Description : The immune system is central to human health and the focus of much medical research. Growing understanding of the immune system, and especially the creation of immune memory (long lasting protection), which can be harnessed in the design of vaccines, have been major breakthroughs in medicine. In this Very Short Introduction, Paul Klenerman describes the immune system, and how it works in health and disease. In particular he focuses on the human immune system, considering how it evolved, the basic rules that govern its behavior, and the major health threats where it is important. The immune system comprises a series of organs, cells and chemical messengers which work together as a team to provide defence against infection. Klenerman discusses these components, the critical signals that trigger them and how they exert their protective effects, including so-called "innate" immune responses, which react very fast to infection, and "adaptive" immune responses, which have huge diversity and a capacity to recognize and defend against a massive array of micro-organisms. Klenerman also considers what happens when our immune systems fail to be activated effectively, leading to serious infections, problems with inherited diseases, and also HIV/AIDS. At the opposite extreme, as Klenerman shows, an over-exaggerated immune response leads to inflammatory diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis, as well as allergy and asthma. Finally he looks at the "Immune system v2.o" - how immune therapies and vaccines can be advanced to protect us against the major diseases of the 21st century. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Description : How the Immune System Works has helped thousands of students understand what's in their hefty immunology textbooks. In this book, Dr. Sompayrac cuts through the jargon and details to reveal, in simple language, the essence of this complex subject: how the immune system fits together, how it protects us from disease and, perhaps most importantly, why it works the way it does. Featuring Dr. Sompayrac's hallmark lively prose and engaging analogies, How the Immune System Works has been rigorously updated for this sixth edition, including the latest information on subjects such as vaccines, immunological memory, and cancer. A highlight of this edition is a new chapter on immunotherapies – currently one of the hottest topics in immunology. Whether you are completely new to immunology, or require a refresher, How the Immune System Works will provide you with a clear and engaging overview of this fascinating subject.
Description : The Immune System, Fourth Edition emphasizes the human immune system and presents immunological concepts in a coherent, concise, and contemporary account of how the immune system works. Written for undergraduate, medical, veterinary, dental, and pharmacy students, it makes generous use of medical examples to illustrate points. This classroom-proven
Description : Understand all the essential concepts in immunology with this book that provides you with an up-to-date, accessible introduction to the workings of the human immune system. This book enables you to efficiently master the immunology information you need through clinically focused content, logically organized by mechanism. You can apply what you have learned to real-world situations by referencing the appendix of clinical cases. It can enhance your learning with the help of numerous full-color illustrations and useful tables, as well as summary boxes, review questions, and a glossary of immunology terms. -- Publisher description.
Description : The immune system provides the host organism with defense mechanisms against invading pathogens and tumor development and it plays an active role in tissue and organ regeneration. Deviations from the normal physiological functioning of the immune system can lead to the development of diseases with various pathologies including autoimmune diseases and cancer. Modern research in immunology is characterized by an unprecedented level of detail that has progressed towards viewing the immune system as numerous components that function together as a whole network. Currently, we are facing significant difficulties in analyzing the data being generated from high-throughput technologies for understanding immune system dynamics and functions, a problem known as the ‘curse of dimensionality’. As the mainstream research in mathematical immunology is based on low-resolution models, a fundamental question is how complex the mathematical models should be? To respond to this challenging issue, we advocate a hypothesis-driven approach to formulate and apply available mathematical modelling technologies for understanding the complexity of the immune system. Moreover, pure empirical analyses of immune system behavior and the system’s response to external perturbations can only produce a static description of the individual components of the immune system and the interactions between them. Shifting our view of the immune system from a static schematic perception to a dynamic multi-level system is a daunting task. It requires the development of appropriate mathematical methodologies for the holistic and quantitative analysis of multi-level molecular and cellular networks. Their coordinated behavior is dynamically controlled via distributed feedback and feedforward mechanisms which altogether orchestrate immune system functions. The molecular regulatory loops inherent to the immune system that mediate cellular behaviors, e.g. exhaustion, suppression, activation and tuning, can be analyzed using mathematical categories such as multi-stability, switches, ultra-sensitivity, distributed system, graph dynamics, or hierarchical control. GB is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant 18-11-00171). AM is also supported by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness and FEDER grant no. SAF2016-75505-R, the “María de Maeztu” Programme for Units of Excellence in R&D (MDM-2014-0370) and the Russian Science Foundation (grant 18-11-00171).
Description : We can all prevent virus, disease and fight infection using a simple yet powerful medicine - food. Understanding nutrition and correctly supplementing your diet is the key to boosting your immune system. Today, our immune systems also face a growing number of enemies, such as stress, pollution, pesticides and food additives. In BOOST YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM, experts Jennifer Meek and Patrick Holford show you how to meet all these challenges in order to beat infections naturally, win the war against viruses, colds and flu, decrease your allergic potential, protect yourself against cancer, supplement for immune strength and much more. Easy to follow and practical, this book will help you stay free from disease, feel great and perform better.
Description : William Clark invites readers on a tour of the immune system, introducing some of the most important medical advances and challenges of the past 100 years, from the development of vaccines and the treatment of allergies, automimmunity and cancer, to prolonging organ transplants and combating AIDS.
Description : The world population presents an increased percentage of individuals over 65 years old and the fastest growing subgroup is over 85 years old. The increase in life expectancy observed in the last century has not been synonymous with extra years lived in good health (disability-free years). Population studies have shown that as individuals age, they can present a great heterogeneity of ability and health. Therefore, aging has been associated for some individuals with disabilities and hospitalizations. Deaths related to infectious pathogens are increased in the aging population mainly due to pneumonia and influenza whereas Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, among other viruses seem to contribute to the low-grade inflammatory process observed (inflammaging). Aging is a complex and multifactorial process in which functions of the organism are adjusted (remodelled) in order to deal with damaging events during life. One of the most important changes in aging individuals occurs in the immune system (innate and adaptive responses) with consequences such as poor response to new infections and vaccinations; increased susceptibility to cancer development and autoimmune diseases; frailty, and organ dysfunction. In addition, it has been proposed that immunosenescence not only reflects the aging of the organism but also contributes to this process. Bone marrow presents decreased hematopoiesis, the thymus undergoes involution and lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, spleen) also present reduced functionality. Therefore, cells derived, matured, or residing in these tissues decline in number and function. These changes have been identified in experimental models, in vitro conditions, peripheral blood, and biopsies via biomarkers such as cell phenotype, stimulus-induced proliferation, cytokines and antibodies levels. Telomere length and telomerase activity also decline in bone marrow-derived and peripheral blood cells and have been shown to play a role in immunosenescence. More recently, the investigation of short non-coding RNA molecules (microRNAs; miRNAs) pointed to this system as a possible control of aging-related mechanisms. Data obtained on these markers for aging individuals could lead to the generation of a marker panel for pathology prediction, to indicate interventions, and to evaluate the efficacy of interventions. Interventions such as nutrition supplements, exercise, vaccination (different dose, concentration of antigen, adjuvants) have been proposed to circumvent age-related diseases. Considering the heterogeneity in the aging process, further investigation is vital before the indication of interventions for aging individuals. As the extension of life expectancy is a reality, it is a challenge to understand how the aging population copes with the remodelling of the organism and how interventions could provide longevity in good health.