast Cancer
Author: Natalie Kate Thomas
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 476
Release: 2009
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Evaluation of Hyaluronan Metabolism as a Therapeutic Target in the Treatment of Breast Cancer Book Excerpt:

Hyaluronan (HA) is a ubiquitous component of the extracellular matrix where it has important roles in the maintenance of tissue hydration and structural integrity. Malignant transformation is typically accompanied by changes in the cellular microenvironment, including altered composition of the extracellular matrix. Increased deposition of HA in the extracellular environment is frequently reported, where increased concentrations of cell-associated and stromal hyaluronan are considered poor prognostic indicators in several cancers. Upregulation of the expressions of the transmembrane HA synthetic proteins, the hyaluronan synthases (HAS), are implicated in the generation of heightened HA concentrations observed in cancer, where the interaction of the synthetic product with its cellular receptors generates signalling cascades which promote malignant progression. This thesis has explored the contribution of hyaluronan synthase 2 to breast cancer progression by overexpression of HAS2 in the ZR-75-1 human breast epithelial ductal carcinoma cell line, which has been previously reported to exhibit low HA synthetic capacity and CD44 expression. Overexpression of HAS2 induced up to a ~10 fold increase in the concentration of liberated HA, which stimulated expression of both CD44s and CD44v9. The increased HA-CD44 interactions afforded by HAS2 overexpression mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and increased the propensity for glycolytic metabolism, thereby implicating HAS2 in the dynamics of cellular energy metabolism. Furthermore, HAS2 modulated the expression of key breast cancer glycolytic markers including TKTL1 and PKM2. Downregulation of the glucose transporter GLUT1 contrasted the classic glycolytic phenotype, however may be indicative of the capacity of HA to act as an alternate energy source. The acquisition of an invasive, proliferative phenotype which is associated with both the induction of aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) and the increased production of HA was apparent in >6 fold increases in endpoint tumor volume and decreased overall survival in a model of metastases in the HAS2 transfectants relative to the control cell lines. The multifaceted roles of HA production in breast cancer that have been highlighted by findings of this thesis implicate HAS in the malignant process, and indicate that the isoforms warrant targeting by novel therapies. The inhibition of HA translocation across the cell membrane represents an approach to inhibition of HA synthesis. The recently described role of ABC transporter, MRP5, in HA translocation prompted investigation of the effect of pharmacological inhibition of ABC transporters on the export of HA and properties of breast cancer. Findings generated in this thesis however refuted a role for ABC transporters in breast cancer, demonstrating no reduction in liberated HA nor alteration of cellular HA localisation in response to inhibition of a wide range of ABC transporters. In accordance with this result, low endogenous expression of transporters was identified in a panel of breast cancer cell lines, where there was no significant correlation identified between HAS expression, HA production and ABC transporter expression. Furthermore, the HA glycocalyx was well retained in the presence of ABC transporter inhibitors, disproving the role of ABC transporters in HA translocation in breast cancer and possibly suggesting the means of HA export is cell-type dependent.Given the lack of inhibitory activity of ABC transporter inhibitors on HA synthesis, novel HAS antibody inhibitors were designed, synthesised and characterised in breast cancer and non-malignant cell lines in vitro. Antibodies were targeted to distinct epitopes within HAS1, where western blotting and FACS analysis confirmed the specific targeting of the HA synthase. The designated INT-1 and EX-1 antibodies were localised to their hypothesised intracellular and extracellular localisations, whilst the INT-2 antibody binding epitope was localised to the intracellular environment in non-malignant cell lines, and the extracellular environment in a panel of breast cancer cell lines. The capacity of the INT-2 antibody to discriminate between the hyaluronan synthase in malignant and non-malignant tissue and have specific inhibitory activity in malignant tissue only, has unique implications for both the targeted cancer-specific inhibition of HAS, and the structure and topology of the protein within the plasma membrane. Functionally, the inhibitory effects of the antibodies translated to reductions in liberation of HA and cell proliferation, which were consistent with the characterised HA synthesis inhibitor, 4-methylumbelliferone. Analysis of cell morphology by scanning electron microscopy suggested that HAS antibodies may be inducing necrosis.The collective work in this thesis highlights the importance of HAS and HA production in breast cancer, and the potential therapeutic value in their inhibition. Whilst the ABC transporters are not legitimate targets for inhibition of HA export in breast cancer, the design and generation of novel antibody inhibitors represents a highly significant finding in HA research. The seemingly altered organisation of the HA synthase in breast cancer which results in the accessibility of the INT-2 binding domain and the resultant inhibitory activity that it mediates, could be exploited in the development of novel breast cancer therapeutics, and in turn abrogate the many pro-malignant effects of the once seemingly innocent structural molecule of hyaluronan.

Role of Cancer Stem Cells in Cancer Biology and Therapy

Role of Cancer Stem Cells in Cancer Biology and Therapy
Author: Thomas Dittmar,Kurt S. Zänker
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 332
Release: 2016-04-19
ISBN: 1466577363
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Role of Cancer Stem Cells in Cancer Biology and Therapy Book Excerpt:

This book summarizes the latest findings about the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in cancer biology and how this knowledge could be used for novel anticancer therapies. It provides an overview of CSCs in selected malignancies with particular emphasis on hematopoietic neoplasias. It then reviews the role of CSCs in metastasis formation and initiation of cancer relapses. It also examines the dark side of cancer therapy such as conventional cancer therapies that may lead to the origin of recurrence CSCs. Finally, it supplies a brief overview of current concepts that may allow for a selective eradication of CSCs.

The Extracellular Matrix and the Tumor Microenvironment

The Extracellular Matrix and the Tumor Microenvironment
Author: Ilona Kovalszky,Marco Franchi,Laura D. Alaniz
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 494
Release: 2022-08-07
ISBN: 3030997081
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Extracellular Matrix and the Tumor Microenvironment Book Excerpt:

This book introduces the most important and best studied extracellular and pericellular molecules of the tumor microenvironment. It gives a comprehensive overview of their role in tumor development and cancer progression. Twelve chapters deal with the biochemical and biophysical background of extracellular matrix (ECM) changes in the tumor stroma compared to the physiological state. The reader learns about the major ECM components that are deregulated during cancer development and how they are associated with cancer progression associated with survival, inflammation process, among others. These are followed by recent data about the cooperative activity of extracellular matrix in tumor metabolism, promoting cancer progression. Two chapters focus specifically on the critical role of the ECM in tumor angiogenesis, linking this process to cellular infiltration and metastatic behavior of tumors. The final part describes how the ECM influences the success of immuno- and chemotherapy in cancer patients, its potential as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic target, as well as the mechanism of resistance-associated changes in the ECM. This book is an interesting read for anyone who want to know more about ECM and cancer biology. Early career scientists can use it as an introduction to the field, offering an excellent tool for studying ECM. Advanced researchers and clinicians can gain a broader overview of the subject, considering the role of ECM for influencing every cancer hallmark as well as in the response of cancer treatments. The work serves to inspire future research and shows that the ECM should be considered as an important factor in the development of cancer therapeutics. The series "Biology of Extracellular Matrix" is published in collaboration with the American Society for Matrix Biology and the International Society for Matrix Biology.

New Frontiers in Medical Sciences

New Frontiers in Medical Sciences
Author: Giovanni Abatangelo,Paul H. Weigel
Publsiher: Excerpta Medica
Total Pages: 372
Release: 2000
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Frontiers in Medical Sciences Book Excerpt:

Hardbound. Although hyaluronan was discovered nearly 70 years ago and has been investigated by thousands of scientists, it is very appropriate that as we enter a new millennium, the study of the biology and chemistry of hyaluronan has entered a renaissance period. The driving force behind the symposium was to redefine the properties and complex biological roles of hyaluronan, its interactions with other molecules of the extracellular matrix and its increasing use to treat various pathologies. For many decades hyaluronan was considered to be merely a structural component of many tissues, certainly important for the normal function of our eyes and joints, but of relatively little interest to scientists trying to understand complex multicellular processes. That view has been dramatically changed by several unexpected discoveries: that several cell surface receptors specifically recognize hyaluronan; that small hyaluronan oligosaccharides stimulate angiogenes

Nanotechnology and Regenerative Engineering

Nanotechnology and Regenerative Engineering
Author: Cato T. Laurencin,Lakshmi S. Nair
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 476
Release: 2014-10-28
ISBN: 1466585382
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanotechnology and Regenerative Engineering Book Excerpt:

Nanotechnology and regenerative engineering have emerged to the forefront as the most versatile and innovative technologies to foster novel therapeutic techniques and strategies of the twenty-first century. The first edition of Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering: The Scaffold was the first comprehensive source to explain the developments in nanostructured biomaterials for tissue engineering, the relevance of nanostructured materials in tissue regeneration, and the current applications of nanostructured scaffolds for engineering various tissues. This fully revised second edition, renamed Nanotechnology and Regenerative Engineering: The Scaffold, provides a thorough update to the existing material, bringing together these two unique areas to give a perspective of the emerging therapeutic strategies for a wide audience. New coverage includes: Updated discussion of the importance of scaffolds in tissue engineering Exploration of cellular interactions at the nanoscale Complete range of fabrication processes capable of developing nanostructured scaffolds for regenerative engineering Applications of nanostructured scaffolds for neural, skin, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal regenerative engineering FDA approval process of nanostructure scaffolds Products based on nanostructured scaffolds Due to the unique and tissue-mimic properties of the nanostructured scaffolds, the past five years have seen a tremendous growth in nanostructured materials for biological applications. The revised work presents the current state-of-the-art developments in nanostructured scaffolds for regenerative engineering.

Modeling the Prostate Cancer Tissue Microenvironment Using Hyaluronan Hydrogels

Modeling the Prostate Cancer Tissue Microenvironment Using Hyaluronan Hydrogels
Author: Nicky W. Tam
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 0
Release: 2020
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modeling the Prostate Cancer Tissue Microenvironment Using Hyaluronan Hydrogels Book Excerpt:

Prostate cancer cells exist in dynamic, evolving tissue environments and their behaviour is influenced by context-specific interactions with their surroundings. To better understand how and why prostate cancer cells behave the way they do, they need to be studied in context. To improve upon conventional cell culture techniques, I explored the use of a disulfide-crosslinked hyaluronan hydrogel as a model cell culture environment. I optimized a previously described chemical modification protocol to better suit the needs of a general life science laboratory and characterized the material properties of the resulting hydrogel. With unique diffusive properties, this hydrogel can potentially be used to model hypoxic tissues with limited diffusivity. Model prostate cancer cells cultured within this hydrogel environment exhibited increased metabolic activity despite signs of limited access to nutrients. This hydrogel has potential for use in advanced three-dimensional tissue culture and could help improve the physiological relevance of prostate cancer research.

Handbook of the Biology of Aging

Handbook of the Biology of Aging
Author: Matt Kaeberlein,George Martin
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 576
Release: 2015-08-20
ISBN: 0124116205
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of the Biology of Aging Book Excerpt:

Handbook of the Biology of Aging, Eighth Edition, provides readers with an update on the rapid progress in the research of aging. It is a comprehensive synthesis and review of the latest and most important advances and themes in modern biogerontology, and focuses on the trend of ‘big data’ approaches in the biological sciences, presenting new strategies to analyze, interpret, and understand the enormous amounts of information being generated through DNA sequencing, transcriptomic, proteomic, and the metabolomics methodologies applied to aging related problems. The book includes discussions on longevity pathways and interventions that modulate aging, innovative new tools that facilitate systems-level approaches to aging research, the mTOR pathway and its importance in age-related phenotypes, new strategies to pharmacologically modulate the mTOR pathway to delay aging, the importance of sirtuins and the hypoxic response in aging, and how various pathways interact within the context of aging as a complex genetic trait, amongst others. Covers the key areas in biological gerontology research in one volume, with an 80% update from the previous edition Edited by Matt Kaeberlein and George Martin, highly respected voices and researchers within the biology of aging discipline Assists basic researchers in keeping abreast of research and clinical findings outside their subdiscipline Presents information that will help medical, behavioral, and social gerontologists in understanding what basic scientists and clinicians are discovering New chapters on genetics, evolutionary biology, bone aging, and epigenetic control Provides a close examination of the diverse research being conducted today in the study of the biology of aging, detailing recent breakthroughs and potential new directions

Encyclopedia of Cancer

Encyclopedia of Cancer
Author: Manfred Schwab
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 3984
Release: 2011-10-14
ISBN: 364216482X
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encyclopedia of Cancer Book Excerpt:

The merging of different basic and clinical science disciplines towards the common goal of fighting against cancer has long ago called for the establishment of a comprehensive reference source both as a tool to close the language gap between clinical and basic science investigators and as a platform of information for students and informed laymen alike. The Encyclopedia of Cancer provides rapid access to focused information on all topics of cancer research for clinicians, research scientists and advanced students. Given the overwhelming success of the Second Edition, which appeared in 2009, and fast recent development in the different fields of cancer research, it has been decided to publish a third fully revised and expanded edition, following the principal concept of the first edition that has proven so successful. Recent developments are seeing a dynamic progress in basic and clinical cancer science, with translational research increasingly becoming a new paradigm in cancer research. In particular, new approaches to both Personalized Cancer Medicine and Targeted Therapies have made promising progress. While the Second Edition featured scholarly contributions from approximately 1.000 scientists/clinicians in four Volumes, the Third Edition includes 1.300 contributors in 7 Volumes with an A-Z format of approx. 7000 entries. It provides definitions of common acronyms and short definitions of related terms and processes in the form of keyword entries. In addition, there are detailed essays, which provide comprehensive information on syndromes, genes and molecules, and processes and methods. Each essay is well-structured, with extensive cross-referencing between all entries. In the Third Edition, topical Essays present a comprehensive picture of major cancers, such as Breast Cancer, Colorectal Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Renal Cancer, Lung Cancer, and Hematological Maligancies, Leukemias and Lymphomas. For each of these cancers, different authoritative Essays are included that cover topics ranging from Pathology, to Clinical Oncology and Targeted Therapies. This new feature should meet the expectance that a wide community has towards a major cancer reference works. The Encyclopedia of Cancer will be accessible both in print and online, and this information source should be of value to both the clinical and basic scientific community as well as to the public.

Natural Polymers Biopolymers Biomaterials and Their Composites Blends and IPNs

Natural Polymers  Biopolymers  Biomaterials  and Their Composites  Blends  and IPNs
Author: Sabu Thomas,Neethu Ninan,Sneha Mohan,Elizabeth Francis
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 370
Release: 2012-07-18
ISBN: 146655939X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Natural Polymers Biopolymers Biomaterials and Their Composites Blends and IPNs Book Excerpt:

Natural Polymers, Biopolymers, Biomaterials, and Their Composites, Blends, and IPNs focuses on the recent advances in natural polymers, biopolymers, biomaterials, and their composites, blends, and IPNs. Biobased polymer blends and composites occupy a unique position in the dynamic world of new biomaterials. The growing need for lubricious coatings and surfaces in medical devices—an outcome of the move from invasive to noninvasive medicines/procedures—is playing a major role in the advancement of biomaterials technology. Natural polymers have attained their cutting-edge technology through various platforms, yet there is a lot of novel information about them that is discussed in the book. This important work covers topics such as chitosan composites for biomedical applications and wastewater treatment, coal biotechnology, biomedical and related applications of second generation polyamidoamines, silk fibers, PEG hydrogels, bamboo fiber reinforced PE composites, jute/polyester composites, magnetic biofoams, and many other interesting aspects of importance to polymer research today.

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer
Author: Mehmet Gunduz,Esra Gunduz
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 598
Release: 2011-12-14
ISBN: 9533077662
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Breast Cancer Book Excerpt:

Cancer is the leading cause of death in most countries and its consequences result in huge economic, social and psychological burden. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer type and the leading cause of cancer death among females. In this book, we discussed characteristics of breast cancer cell, role of microenvironment, stem cells and metastasis for this deadly cancer. We hope that this book will contribute to the development of novel diagnostic as well as therapeutic approaches.