Industrial Competitiveness Of The Auto Parts Industries In Four Large Asian Countries

Author by : Richard F. Doner
Languange : en
Publisher by : World Bank Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 28
Total Download : 871
File Size : 53,6 Mb
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Description : Abstract: Rationalization and stabilization following the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s combined with the expansion and liberalization of regional and global trade to create significant parts industries in China, Indonesia, and the Republic of Korea. Conventional policies of stabilization and liberalization, however, cannot fully explain growth patterns. Japan and Korea grew into major players before liberalizing trade and investment, while even after extensive liberalization Indonesia has yet to move from extensive to intensive growth. These anomalies suggest that to explain success in the auto parts industry we need to move beyond liberalization to look at policies and institutions promoting economies of scale, skill formation, quality upgrading, supplier-linkage cooperation, and innovation. In Japan, the regional and global leader, innovative assemblers led industrial development and supported key suppliers, but the government also supported diffusion of quality control techniques and new technology to small and medium enterprises, and encouraged stable employment among core employees. Korea remains weaker on both small and medium enterprise and employment fronts, but government-encouraged consolidation around a small number of business groups, an extended period of protection, and support for export promotion led to economies of scale. Liberalization of foreign investment after the financial crisis helped ameliorate the excessive statism of earlier policies and strengthened the parts industry. In China, liberalization for WTO entry, rapid expansion in demand, and strong support by local governments encouraged a wave of foreign investment in both assembly and parts. In contrast, institutional weaknesses continue to constrain development opportunities in Indonesia.


Industrial Competitiveness Of The Auto Parts Industries In Four Large Asian Countries

Author by : Richard F. Doner
Languange : en
Publisher by : World Bank Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 84
Total Download : 585
File Size : 45,5 Mb
pdf pdf

Description : Abstract: Rationalization and stabilization following the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s combined with the expansion and liberalization of regional and global trade to create significant parts industries in China, Indonesia, and the Republic of Korea. Conventional policies of stabilization and liberalization, however, cannot fully explain growth patterns. Japan and Korea grew into major players before liberalizing trade and investment, while even after extensive liberalization Indonesia has yet to move from extensive to intensive growth. These anomalies suggest that to explain success in the auto parts industry we need to move beyond liberalization to look at policies and institutions promoting economies of scale, skill formation, quality upgrading, supplier-linkage cooperation, and innovation. In Japan, the regional and global leader, innovative assemblers led industrial development and supported key suppliers, but the government also supported diffusion of quality control techniques and new technology to small and medium enterprises, and encouraged stable employment among core employees. Korea remains weaker on both small and medium enterprise and employment fronts, but government-encouraged consolidation around a small number of business groups, an extended period of protection, and support for export promotion led to economies of scale. Liberalization of foreign investment after the financial crisis helped ameliorate the excessive statism of earlier policies and strengthened the parts industry. In China, liberalization for WTO entry, rapid expansion in demand, and strong support by local governments encouraged a wave of foreign investment in both assembly and parts. In contrast, institutional weaknesses continue to constrain development opportunities in Indonesia.


The Politics Of Uneven Development

Author by : Richard F. Doner
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 96
Total Download : 562
File Size : 41,7 Mb
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Description : Richard Doner compares Thai economic development with competing nations, revealing how specific political factors shape institutional capacity in each.


An East Asian Renaissance

Author by : Indermit Singh Gill
Languange : en
Publisher by : World Bank Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
Total Download : 920
File Size : 49,7 Mb
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Description : An East Asian Renaissance, by a World Bank team led by Chief Economist for East Asia & Pacific, Dr Homi Kharas and Economic Adviser, Dr Indermit Gill is the first comprehensive analysis of the new forces and challenges at play in the region since the Bank's seminal report of 1993, The East Asian Miracle. The report argues that regional flows of goods, finance and technology are helping even smaller East Asian countries reap the benefits of economies of scale and that this regional integration must be encouraged. But it also points out that these measures have to be supported by actions at the domestic level to ease the stresses and strains that rapid economic growth leaves in its wake. East Asia must now turn to the urgent domestic challenges of inequality, social cohesion, corruption and environmental degradation arising from its economic success.


The Making Of Northeast Asia

Author by : Kent Calder
Languange : en
Publisher by : Stanford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 18
Total Download : 958
File Size : 52,5 Mb
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Description : This book offers a detailed analysis of the domestic politics of regionalism in the three major nations of Northeast Asia (China, Japan, and Korea), as well as in the most important external actor, the United States.


The Oxford Handbook Of Asian Business Systems

Author by : Michael A. Witt
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 57
Total Download : 788
File Size : 47,8 Mb
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Description : Much of the existing literature within the "varieties of capitalism " (VOC) and "comparative business systems " fields of research is heavily focused on Europe, Japan, and the Anglo-Saxon nations. As a result, the field has yet to produce a detailed empirical picture of the institutional structures of most Asian nations and to explore to what extent existing theory applies to the Asian context. The Oxford Handbook of Asian Business Systems aims to address this imbalance by exploring the shape and consequences of institutional variations across the political economies of different societies within Asia. Drawing on the deep knowledge of 32 leading experts, this book presents an empirical, comparative institutional analysis of 13 major Asian business systems between India and Japan. To aid comparison, each country chapter follows the same consistent outline. Complementing the country chapters are eleven contributions examining major themes across the region in comparative perspective and linking the empirical picture to existing theory on these themes. A further three chapters provide perspectives on the influence of history and institutional change. The concluding chapters spell out the implications of all these chapters for scholars in the field and for business practitioners in Asia. The Handbook is a major reference work for scholars researching the causes of success and failure in international business in Asia.


Enhancing The Efficiency Of Securities Markets In East Asia

Author by : Swati R. Ghosh
Languange : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 43
Total Download : 341
File Size : 41,9 Mb
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Description : The authors explore the relative efficiency of stock markets across countries using newly available data on transactions costs and the quality of the informational environment of stock markets. These new measures are constructed from firm-level stock returns in a panel of 60 countries for the period 2000-04. The authors then develop a framework to understand the linkages between efficiency, liquidity, and their determinants. To give empirical content to the framework, they study the determinants of transactions costs and the quality of the informational environment. They find that some institutional arrangements-such as the availability of stock lending and short selling-and the openness of markets are associated with lower transactions costs. The authors also find that, although disclosure rules for directors and officers of listed firms are essential, the ability of shareholders to seek redress is more conducive to a better informational environment in stock markets. This in turn serves as the basis for the policy framework and recommendations for the East Asian region. In particular, the region needs to continue to strengthen the implementation and enforcement of corporate governance, to further enhance the market and institutional infrastructure, and focus on policy measures to foster a larger and more diversified investor base to continue to see gains in the efficiency of stock markets.


Location Decisions Of Foreign Banks And Competitive Advantage

Author by : Stijn Claessens
Languange : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
Total Download : 641
File Size : 40,8 Mb
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Description : While institutional differences have been found to affect country growth patterns, much has remained unexplained, including how economic actors "overcome" institutional weaknesses and how internationalization helps or hinders development. Banking is an institutionally-intensive activity and the location decision of foreign banks provides a good test of how institutional differences are dealt with and how they may affect economic choices. Specifically, the authors examine whether banks seek out those markets where institutional familiarity provides them with a competitive advantage over other foreign competitor banks. Using bilateral data on banking sector foreign direct investment in all developing countries and controlling for other factors, they find that competitive advantage is an important factor in driving foreign banks' location decisions. The findings suggest that high institutional quality is not necessarily a prerequisite to attract foreign direct investment in banking and that there are specific benefits, as well as risks, to international financial integration between developing countries.


Rules Of Origin In Services

Author by : Carsten Fink
Languange : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 30
Total Download : 640
File Size : 48,5 Mb
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Description : An important question in the design of bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs) covering services is to what extent nonmembers benefit from the trade preferences that are negotiated among members. This question is resolved through services rules of origin. The restrictiveness of rules of origin determines the degree of preferences entailed in market opening commitments, shaping the bargaining incentives of FTAs and their eventual economic effects. Even though the number of FTAs in services has increased rapidly in recent years, hardly any research is available that can guide policymakers on the economic implications of different rules of origin. After outlining the key economic tradeoffs and options for rules of origin in services, the paper summarizes the main findings of a research project that has assessed the rules of origin question for five countries in the ASEAN region. For selected service subsectors and a number of criteria for rules or origin, simulation exercises evaluated which service providers would or would not be eligible for preferences negotiated under a FTA. Among other findings, the simulation results point to the binding nature of a domestic ownership or control requirement and, for the specific case of financial services, a requirement of incorporation.


The Impact Of Private Provision Of Public Education

Author by : Felipe Barrera Osorio
Languange : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
Total Download : 580
File Size : 43,7 Mb
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Description : In 1999 the city of Bogota, Colombia launched the concession school program designed to broaden the coverage and quality of basic education. It consists of a contract between a group of private schools and the public educational system such that private agents provide education for low-income students. This paper tests three main hypotheses concerning the impact of concessions on the quality of education: first, dropout rates are lower in concession schools than in similar public schools; second, other public schools nearby the concession schools have lower dropout rates in comparison with other public schools outside the area of influence; and third, test scores from concession schools are higher than scores in similar public schools. The paper presents evidence in favor of the three hypotheses using propensity score and matching estimators.