Description : By 2006, any company selling electronics to European Union nations and China will have to convert to a lead-free manufacturing process. This resource shows manufacturers how to select the right Lead Free process and make the conversion as efficient and inexpensive as possible. Contents: Selecting Component LeadCoating * Selecting PCB Surface Finish * Manufacturing Approaches * Solder Paste Application * Reflow Soldering * Wave Soldering * Other Manufacturing Techniques and Common Defect Consideration * Reliability and Compatibility.
Description : Lead-free Electronics provides guidance on the design and use of lead-free electronics as well as technical and legislative perspectives. All the complex challenges confronting the elec-tronics industry are skillfully addressed: * Complying with state legislation * Implementing the transition to lead-free electronics, including anticipating associated costs and potential supply chain issues * Understanding intellectual property issues in lead-free alloys and their applications, including licensing and infringement * Implementing cost effective manufacturing and testing * Reducing risks due to tin whiskers * Finding lead-free solutions in harsh environments such as in the automotive and telecommunications industries * Understanding the capabilities and limitations of conductive adhesives in lead-free interconnects * Devising solutions for lead-free, flip-chip interconnects in high-performance integrated circuit products Each chapter is written by leading experts in the field and carefully edited to ensure a consistent approach. Readers will find all the latest information, including the most recent data on cyclic thermomechanical deformation properties of lead-free SnAgCu alloys and a comparison of the properties of standard Sn-Pb versus lead-free alloys, using the energy partitioning approach. With legislative and market pressure to eliminate the use of lead in electronics manufacturing, this timely publication is essential reading for all engineers and professionals in the electronics industry.
Description : Successfully Design and Manufacture Reliable Environmentally-Friendly Electronic Products This state-of-the-art resource brings together contributions by a team of experts from the total electronics supply chain who show how to master the strategy, design, test and implementation issues of meeting global environmental regulations. Edited by the founder of the New England Lead-Free Consortium and filled with over 130 detailed illustrations, Green Electronics Design and Manufacturing features: Guidance for lead-free conversions while maintaining quality and reliability for printed circuit board production and rework of surface mount technology and palted through holes Restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) compliance for hex-chrome and future halogen free issues Detailed coverage of global environmental regulations and their impact on manufacturing and design processes Techniques for managing corporate strategy and project design teams for green products Proven methods for testing and analyzing green products Proven methods for dealing with the adverse results of green production such as tin whiskers and finish interactions Inside this Cutting-Edge Guide to Creating Green Electronic Products • Basics, Test Methods, and Experimental Techniques for Green Quality and Reliability • Electronics Industry Global Environmental Regulations • Managing Corporate Strategy, Design Projects, and Teams for Green Products • Converting to Lead-Free Electronics Manufacturing, Including Rework, for SMT, BGA, and PTH • Conversion Issues with Design Changes, Laminates, IC Packages, and Printed Circuit Boards • Adverse Consequences of Lead-Free, Including Tin Whiskers and Finish Interactions • Nanotechnology and Its Future in Electronics Applications
Description : Based on the results of a more than two-year study, Lead-Free Electronics: iNEMI Projects Lead to Successful Manufacturing is the first practical, primary reference to cover Pb-free solder assembly as well as the analysis and reasoning behind the selection of Sn-Ag-Cu as the recommended Pb-free replacement for Sn-Pb. Reflecting the results of a two-year study, Lead-Free Electronics: iNEMI Projects Lead to Successful Manufacturing provides full coverage of the issues surrounding the implementation of Pb-free solder into electronic board assembly. This book is extremely timelyâ??most electronic manufacturers are going to change over to Pb free soldering by 2006 to meet new European laws. All manufacturers around the globe are going to be affected by this change. The text provides specific results from the thirty company NEMI project activities. It contains integrated and fully documented book chapters with references to existing published work in the area. These serve as tremendous resources for engineers and companies faced with making the switch to Pb-free solder assembly.
Description : Even though the effect of lead contamination on human health has been known for decades, very little attention has been paid to lead-based solders used in electronics until recently. This comprehensive book examines all the important issues associated with lead-free electronic solder. It collects the work of researchers recognized for their significant scientific contributions in the area.
Description : This reference provides a complete discussion of the conversion from standard lead-tin to lead-free solder microelectronic assemblies for low-end and high-end applications. Written by more than 45 world-class researchers and practitioners, the book discusses general reliability issues concerning microelectronic assemblies, as well as factors specific to the tin-rich replacement alloys commonly utilized in lead-free solders. It provides real-world manufacturing accounts of the introduction of reduced-lead and lead-free technology and discusses the functionality and cost effectiveness of alternative solder alloys and non-solder alternatives replacing lead-tin solders in microelectronics.
Description : Assessing the scientific and technological aspects of lead-free soldering, Lead-Free Soldering in Electronics considers the necessary background and requirements for proper alloy selection. It highlights the metallurgical and mechanical properties; plating and processing technologies; and evaluation methods vital to the production of lead-free sold
Description : This handbook provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date and easy-to-apply information on the physics, mechanics, reliability and packaging of micro- and opto-electronic materials. It details their assemblies, structures and systems, and each chapter contains a summary of the state-of-the-art in a particular field. The book provides practical recommendations on how to apply current knowledge and technology to design and manufacture. It further describes how to operate a viable, reliable and cost-effective electronic component or photonic device, and how to make such a device into a successful commercial product.