Imaging in Neurology E Book

Imaging in Neurology E Book
Author: Anne G. Osborn,Kathleen B. Digre
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 450
Release: 2016-04-20
ISBN: 0323448291
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Imaging in Neurology E Book Book Excerpt:

Written by two renowned leaders in neuroradiology and neurology, this unique reference is a high-level imaging resource ideal for today’s clinical neurologist or neuroscientist. Using straightforward, jargon-free prose, this book provides an overview of neurological disorders coupled with typical imaging findings — all designed for use at the point of care. You will be expertly guided throughout, from radiologic appearance and the significance of the imaging findings to the next appropriate steps in effective patient care. Discusses radiologic appearances of common neurological diseases, their significance, and the next steps in patient care in a clear manner perfectly suited for neurologists or neuroscientists Provides high-level information from both a neuroradiologist and a neurologist, making it a balanced and appropriate clinical reference for day-to-day neurology practice Covers imaging in stroke, infectious disease, brain malformations, tumors, and more Keeps you up-to-date with unusual emerging neurologic disorders, such as Susac syndrome, West Nile Virus, and IRIS

Multimodal Imaging in Neurology

Multimodal Imaging in Neurology
Author: Hans-Peter Müller,Jan Kassubek
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 75
Release: 2022-06-01
ISBN: 3031016238
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Multimodal Imaging in Neurology Book Excerpt:

The field of brain imaging is developing at a rapid pace and has greatly advanced the areas of cognitive and clinical neuroscience. The availability of neuroimaging techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic source imaging (MSI) has brought about breakthroughs in neuroscience. To obtain comprehensive information about the activity of the human brain, different analytical approaches should be complemented. Thus, in "intermodal multimodality" imaging, great efforts have been made to combine the highest spatial resolution (MRI, fMRI) with the best temporal resolution (MEG or EEG). "Intramodal multimodality" imaging combines various functional MRI techniques (e.g., fMRI, DTI, and/or morphometric/volumetric analysis). The multimodal approach is conceptually based on the combination of different noninvasive functional neuroimaging tools, their registration and cointegration. In particular, the combination of imaging applications that map different functional systems is useful, such as fMRI as a technique for the localization of cortical function and DTI as a technique for mapping of white matter fiber bundles or tracts. This booklet gives an insight into the wide field of multimodal imaging with respect to concepts, data acquisition, and postprocessing. Examples for intermodal and intramodal multimodality imaging are also demonstrated. Table of Contents: Introduction / Neurological Measurement Techniques and First Steps of Postprocessing / Coordinate Transformation / Examples for Multimodal Imaging / Clinical Aspects of Multimodal Imaging / References / Biography

Oxford Textbook of Neuroimaging

Oxford Textbook of Neuroimaging
Author: Massimo Filippi
Publsiher: Oxford Textbooks in Clinical N
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2015
ISBN: 0199664099
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oxford Textbook of Neuroimaging Book Excerpt:

Part of the Oxford Textbooks in Clinical Neurology series, this textbook summarizes the basic principles of computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, positron-emission tomography, single-photon-emission-computed tomography, and ultrasound.

Imaging in Neurology

Imaging in Neurology
Author: Anne G. Osborn,Kathleen B. Digre
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 13
Release: 2016
ISBN: 9780323448277
Category: Nervous system
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Imaging in Neurology Book Excerpt:

Written by two renowned leaders in neuroradiology and neurology, this unique reference is a high-level imaging resource ideal for today's clinical neurologist or neuroscientist. Using straightforward, jargon-free prose, this book provides an overview of neurological disorders coupled with typical imaging findings - all designed for use at the point of care. You will be expertly guided throughout, from radiologic appearance and the significance of the imaging findings to the next appropriate steps in effective patient care"--Publisher's description.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Neurological Diseases in Tropics

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Neurological Diseases in Tropics
Author: Rakesh K Gupta
Publsiher: JP Medical Ltd
Total Pages: 342
Release: 2014-01-30
ISBN: 9350909723
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Neurological Diseases in Tropics Book Excerpt:

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a scan that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the inside of the body. This book is a comprehensive guide to the diagnosis and management of neurological infectious diseases using MRI. Divided into four sections, the text begins with an introduction to tropical diseases of the central nervous system, and their epidemiology. The second section provides in depth coverage of the technique of MRI, from the basic principles, to clinical application and more advanced features. The following sections describe use of the technique for both infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, HIV and parasitic diseases; and noninfectious conditions, such as stroke, poisoning and epilepsy. Each chapter features numerous MRI and pathological images and extensive references. Key points Comprehensive guide to diagnosis and management of neurological infectious diseases in tropics using MRI In depth coverage of the technique, from basics to more advanced aspects Covers MRI for both infectious and noninfectious conditions Includes nearly 300 MRI and pathological images

Neuroimaging

Neuroimaging
Author: Jack O. Greenberg
Publsiher: McGraw-Hill Professional
Total Pages: 821
Release: 1999-06-18
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neuroimaging Book Excerpt:

This superbly illustrated text demonstrates how to optimize the diagnostic yield of today's sophisticated imaging technology by correlating the neuroimaging work-up with the neurologic history and examination. In addition, three new chapters covering Magnetic Resonance Angiography, Interventional Neuroimaging, and Spectroscopy have been added. In all, over 1,200 high-quality, detail-revealing MRI, CT, PET, SPECT, ultrasound, and plain x-ray studies enhance and reinforce the succinct, clinically oriented text.

Multimodal Imaging in Neurology

Multimodal Imaging in Neurology
Author: Hans-Peter Muller,Jan Kassubek
Publsiher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Total Pages: 75
Release: 2008
ISBN: 1598295500
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Multimodal Imaging in Neurology Book Excerpt:

The field of brain imaging is developing at a rapid pace and has greatly advanced the areas of cognitive and clinical neuroscience. The availability of neuroimaging techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic source imaging (MSI) has brought about breakthroughs in neuroscience.To obtain comprehensive information about the activity of the human brain, different analytical approaches should be complemented. Thus, in "intermodal multimodality" imaging, great efforts have been made to combine the highest spatial resolution (MRI, fMRI) with the best temporal resolution (MEG or EEG). "Intramodal multimodality" imaging combines various functional MRI techniques (e.g., fMRI, DTI, and/or morphometric/volumetric analysis). The multimodal approach is conceptually based on the combination of different noninvasive functional neuroimaging tools, their registration and cointegration. In particular, the combination of imaging applications that map different functional systems is useful, such as fMRI as a technique for the localization of cortical function and DTI as a technique for mapping of white matter fiber bundles or tracts.This booklet gives an insight into the wide field of multimodal imaging with respect to concepts, data acquisition, and postprocessing. Examples for intermodal and intramodal multimodality imaging are also demonstrated.Table of Contents: Introduction / Neurological Measurement Techniques and First Steps of Postprocessing / Coordinate Transformation / Examples for Multimodal Imaging / Clinical Aspects of Multimodal Imaging / References / Biography

Neuroimaging

Neuroimaging
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 720
Release: 2016-07-12
ISBN: 0702045381
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neuroimaging Book Excerpt:

Neuroimaging, Part Two, a volume in The Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, illustrates how neuroimaging is rapidly expanding its reach and applications in clinical neurology. It is an ideal resource for anyone interested in the study of the nervous system, and is useful to both beginners in various related fields and to specialists who want to update or refresh their knowledge base on neuroimaging. This second volume covers imaging of the adult spine and peripheral nervous system, as well as pediatric neuroimaging. In addition, it provides an overview of the differential diagnosis of the most common imaging findings, such as ring enhancement on MRI, and a review of the indications for imaging in the most frequent neurological syndromes. The volume concludes with a review of neuroimaging in experimental animals and how it relates to neuropathology. It brings broad coverage of the topic using many color images to illustrate key points. Contributions from leading global experts are collated, providing the broadest view of neuroimaging as it currently stands. For a number of neurological disorders, imaging is not only critical for diagnosis, but also for monitoring the effect of therapies, with the entire field moving from curing diseases to preventing them. Most of the information contained in this volume reflects the newness of this approach, pointing to the new horizon in the study of neurological disorders. Provides a relevant description of the technologies used in neuroimaging, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and several others Discusses the application of these techniques to the study of brain and spinal cord disease Explores the indications for the use of these techniques in various syndromes

Computational Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Neuro oncology

Computational Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Neuro oncology
Author: Michael O. Dada,Bamidele O. Awojoyogbe
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 389
Release: 2021-07-31
ISBN: 3030767280
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computational Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Neuro oncology Book Excerpt:

Based on the analytical methods and the computer programs presented in this book, all that may be needed to perform MRI tissue diagnosis is the availability of relaxometric data and simple computer program proficiency. These programs are easy to use, highly interactive and the data processing is fast and unambiguous. Laboratories (with or without sophisticated facilities) can perform computational magnetic resonance diagnosis with only T1 and T2 relaxation data. The results have motivated the use of data to produce data-driven predictions required for machine learning, artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning for multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research. Consequently, this book is intended to be very useful for students, scientists, engineers, the medical personnel and researchers who are interested in developing new concepts for deeper appreciation of computational magnetic resonance imaging for medical diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and management of tissue diseases.

MR Imaging in White Matter Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord

MR Imaging in White Matter Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord
Author: Massimo Filippi,Nicola de Stefano,Vincent Dousset,Joseph C. McGowan
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 481
Release: 2005-12-29
ISBN: 3540276440
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

MR Imaging in White Matter Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord Book Excerpt:

In recent decades, the use of neuroimaging techniques has resulted in outstanding progress in the diagnosis and management of neurological diseases, and this is particularly true of those diseases that affect the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. This book, written by internationally acclaimed experts, comprises a series of comprehensive and up-to-date reviews on the use of MR imaging in these major neurological conditions. The diverse available MR techniques, such as magnetization transfer MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI, MR spectroscopy, functional MRI, cell-specific MRI, perfusion MRI, and microscopic imaging with ultra-high field MRI, offer an extraordinarily powerful means of gaining fundamental in vivo insights into disease processes. The strengths and weaknesses of all these techniques in the study of multiple sclerosis and other relevant diseases are extensively considered. After an introductory section on neuroimaging technology, subsequent sections address disorders of myelination, demyelinating diseases, immune-mediated disorders, and white matter disorders related to aging and other conditions. This book provides a valuable summary of the state of the art in the field, and defines important areas for future research.

Imaging Acute Neurologic Disease

Imaging Acute Neurologic Disease
Author: Massimo Filippi,Jack H. Simon
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2014-09-11
ISBN: 1316061078
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Imaging Acute Neurologic Disease Book Excerpt:

While conventional magnetic resonance, X-ray-based, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine techniques are widely used to facilitate diagnosis, inform therapeutic decision-making, provide information regarding prognosis, and monitor therapeutic response in neurologic diseases, their practical value in acute clinical care is not as yet well-defined and the potential future development is not fully appreciated. This book provides a comprehensive survey of best practice for specialists and trainees in neurology, emergency medicine, neuroradiology, radiology, neurosurgery, and critical care. The symptom-based approach guides the choice of the available imaging tools for efficient, accurate, and cost-effective diagnosis to support immediate management of common and complex neurological disorders in the acute setting. Effective examination algorithms are included that integrate neurological and imaging concepts with the practical demands and constraints of emergency care. Written by leading international authorities, the book is extensively illustrated and contains many helpful case-histories.

The Oxford Handbook of Functional Brain Imaging in Neuropsychology and Cognitive Neurosciences

The Oxford Handbook of Functional Brain Imaging in Neuropsychology and Cognitive Neurosciences
Author: Andrew C. Papanicolaou
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 397
Release: 2017
ISBN: 0199764220
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Oxford Handbook of Functional Brain Imaging in Neuropsychology and Cognitive Neurosciences Book Excerpt:

A large part of the contemporary cognitive neuroscience literature involves functional neuroimaging, yet few readers are sufficiently familiar with it to appraise that literature correctly. The purpose of this Handbook is to enable them to understand the neuroimaging methods and evaluate their present contributions and future promise in the fields of cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology. The chapters contain very accessible descriptions of the various methodsand an objective account of their clinical and research applications.

Impact of Functional Imaging in Neurology and Psychiatry

Impact of Functional Imaging in Neurology and Psychiatry
Author: John Wade
Publsiher: Demos Medical Publishing
Total Pages: 199
Release: 1987
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Brain
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Impact of Functional Imaging in Neurology and Psychiatry Book Excerpt:

Imaging in Neurovascular Disease

Imaging in Neurovascular Disease
Author: Waleed Brinjikji,Timo Krings
Publsiher: Thieme
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2019-09-20
ISBN: 1684200547
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Imaging in Neurovascular Disease Book Excerpt:

Unique case-based reference presents high-yield images and expertise focused on vascular neuroradiology Imaging in Neurovascular Disease: A Case-Based Approach by Waleed Brinjikji and Timo Krings is unique in its approach, detailing diagnostic and interventional neuroradiology cases based on radiologic findings. The book explores the key role vascular imaging can play in treatment decision making, prognostication, and improving the understanding of the pathophysiology of neurovascular diseases. Spread over 11 chapters, this book covers a full spectrum of neurovascular diseases spanning the age continuum, starting with acute ischemic stroke, concluding with spinal vascular disease. All vascular neuroradiology cases follow a consistent format. After a succinct introduction describing the clinical scenario with relevant case images, the authors present key facts about the disease and the integral role of different neurovascular imaging procedures in disease management. Imaging findings are discussed in depth, with insightful clinical pearls on image-guided procedures and tips on managing potential pitfalls. Key Highlights About 600 high-quality noninvasive images, such as MR angiography/MR imaging, CT angiography/CT perfusion, with angiography where applicable, elucidate a spectrum of findings Analysis of the imaging appearance of a diverse array of common to rare neurovascular diseases provides diagnostic and treatment insights Each case concludes with the most important points clinicians need to know, high-yield facts about a specific cerebrovascular disease, and suggested readings for further exploration This unique case-based book is essential reading for radiology, neurology and neurosurgery residents. It will greatly benefit neurovascular disease specialists including radiologists, neurosurgeons and neurologists as well as interested in furthering their knowledge on the use of neuroimaging to guide neurointerventional and neurosurgical procedures to treat cerebrovascular disease.

Imaging Anatomy Brain and Spine E Book

Imaging Anatomy Brain and Spine  E Book
Author: Anne G. Osborn,Karen L. Salzman,Jeffrey S Anderson,Arthur W. Toga,Meng Law,Jeffrey Ross,Kevin R. Moore
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 928
Release: 2020-04-28
ISBN: 0323763065
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Imaging Anatomy Brain and Spine E Book Book Excerpt:

This richly illustrated and superbly organized text/atlas is an excellent point-of-care resource for practitioners at all levels of experience and training. Written by global leaders in the field, Imaging Anatomy: Brain and Spine provides a thorough understanding of the detailed normal anatomy that underlies contemporary imaging. This must-have reference employs a templated, highly formatted design; concise, bulleted text; and state-of- the-art images throughout that identify the clinical entities in each anatomic area. Features more than 2,500 high-resolution images throughout, including 7T MR, fMRI, diffusion tensor MRI, and multidetector row CT images in many planes, combined with over 300 correlative full-color anatomic drawings that show human anatomy in the projections that radiologists use. Covers only the brain and spine, presenting multiplanar normal imaging anatomy in all pertinent modalities for an unsurpassed, comprehensive point-of-care clinical reference. Incorporates recent, stunning advances in imaging such as 7T and functional MR imaging, surface and segmented anatomy, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans, dopamine transporter (DAT) scans, and 3D quantitative volumetric scans. Places 7T MR images alongside 3T MR images to highlight the benefits of using 7T MR imaging as it becomes more widely available in the future. Presents essential text in an easy-to-digest, bulleted format, enabling imaging specialists to find quick answers to anatomy questions encountered in daily practice.

Imaging Anatomy Brain and Spine

Imaging Anatomy Brain and Spine
Author: Anne G. Osborn,Karen L. Salzman,Jeffrey S. Anderson,Meng Law,Arthur W. Toga,Jeffrey Ross,Kevin R. Moore
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 1100
Release: 2020-04-24
ISBN: 9780323661140
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Imaging Anatomy Brain and Spine Book Excerpt:

This richly illustrated and superbly organized text/atlas is an excellent point-of-care resource for practitioners at all levels of experience and training. Written by global leaders in the field, Imaging Anatomy: Brain and Spine provides a thorough understanding of the detailed normal anatomy that underlies contemporary imaging. This must-have reference employs a templated, highly formatted design; concise, bulleted text; and state-of- the-art images throughout that identify the clinical entities in each anatomic area. Features more than 2,500 high-resolution images throughout, including 7T MR, fMRI, diffusion tensor MRI, and multidetector row CT images in many planes, combined with over 300 correlative full-color anatomic drawings that show human anatomy in the projections that radiologists use. Covers only the brain and spine, presenting multiplanar normal imaging anatomy in all pertinent modalities for an unsurpassed, comprehensive point-of-care clinical reference. Incorporates recent, stunning advances in imaging such as 7T and functional MR imaging, surface and segmented anatomy, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans, dopamine transporter (DAT) scans, and 3D quantitative volumetric scans. Places 7T MR images alongside 3T MR images to highlight the benefits of using 7T MR imaging as it becomes more widely available in the future. Presents essential text in an easy-to-digest, bulleted format, enabling imaging specialists to find quick answers to anatomy questions encountered in daily practice. Includes the Expert ConsultT version of the book, allowing you to search all the text, figures, and references on a variety of devices.

Advances in Imaging of Multiple Sclerosis An Issue of Neuroimaging Clinics of North America E Book

Advances in Imaging of Multiple Sclerosis  An Issue of Neuroimaging Clinics of North America  E Book
Author: Alex Rovira
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2017-04-13
ISBN: 0323528511
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Imaging of Multiple Sclerosis An Issue of Neuroimaging Clinics of North America E Book Book Excerpt:

This issue of Neuroimaging Clinics of North America focuses on Imaging of Multiple Sclerosis: Diagnosis and Management, and is edited by Dr. Àlex Rovira Cañellas. Articles will include: Multiple Sclerosis: Epidemiological, Clinical and Therapeutic Aspects; Brain and Spinal Cord MR Imaging Features in Multiple Sclerosis and Variants; Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders; Radiologically Isolated Syndrome; MRI in Monitoring and Predicting Treatment Response in Multiple Sclerosis; Cortical Grey Matter MR Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis; Brain Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis: Technical Aspects and Clinical Relevance; Iron Mapping in Multiple Sclerosis; Microstructural MR Techniques in Multiple Sclerosis; Molecular and Metabolic Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis; Insights from Ultra-high Field Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis; Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis: Distinguishing Clinical and MRI Features, and more!

Advanced Neuro MR Techniques and Applications

Advanced Neuro MR Techniques and Applications
Author: In-Young Choi,Peter Jezzard
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 638
Release: 2021-11-17
ISBN: 0128224959
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Neuro MR Techniques and Applications Book Excerpt:

Advanced Neuro MR Techniques and Applications gives detailed knowledge of emerging neuro MR techniques and their specific clinical and neuroscience applications, showing their pros and cons over conventional and currently available advanced techniques. The book identifies the best available data acquisition, processing, reconstruction and analysis strategies and methods that can be utilized in clinical and neuroscience research. It is an ideal reference for MR scientists and engineers who develop MR technologies and/or support clinical and neuroscience research and for high-end users who utilize neuro MR techniques in their research, including clinicians, neuroscientists and psychologists. Trainees such as postdoctoral fellows, PhD and MD/PhD students, residents and fellows using or considering the use of neuro MR technologies will also be interested in this book. Presents a complete reference on advanced Neuro MR Techniques and Applications Edited and written by leading researchers in the field Suitable for a broad audience of MR scientists and engineers who develop MR technologies, as well as clinicians, neuroscientists and psychologists who utilize neuro MR techniques in their research

Imaging of CNS Infections and Neuroimmunology

Imaging of CNS Infections and Neuroimmunology
Author: Bo Gao,Hongjun Li,Meng Law
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 213
Release: 2019-07-03
ISBN: 9811369046
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Imaging of CNS Infections and Neuroimmunology Book Excerpt:

This book summarizes the imaging characteristics and theory of CNS infections, serving as a clinical guidance and having a practical significance for the understanding, prevention and diagnosis of infectious neurology. It includes extensive CT, MRI images on gross anatomy, pathological tissue, immunohistochemistry, electronic speculum, etc. It is divided into 19 chapters according to infectious types. On the basis of imaging diagnosis, through the cross research of imaging with autopsy and pathology, the imaging characteristics and evolution was revealed. This book will be a valuable reference on the clinical practice and research of neuroinfections.

Learning Neuroimaging

Learning Neuroimaging
Author: Francisco de Asís Bravo-Rodríguez,Rocío Diaz-Aguilera,Luiz Celso Hygino da Cruz Jr.
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 226
Release: 2011-10-26
ISBN: 9783642229992
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Learning Neuroimaging Book Excerpt:

This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient’s medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students.