Impulse Control Disorders

Impulse Control Disorders
Author: Elias Aboujaoude,Lorrin M. Koran
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2010-02-08
ISBN: 1139487655
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Impulse Control Disorders Book Excerpt:

In the last decade, much needed attention and research has been focused on the group of psychiatric conditions termed 'impulse control disorders' or ICDs. Pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, kleptomania, hypersexuality, Internet 'addiction', among other disorders, are characterized by a recurrent urge to perform a repetitive behavior that is gratifying in the moment but causes significant long-term distress and disability. Despite the high rate of co-morbidity with obsessive compulsive disorder, ICDs are now clearly distinguished from these disorders with a unique clinical approach for diagnosis and treatment. A wide array of psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic options is now available for treating these disorders. Drs Elias Aboujaoude and Lorrin M. Koran have collated the world's foremost experts in ICD research and treatment to create a comprehensive book on the frequency, evolution, treatment, and related public policy, public health, forensic, and medical issues of these disorders. This is the first book to bring together medical and social knowledge bases related to impulse control disorders.

The Oxford Handbook of Impulse Control Disorders

The Oxford Handbook of Impulse Control Disorders
Author: Jon E. Grant,Marc N. Potenza
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 573
Release: 2011-08-29
ISBN: 0195389719
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Oxford Handbook of Impulse Control Disorders Book Excerpt:

Research in the area of impulse control disorders has expanded exponentially. The Oxford Handbook of Impulse Control Disorders provides researchers and clinicians with a clear understanding of the developmental, biological, and phenomenological features of a range of impulse control disorders, as well as detailed approaches to their treatment.

Impulse Control Disorders

Impulse Control Disorders
Author: Autumn Libal
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 128
Release: 2014-09-02
ISBN: 1422289885
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Impulse Control Disorders Book Excerpt:

Have you ever known that you shouldn't do something, but just couldn't stop yourself? Of course you have! Perhaps you couldn't resist having one more piece of birthday cake. Maybe your brother or sister made you so mad that you couldn't help yelling. Everyone experiences uncontrollable impulses like these sometimes. But what if these impulses happened to you all the time? How would you interact with your family, do your work at school, or make friends if you couldn't control your impulses? Jeremiah, for instance, loved fire. He loved everything about it—the way it looked, the way it smelled, how its heat enveloped everything. Even though he knew it was wrong, Jeremiah lit fires and watched them incinerate, eat, and destroy everything in their paths. Jeremiah also liked the smoke detectors in his house. He loved taking them apart. Sometimes, after school, Jeremiah would sit in his room, dismantle the smoke detector piece by piece, and then put it back together. Once the smoke detector was reassembled, Jeremiah would light a match beneath it and time how many seconds it took before the detector let out its high-pitched squeal. People like Jeremiah cannot control all the impulses they feel. Some people may get uncontrollably angry, steal, light fires, gamble, pull their own hair, or perform other impulsive actions that are harmful to themselves, their families, and their friends. When a person has repetitive impulses like these, he may be suffering from a psychiatric condition known as an impulse-control disorder. The stories and information in this book will tell you more about impulse-control disorders, how they affect people's lives, and how they can be treated.

Impulse Control Disorders Impulsivity and Related Behaviors in Parkinson s disease

Impulse Control Disorders  Impulsivity and Related Behaviors in Parkinson   s disease
Author: Mayela Rodríguez-Violante,Angelo Antonini
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-01-10
ISBN: 2889633098
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Impulse Control Disorders Impulsivity and Related Behaviors in Parkinson s disease Book Excerpt:

Behavior Management Impulse Control Grades PK K

Behavior Management  Impulse Control  Grades PK   K
Author: Crystal Bowman
Publsiher: Carson-Dellosa Publishing
Total Pages: 48
Release: 2012-10-22
ISBN: 1624422284
Category: Education
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Behavior Management Impulse Control Grades PK K Book Excerpt:

Behavior Management: Impulse Control focuses on a problem behavior experienced by many young children. The included activities provide suggestions for the teacher and/or parent on how to address these issues and how to teach children to manage their behavior effectively. Some role-playing activities are also included. It features easy-to-use behavior modification plans, original stories for the children to listen to and relate to, and songs!

Treating Impulse Control Disorders

Treating Impulse Control Disorders
Author: Jon E. Grant,Christopher B. Donahue,Brian L. Odlaug
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 176
Release: 2011-02-14
ISBN: 9780199813520
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Treating Impulse Control Disorders Book Excerpt:

Impulse control disorders (ICDs) include pathological gambling, kleptomania, trichotillomania, intermittent explosive disorder, and pyromania, and are characterized by difficulties resisting urges to engage in behaviors that are excessive or ultimately harmful to oneself or others. ICDs are relatively common among adolescents and adults, carry significant morbidity and mortality, and can be effectively treated with behavioral and pharmacological therapies. This guide includes all the information and materials necessary to implement a successful cognitive behavioral therapy program for impulse control disorders (CBT-ICD). This evidence-based intervention was developed for the treatment of pathological gambling, kleptomania, compulsive buying, and pyromania. Originators of interventions for impulse control disorders, the authors review the background and diagnostic information for each ICD as well as available treatment outcome studies; the assessment process for each ICD problem and the individual therapy sessions are also reviewed. This format affords you the flexibility to treat one or more ICD problem, and since they co-occur, this approach is essential. This therapist guide and its corresponding workbook form a complete treatment package. It is a resource that no clinician specializing in these disorders can do without.

Clinical Manual of Impulse Control Disorders

Clinical Manual of Impulse Control Disorders
Author: Eric Hollander,Dan J. Stein
Publsiher: American Psychiatric Pub
Total Pages: 368
Release: 2007-04-02
ISBN: 9781585626649
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Clinical Manual of Impulse Control Disorders Book Excerpt:

Visibility of impulse-control disorders (ICDs) has never been greater than it is today, both in the field of psychiatry and in popular culture. Changes in both society and technology have contributed to the importance of conceptualizing, assessing, and treating impulse-control disorders (ICDs). The ground-breaking Clinical Manual of Impulse-Control Disorders focuses on all of the different ICDs as a group. Here, 25 recognized experts provide cutting-edge, concise, and practical information about ICDs, beginning with the phenomenology, assessment, and classification of impulsivity as a core symptom domain that cuts across and drives the expression of these complex disorders. Subsequent chapters discuss Intermittent explosive disorder, an often overlooked ICD characterized by impulsive aggression. Childhood conduct disorder and the antisocial spectrum. Self-injurious behavior and its relationship to impulsive aggression and childhood trauma. Sexual compulsions and their serious public health implications. Binge eating, a highly familial disorder associated with serious medical complications and psychopathology. Trichotillomania, which may be related to obsessive-compulsive disorder, skin picking, and nail biting. Kleptomania, a heterogeneous disorder that shares features with ICDs as well as with mood, anxiety, and addictive disorders. Compulsive shopping, more common in women, with treatments ranging from self-help and financial counseling to trials with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Pyromania and how it differs from arson. Pathological gambling, a maladaptive behavioral addiction that is increasing in step with legalized and Internet gambling. Internet addiction, ranging from excessive seeking of medical information to dangerous sexual behaviors. The remarkable Clinical Manual of Impulse-Control Disorders sheds light on the complex world of ICDs. As such, it will be welcomed not only by clinicians and researchers but also by individuals and family members coping with these disorders.

Developmental Pathways to Disruptive Impulse Control and Conduct Disorders

Developmental Pathways to Disruptive  Impulse Control  and Conduct Disorders
Author: Michelle M. Martel
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2018-06-15
ISBN: 0128113243
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developmental Pathways to Disruptive Impulse Control and Conduct Disorders Book Excerpt:

Developmental Pathways to Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders provides essential understanding on how disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is characterized, its early markers and etiology, and the empirically-based treatment for the disorder. The book covers features and assessment of various DBDs, including oppositional-defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and antisocial personality disorder, the psychological markers of externalizing problems, such as irritability and anger, common elements of effective evidence-based treatments for DBD for behavioral treatments, cognitive therapies, and family and community therapies. A final section discusses new and emerging insights in the prevention and treatment of DBD. Provides a critical foundation for understanding how disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is defined Looks at early markers and etiology of DBD Goes beyond the surface-level treatment provided by other books, offering in-depth coverage of various DBDs, such as oppositional-defiant disorder and antisocial personality disorder Examines the causal factors and developmental pathways implicated in DBD Includes cutting-edge insights into the prevention of DBD prior to the emergence of symptoms

The Wiley Handbook of Disruptive and Impulse Control Disorders

The Wiley Handbook of Disruptive and Impulse Control Disorders
Author: John E. Lochman,Walter Matthys
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2017-08-21
ISBN: 1119092221
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Wiley Handbook of Disruptive and Impulse Control Disorders Book Excerpt:

The definitive reference to the policies and practices for treating disruptive and impulse-control disorders, edited by renowned experts The Wiley Handbook of Disruptive and Impulse-Control Disorders offers a comprehensive overview that integrates the most recent and important scholarship and research on disruptive and impulse-control disorders in children and adolescents. Each of the chapters includes a summary of the most relevant research and knowledge on the topic and identifies the implications of the findings along with important next directions for research. Designed to be practical in application, the text explores the applied real-world value of the accumulated research findings, and the authors include policy implications and recommendations. The Handbook address the nature and definition of the disorders, the risk factors associated with the development and maintenance of this cluster of disorders, assessment processes, as well as the evidence-based treatment and prevention practices. The volume incorporates information from the ICD-11, a newly revised classification system, along with the recently published DSM-5. This important resource: Contains a definitive survey that integrates the most recent and important research and scholarship on disruptive and impulse-control disorders in children and adolescents Emphasizes the applied real-world value of the accumulated research findings Explores the policy implications and recommendations to encourage evidence-based practice Examines the nature and definition, risk factors, assessment, and evidence-based practice; risk factors are subdivided into child, family, peer group and broader context Considers changes, advances and controversies associated with new and revised diagnostic categories Written for clinicians and professionals in the field, The Wiley Handbook of Disruptive and Impulse-Control Disorders offers an up-to-date review of the most authoritative scholarship and research on disruptive and impulse-control disorders in children and adolescents as well as offering recommendations for practice.

Impulsive Control in Continuous and Discrete Continuous Systems

Impulsive Control in Continuous and Discrete Continuous Systems
Author: Boris M. Miller,Evgeny Y. Rubinovich
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 447
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 1461500958
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Impulsive Control in Continuous and Discrete Continuous Systems Book Excerpt:

Impulsive Control in Continuous and Discrete-Continuous Systems is an up-to-date introduction to the theory of impulsive control in nonlinear systems. This is a new branch of the Optimal Control Theory, which is tightly connected to the Theory of Hybrid Systems. The text introduces the reader to the interesting area of optimal control problems with discontinuous solutions, discussing the application of a new and effective method of discontinuous time-transformation. With a large number of examples, illustrations, and applied problems arising in the area of observation control, this book is excellent as a textbook or reference for a senior or graduate-level course on the subject, as well as a reference for researchers in related fields.

Optimal Impulsive Control

Optimal Impulsive Control
Author: Aram Arutyunov,Dmitry Karamzin,Fernando Lobo Pereira
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 174
Release: 2018-12-17
ISBN: 3030022609
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optimal Impulsive Control Book Excerpt:

Optimal Impulsive Control explores the class of impulsive dynamic optimization problems—problems that stem from the fact that many conventional optimal control problems do not have a solution in the classical setting—which is highly relevant with regard to engineering applications. The absence of a classical solution naturally invokes the so-called extension, or relaxation, of a problem, and leads to the notion of generalized solution which encompasses the notions of generalized control and trajectory; in this book several extensions of optimal control problems are considered within the framework of optimal impulsive control theory. In this framework, the feasible arcs are permitted to have jumps, while the conventional absolutely continuous trajectories may fail to exist. The authors draw together various types of their own results, centered on the necessary conditions of optimality in the form of Pontryagin’s maximum principle and the existence theorems, which shape a substantial body of optimal impulsive control theory. At the same time, they present optimal impulsive control theory in a unified framework, introducing the different paradigmatic problems in increasing order of complexity. The rationale underlying the book involves addressing extensions increasing in complexity from the simplest case provided by linear control systems and ending with the most general case of a totally nonlinear differential control system with state constraints. The mathematical models presented in Optimal Impulsive Control being encountered in various engineering applications, this book will be of interest to both academic researchers and practising engineers.

Impulsive Control Theory

Impulsive Control Theory
Author: Tao Yang
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 348
Release: 2003-07-01
ISBN: 3540477101
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Impulsive Control Theory Book Excerpt:

The concept of impulsive control and its mathematical foundation called - pulsive di?erential equations,or di?erential equations with impulse e?ects,or di?erential equations with discontinuous righthand sides have a long history. In fact, in mechanical systems impulsive phenomena had been studied for a long time under di?erent names such as: mechanical systems with impacts. The study of impulsive control systems (control systems with impulse e?ects) has also a long history that can be traced back to the beginning of modern control theory. Many impulsive control methods were successfully developed under the framework of optimal control and were occasionally called impulse control. The so called impulse control is not exactly the impulsive control as will be de?ned in this book. The reader should not mixup these two kinds of control methods though in many papers they were treated as the same. - cently, there is a tendency of integrating impulsive control into hybrid control systems. However, this e?ort does not have much help to the development of impulsive control theory because impulsive systems can only be studied by the very mathematical tool based on impulsive di?erential equations. The e?ort to invent a very general framework of hybrid control system for stu- ing impulsive control and other hybrid control problems will contribute no essential knowledge to impulsive control.

Dynamic Programming for Impulse Feedback and Fast Controls

Dynamic Programming for Impulse Feedback and Fast Controls
Author: Alexander B. Kurzhanski,Alexander N. Daryin
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 275
Release: 2019-03-29
ISBN: 1447174372
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dynamic Programming for Impulse Feedback and Fast Controls Book Excerpt:

Dynamic Programming for Impulse Feedback and Fast Controls offers a description of feedback control in the class of impulsive inputs. This book deals with the problem of closed-loop impulse control based on generalization of dynamic programming techniques in the form of variational inequalities of the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman type. It provides exercises and examples in relation to software, such as techniques for regularization of ill-posed problems. It also gives an introduction to applications such as hybrid dynamics, control in arbitrary small time, and discontinuous trajectories. This book walks the readers through: the design and description of feedback solutions for impulse controls; the explanation of impulses of higher order that are derivatives of delta functions; the description of their physically realizable approximations - the fast controls and their approximations; the treatment of uncertainty in impulse control and the applications of impulse feedback. Of interest to both academics and graduate students in the field of control theory and applications, the book also protects users from common errors , such as inappropriate solution attempts, by indicating Hamiltonian techniques for hybrid systems with resets.

Optimal Impulsive Control for Cancer Therapy

Optimal Impulsive Control for Cancer Therapy
Author: João P. Belfo,João M. Lemos
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 102
Release: 2020-06-19
ISBN: 3030504883
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optimal Impulsive Control for Cancer Therapy Book Excerpt:

This Springer brief discusses the use of control engineering methods to plan a cancer therapy which tends to reduce tumour size in patients, striking a balance that minimizes the toxic effects of the treatment. The authors address the design and computation of impulsive control therapies, a methodology previously underexplored in the application of control methods to medical modelling. This allows simulation of such discrete events as taking a pill rather than relying on the supply of therapy being continuous and steady. The book begins with an introduction to the topic, before moving onto pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamical and tumour-growth models and explaining how they describe the relationship between a certain therapy plan and the evolution of cancer. This is placed firmly in the context of work introducing impulsive differential equations. The final chapter summarizes the research presented and suggests future areas of research to encourage readers in taking the subject forward. This book is of interest to biomedical engineers, researchers and students, particularly those with a background in systems and control engineering.

A Stochastic Control Framework for Real Options in Strategic Evaluation

A Stochastic Control Framework for Real Options in Strategic Evaluation
Author: Alexander Vollert
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 1461220688
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Stochastic Control Framework for Real Options in Strategic Evaluation Book Excerpt:

The theoretical foundation for real options goes back to the mid 1980s and the development of a model that forms the basis for many current applications of real option theory. Over the last decade the theory has rapidly expanded and become enriched thanks to increasing research activity. Modern real option theory may be used for the valuation of entire companies as well as for particular investment projects in the presence of uncertainty. As such, the theory of real options can serve as a tool for more practically oriented decision making, providing management with strategies maximizing its capital market value. This book is devoted to examining a new framework for classifying real options from a management and a valuation perspective, giving the advantages and disadvantages of the real option approach. Impulse control theory and the theory of optimal stopping combined with methods of mathematical finance are used to construct arbitrarily complex real option models which can be solved numerically and which yield optimal capital market strategies and values. Various examples are given to demonstrate the potential of this framework. This work will benefit the financial community, companies, as well as academics in mathematical finance by providing an important extension of real option research from both a theoretical and practical point of view.

Kaplan Sadock s Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry

Kaplan   Sadock s Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry
Author: Benjamin J. Sadock,Virginia A. Sadock
Publsiher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Total Pages: 756
Release: 2008
ISBN: 9780781787468
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Kaplan Sadock s Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry Book Excerpt:

Ideal for any student or health care professional who needs an authoritative text that is sharply focused on clinical psychiatry, this book contains the most relevant clinical material from the bestselling "Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry, 10th Edition" and includes updated information on recently introduced psychiatric drugs.

The Impulsive Disorganized Child

The Impulsive  Disorganized Child
Author: James W. Forgan,Mary Anne Richey
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2021-09-03
ISBN: 1000489647
Category: Education
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Impulsive Disorganized Child Book Excerpt:

Impulsive, scattered, lost, unfocused, unprepared, disorganized: These are just a few of the words used to describe kids with executive functioning deficits, which commonly affect many children already diagnosed with ADHD, learning disabilities, and autism. The Impulsive, Disorganized Child: Solutions for Parenting Kids with Executive Functioning Difficulties helps parents pinpoint weak executive functions in their children, then learn how to help their kids overcome these deficits with practical, easy solutions. Children who can't select, plan, initiate, or sustain action toward their goals are children who simply struggle to succeed in school and other aspects of life. Parents need the helpful, proven advice and interactive surveys and action plans in this book to empower them to take positive action to teach their disorganized, impulsive child to achieve independence, success, and a level of self-support.

Nonmotor Parkinson s The Hidden Face

Nonmotor Parkinson s  The Hidden Face
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 794
Release: 2017-08-08
ISBN: 0128137096
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nonmotor Parkinson s The Hidden Face Book Excerpt:

Non-motor Parkinson's: The Hidden Face, Volume 133, the first part of the latest volume in the International Review of Neurobiology series, is an up-to-date, comprehensive textbook addressing the non-motor aspects of Parkinson’s disease, a key unmet need. Chapters in this new release include topics such as The hidden face of Parkinson's, JP and non-motor symptoms, Parkinson's: a complex non-motor disease, Neuropathology of NMS of PD, Neurophysiology and animal models related to NMS in PD, Epidemiology of NMS in PD (cohort studies), Genes and NMS in PD, NMS in genetic forms of PD, and Imaging the NMS in PD. Including practical tips for non-specialists and clinical algorithms, this book contains contributions from over 40 opinion leaders in the field of movement disorders, covering the topic from laboratory, to bedside, to caregiver. Presents a comprehensive textbook on the non motor aspects of Parkinson’s disease Includes practical tips and clinical algorithms, and is the only textbook to bring a holistic approach Contains contributions from over 40 global opinion leaders in the field of movement disorders Provides special chapters on exercise, personalized medicine, osteoporosis, genetics, treatment aspects and nutrition

Executive Functions in Children s Everyday Lives

Executive Functions in Children s Everyday Lives
Author: Associate Professor and Executive Director Maureen J Hoskyn,Arlene R. Young,Professor of Psychology and the Director of the Autism and Developmental Disorders Lab Grace Iarocci,Associate Professor and the Director of Clinical Training Arlene R Young
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2017-03-09
ISBN: 0199980861
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Executive Functions in Children s Everyday Lives Book Excerpt:

Executive Functions in Children's Everyday Lives captures the diversity and complexity of the executive system that underlies children's everyday life experiences. Acquisition of executive functions, such as interpreting communication cues and the perspectives of others, is foundational to and a function of children's early social and communicative competencies. From the soccer field to the classroom, executive functions support children's strategic thinking and control of their environment. Knowing about executive functions and how this system of cognitive resources emerges in young children is important in understanding children's development. Recent research points to the importance of also considering environmental influences on the executive system. This book is unique in its focus on how experiences in children's early lives influence and are influenced by executive functions. Viewing executive functions through this broad lens is critical for professionals who intervene when children's access to executive functions is less than optimal. This book addresses a wide range of topics, including the neurological basis of executive functions in young children, the assessment of children's executive functions, theoretical and historical conceptions of executive functions, the relations between executive functions and theory of mind, multilingualism, early school transitions, and the relationship of executive functions to Autism and ADHD. This volume will be useful to professionals in applied psychology, undergraduate and graduate students, and social science and applied researchers.

Executive Functions in Children s Everyday Lives

Executive Functions in Children s Everyday Lives
Author: Maureen J. Hoskyn,Grace Iarocci,Arlene R. Young
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2017-02-09
ISBN: 019998087X
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Executive Functions in Children s Everyday Lives Book Excerpt:

Executive Functions in Children's Everyday Lives captures the diversity and complexity of the executive system that underlies children's everyday life experiences. Acquisition of executive functions, such as interpreting communication cues and the perspectives of others, is foundational to and a function of children's early social and communicative competencies. From the soccer field to the classroom, executive functions support children's strategic thinking and control of their environment. Knowing about executive functions and how this system of cognitive resources emerges in young children is important in understanding children's development. Recent research points to the importance of also considering environmental influences on the executive system. This book is unique in its focus on how experiences in children's early lives influence and are influenced by executive functions. Viewing executive functions through this broad lens is critical for professionals who intervene when children's access to executive functions is less than optimal. This book addresses a wide range of topics, including the neurological basis of executive functions in young children, the assessment of children's executive functions, theoretical and historical conceptions of executive functions, the relations between executive functions and theory of mind, multilingualism, early school transitions, and the relationship of executive functions to Autism and ADHD. This volume will be useful to professionals in applied psychology, undergraduate and graduate students, and social science and applied researchers.