Iron Technology In East Africa

Author by : Peter R. Schmidt
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : The purpose of this study is to recuperate the history of African iron technology.


Iron Technology In East Africa

Author by : Peter Ridgway Schmidt
Languange : en
Publisher by : James Currey
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 47
Total Download : 756
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Description : The purpose of this study is to recuperate the history of African iron technology. Through a cross-cultural and comparative approach, it reveals both changes and significant continuities in the symbolism that conferred meaning to iron smelting over two thousand years in East and Central Africa.


Historical Archaeology In Africa

Author by : Peter R. Schmidt
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman Altamira
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 97
Total Download : 931
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Description : Historical Archaeology in Africa is an inquiry into the questions that count, proposing different ways of thinking about historical archaeology. Peter Schmidt challenges readers to expand their horizons beyond the ethnocentrism of archaeology, as it is defined and practiced in North America. Confronting topics of oral traditions, our orientation to archaeology, and the misrepresentation of various cultures, Schmidt calls for a new pathway to an enriched, more nuanced, and more inclusive historical archaeology.


Ancient African Metallurgy

Author by : Michael S. Bisson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman & Littlefield
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 32
Total Download : 929
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Description : Gold. Copper. Iron. Metal working in Africa has been the subject of both popular lore and extensive archaeological investigation. In this volume, four leading archaeologists attempt to provide a complete synthesis of current debates and understandings: When, how and where was metal first introduced to the continent? How were iron and copper tools, implements, and objects used in everyday life, in trade, in political and cultural contexts? What role did metals play in the ideological systems of precolonial African peoples? Substantive chapters address the origins of African metal working and analyze the specific uses, technology, and ideology of both copper and iron. An ethnoarchaeological account in the words of a contemporary iron worker enriches the archaeological explanations. The volume will be of great value to scholars and students of archaeology, African history, and the history of technology.


East African Archaeology

Author by : Chapurukha M. Kusimba
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Pennsylvania Press
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Total Read : 26
Total Download : 635
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Description : The goal of this volume is to impart an appreciation of the many facets of East Africa's cultural and archaeological diversity over the last 2,000 years. It brings together chapters on East African archaeology, many by Africa-born archaeologists who review what is known, present new research, and pinpoint issues of debate and anomaly in the relatively poorly known prehistory of East Africa.


The Exploitation Of Plant Resources In Ancient Africa

Author by : Marijke van der Veen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 9
Total Download : 113
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Description : This volume presents a completely new and very substantial body of information about the origin of agriculture and plant use in Africa. All the evidence is very recent and for the first time all this archaeobotanical evidence is brought together in one volume (at present the information is unpublished or published in many disparate journals, confer ence reports, monographs, site reports, etc. ). Early publications concerned with the origins of African plant domestication relied almost exclusively on inferences made from the modem distribution of the wild progenitors of African cultivars; there existed virtually no archaeobotanical data at that time. Even as recently as the early 1990s direct evidence for the transition to farming and the relative roles of indigenous versus Near Eastern crops was lacking for most of Africa. This volume changes that and presents a wide range of ex citing new evidence, including case studies from Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Uganda, Egypt, and Sudan, which range in date from 8000 BP to the present day. The volume ad dresses topics such as the role of wild plant resources in hunter-gatherer and farming com munities, the origins of agriculture, the agricultural foundation of complex societies, long-distance trade, the exchange of foods and crops, and the human impact on local vege tation-all key issues of current research in archaeology, anthropology, agronomy, ecol ogy, and economic history.


The Oxford Handbook Of African Archaeology

Author by : Peter Mitchell
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 61
Total Download : 828
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Description : This Handbook provides a comprehensive synthesis of African archaeology, covering the entirety of the continent's past from the beginnings of human evolution to the archaeological legacy of European colonialism. It includes a mixture of key methodological and theoretical issues and debates and situates the subject's contemporary practice.


Encyclopaedia Of The History Of Science Technology And Medicine In Non Western Cultures

Author by : Helaine Selin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 73
Total Download : 787
File Size : 49,5 Mb
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Description : Here, at last, is the massively updated and augmented second edition of this landmark encyclopedia. It contains approximately 1000 entries dealing in depth with the history of the scientific, technological and medical accomplishments of cultures outside of the United States and Europe. The entries consist of fully updated articles together with hundreds of entirely new topics. This unique reference work includes intercultural articles on broad topics such as mathematics and astronomy as well as thoughtful philosophical articles on concepts and ideas related to the study of non-Western Science, such as rationality, objectivity, and method. You’ll also find material on religion and science, East and West, and magic and science.


Sub Saharan Africa

Author by : Gregory Maddox
Languange : en
Publisher by : ABC-CLIO
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 69
Total Download : 792
File Size : 53,8 Mb
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Description : Examines how the African enviroment has shaped human responses to their landscape.


Myth Ritual And Metallurgy In Ancient Greece And Recent Africa

Author by : Sandra Blakely
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 17
Total Download : 132
File Size : 54,8 Mb
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Description : This book, first published in 2006, provides new insights into the position of technology in Greek myth.


Metals In Past Societies

Author by : Shadreck Chirikure
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 832
File Size : 44,8 Mb
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Description : This book seeks to communicate to both a global and local audience, the key attributes of pre-industrial African metallurgy such as technological variation across space and time, methods of mining and extractive metallurgy and the fabrication of metal objects. These processes were transformative in a physical and metaphoric sense, which made them total social facts. Because the production and use of metals was an accretion of various categories of practice, a chaine operatoire conceptual and theoretical framework that simultaneously considers the embedded technological and anthropological factors was used. The book focuses on Africa’s different regions as roughly defined by cultural geography. On the one hand there is North Africa, Egypt, the Egyptian Sudan, and the Horn of Africa which share cultural inheritances with the Middle East and on the other is Africa south of the Sahara and the Sudan which despite interacting with the former is remarkably different in terms of technological practice. For example, not only is the timing of metallurgy different but so is the infrastructure for working metals and the associated symbolic and sociological factors. The cultural valuation of metals and the social positions of metal workers were different too although there is evidence of some values transfer and multi-directional technological cross borrowing. The multitude of permutations associated with metals production and use amply demonstrates that metals participated in the production and reproduction of society. Despite huge temporal and spatial differences there are so many common factors between African metallurgy and that of other regions of the world. For example, the role of magic and ritual in metal working is almost universal be it in Bolivia, Nepal, Malawi, Timna, Togo or Zimbabwe. Similarly, techniques of mining were constrained by the underlying geology but this should not in any way suggest that Africa’s metallurgy was derivative or that the continent had no initiative. Rather it demonstrates that when confronted with similar challenges, humanity in different regions of the world responded to identical challenges in predictable ways mediated as mediated by the prevailing cultural context. The success of the use of historical and ethnographic data in understanding variation and improvisation in African metallurgical practices flags the potential utility of these sources in Asia, Latin America and Europe. Some nuance is however needed because it is simply naïve to assume that everything depicted in the history or ethnography has a parallel in the past and vice versa. Rather, the confluence of archaeology, history and ethnography becomes a pedestal for dialogue between different sources, subjects and ideas that is important for broadening our knowledge of global categories of metallurgical practice.


Encyclopedia Of African History 3 Volume Set

Author by : Kevin Shillington
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 20
Total Download : 717
File Size : 55,9 Mb
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Description : Covering the entire continent from Morocco, Libya, and Egypt in the north to the Cape of Good Hope in the south, and the surrounding islands from Cape Verde in the west to Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles in the east, the Encyclopedia of African History is a new A-Z reference resource on the history of the entire African continent. With entries ranging from the earliest evolution of human beings in Africa to the beginning of the twenty-first century, this comprehensive three volume Encyclopedia is the first reference of this scale and scope. Also includes 99 maps.


Berkshire Encyclopedia Of Sustainability 9 10

Author by : Ray C. Anderson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Berkshire Publishing Group
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 65
Total Download : 398
File Size : 52,9 Mb
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Description : Afro-Eurasia: Assessing Sustainability focuses on the geographic area where humans originated and first began to make use of the natural world - Earth's largest landmass, stretching from Portugal in the west across the steppes of Russia and south across Africa to the Cape of Good Hope. By examining the history of human expansion, as well as 21st century pressures to address ecosystem damage across the region, international scholars and regional experts weave sustainability into core curricular subjects. The interdisciplinary coverage includes national and regional environmental histories, as well as business and commerce, migration, educational institutions, law and government, and the lifestyles of diverse populations.


East Africa And The Nile Valley

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
Total Download : 553
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Description :


History And Government Form 3

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : East African Publishers
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 86
Total Download : 128
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Trade And Civilisation

Author by : Kristian Kristiansen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 22
Total Download : 954
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Description : This book provides the first global analysis of the relationship between trade and civilisation from the beginning of civilisation 3000 BC until the modern era 1600 AD. Encompassing the various networks including the Silk Road, the Indian Ocean trade, Near Eastern family traders of the Bronze Age, and the Medieval Hanseatic League, it examines the role of the individual merchant, the products of trade, the role of the state, and the technical conditions for land and sea transport that created diverging systems of trade and in the development of global trade networks. Trade networks, however, were not durable. The the establishment and decline of great trading network systems, and how they related to the expansion of civilisation, and to different forms of social and economic exploitation. Case studies focus on local conditions as well as global networks until the 16th century when the whole globe was connected by trade.


Rethinking Agriculture

Author by : Timothy P Denham
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 10
Total Download : 997
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Description : Although the need to study agriculture in different parts of the world on its “own terms” has long been recognized and re-affirmed, a tendency persists to evaluate agriculture across the globe using concepts, lines of evidence and methods derived from Eurasian research. However, researchers working in different regions are becoming increasingly aware of fundamental differences in the nature of, and methods employed to study, agriculture and plant exploitation practices in the past. Contributions to this volume rethink agriculture, whether in terms of existing regional chronologies, in terms of techniques employed, or in terms of the concepts that frame our interpretations. This volume highlights new archaeological and ethnoarchaeological research on early agriculture in understudied non-Eurasian regions, including Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific, the Americas and Africa, to present a more balanced view of the origins and development of agricultural practices around the globe.


Women In Antiquity

Author by : Sarah M. Nelson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman Altamira
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 61
Total Download : 814
File Size : 44,5 Mb
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Description : Archaeology is one of our most powerful sources of new information about the past, about the lives of our ancient and not-so-ancient ancestors. The contributors to Women in Antiquity consider the theoretical problems involved in discerning what the archaeological evidence tells us about gender roles in antiquity. The book includes chapters on the history of gender research, historical texts, mortuary analysis, household remains, hierarchy, and ethnoarchaeology, with each chapter teasing out the inherent difficulty in interpreting ancient evidence as well as the promise of new understanding. Women in Antiquity offers a fresh, accessible account of how we might grasp the ways in which sexual roles and identities shaped the past.


Defining The Sacred

Author by : Nicola Laneri
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxbow Books
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 76
Total Download : 507
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Description : Religion is a phenomenon that is inseparable from human society. It brings about a set of emotional, ideological and practical elements that are pervasive in the social fabric of any society and characterizable by a number of features. These include the establishment of intermediaries in the relationship between humans and the divine; the construction of ceremonial places for worshipping the gods and practicing ritual performances; and the creation ritual paraphernalia. Investigating the religious dimensions of ancient societies encounters problems in defining such elements, especially with regard to societies that lack textual evidences and has tended to lead towards the identification of differentiation between the mental dimension, related to religious beliefs, and the material one associated with religious practices, resulting in a separation between scholars able to investigate, and possibly reconstruct, ritual practices (i.e., archaeologists), and those interested in defining the realm of ancient beliefs (i.e., philologists and religious historians). The aim of this collection of papers is to attempt to bridge these two dimensions by breaking down existing boundaries in order to form a more comprehensive vision of religion among ancient Near Eastern societies. This approach requires that a higher consideration be given to those elements (either artificial -- buildings, objects, texts, etc. -- or natural -- landscapes, animals, trees, etc.) that are created through a materialization of religious beliefs and practices enacted by members of communities. These issues are addressed in a series of specific case-studies covering a broad chronological framework that from the Pre-pottery Neolithic to the Iron Age. (Cover illustration © German Archaeological Institute, photo N. Becker)


Archives Objects Places And Landscapes

Author by : Manyanga, Munyaradzi
Languange : en
Publisher by : Langaa RPCIG
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 69
Total Download : 717
File Size : 42,7 Mb
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Description : Dissatisfaction has matured in Africa and elsewhere around the fact that often, the dominant frameworks for interpreting the continent's past are not rooted on the continent's value system and philosophy. This creates knowledge that does not make sense especially to local communities. The big question therefore is can Africans develop theories that can contribute towards the interpretation of the African past, using their own experiences? Framed within a concept revision substrate, the collection of papers in this thought provoking volume argues for concept revision as a step towards decolonizing knowledge in the post-colony. The various papers powerfully expose that 'cleansed' knowledge is not only locally relevant: it is also locally accessible and globally understandable.


Handbook Of Gender In Archaeology

Author by : Sarah M. Nelson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman Altamira
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 98
Total Download : 260
File Size : 50,5 Mb
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Description : First reference work to explore the research on gender in archaeology.


The Forging Of Israel

Author by : Paula M. McNutt
Languange : en
Publisher by : A&C Black
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 27
Total Download : 200
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Description :


Quaternary And Environmental Research On East African Mountains

Author by : W.H. Mahaney
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 85
Total Download : 432
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Description : Twenty-six papers form a summary of research on glacial history, paleoclimatology, biogeography, ecosystem disequilibrium. Focus is on detailed chrono-stratigraphic, glacial geologic, and vertebrate paleontologic problems.


Metallurgical Design And Industry

Author by : Brett Kaufman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
Total Download : 909
File Size : 42,6 Mb
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Description : ​This edited volume examines metallurgical technologies and their place in society throughout the centuries. The authors discuss metal alloys and the use of raw mineral resources as well as fabrication of engineered alloys for a variety of applications. The applications covered in depth include financial, mining and smelting, bridges, armor, aircraft, and power generation. The authors detail the multiple levels and scales of impact that metallurgical advances have had and continue to have on society. They include case studies with guidance for future research design and innovation of metallic materials relevant to societal needs. Includes case studies written by industry professionals with guidance for future research design and innovation; Demonstrates metal materials design that reflects relevant societal needs; Covers a broad range of applied materials used in aircraft, armor, bridges, and power generation, among others.


The Swahili World

Author by : Stephanie Wynne-Jones
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 23
Total Download : 400
File Size : 50,7 Mb
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Description : The Swahili World presents the fascinating story of a major world civilization, exploring the archaeology, history, linguistics, and anthropology of the Indian Ocean coast of Africa. It covers a 1,500-year sweep of history, from the first settlement of the coast to the complex urban tradition found there today. Swahili towns contain monumental palaces, tombs, and mosques, set among more humble houses; they were home to fishers, farmers, traders, and specialists of many kinds. The towns have been Muslim since perhaps the eighth century CE, participating in international networks connecting people around the Indian Ocean rim and beyond. Successive colonial regimes have helped shape modern Swahili society, which has incorporated such influences into the region’s long-standing cosmopolitan tradition. This is the first volume to explore the Swahili in chronological perspective. Each chapter offers a unique wealth of detail on an aspect of the region’s past, written by the leading scholars on the subject. The result is a book that allows both specialist and non-specialist readers to explore the diversity of the Swahili tradition, how Swahili society has changed over time, as well as how our understandings of the region have shifted since Swahili studies first began. Scholars of the African continent will find the most nuanced and detailed consideration of Swahili culture, language and history ever produced. For readers unfamiliar with the region or the people involved, the chapters here provide an ideal introduction to a new and wonderful geography, at the interface of Africa and the Indian Ocean world, and among a people whose culture remains one of Africa’s most distinctive achievements.


Highland Sanctuary

Author by : Christopher Allan Conte
Languange : en
Publisher by : Ohio University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 64
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Description : This book is the first historical study of the strikingly different environmental histories of the East and West Usambaras and a significant contribution to global environmental history. Christopher A. Conte explores the changing ecological and economic perspectives of German and British colonial officials, settlers, and scientists, on the one hand, and African farmers and pastoralists, on the other. He unravels the complex interactions between agriculture, herding, forestry, the colonial state, and the landscape itself. His examination of the region's history of ecological transformation shows how these forces have combined to create an ever-changing mosaic of forest and field. Conte illuminates the ongoing debate over conservation of the mountains' resources, arguing that contingency and change and human agency have shaped forests in ways that rival the power of nature.


African Historical Archaeologies

Author by : Andrew M. Reid
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 31
Total Download : 709
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Description : This volume explores the range of interactions between the historical sources and archaeology that are available on the African continent. Written by a range of experts on different aspects of African archaeology, this book represents the first consideration of historical archaeology over the African continent as a whole. This seminal volume also explores Africa's place in global systems of thought and economic development and is of interest to historical archaeologists and historians.


Narrating Objects Collecting Stories

Author by : Sandra Dudley
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 21
Total Download : 486
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Description : Narrating Objects, Collecting Stories is a wide-ranging collection of essays exploring the stories that can be told about objects and those who choose to collect them. Examining objects and collecting in different historical, social and institutional contexts, an international, interdisciplinary group of authors consider the meanings and values with which objects are imputed and the processes and implications of collecting. This includes considering the entanglement of objects and collectors alike in webs of social relations, the creation of value and social change; object biographies and the stories – often conflicting – that objects come to represent; and the strategies used to reconstruct and retell the narratives of objects. The book includes considerations of individual objects and groups of objects, such as domestic interiors, Chinese Buddhist artefacts, novelty tea-pots, Scottish stone monuments, African ironworking, a postcolonial painting and memorials to those killed on the roads in Australia. It also contains chapters dealing with particular collectors – including Charles Bell and Beatrix Potter – and representational techniques.


Bronze Age Metalworking In The Netherlands C 2000 800 Bc

Author by : M. H. G. Kuijpers
Languange : en
Publisher by : Sidestone Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 42
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Description : Almost fifty years ago J. J. Butler started his research to trace the possible remains of a Bronze Age metalworker's workshop in the Netherlands. Yet, while metalworking has been deduced on the ground of the existence of regional types of axes and some scarce finds related to metalworking, the smith's workplace has remained elusive. In this Research Master Thesis I have tried to tackle this problem. I have considered both the social as well as the technological aspects of metalworking to be able to determine conclusively whether metalworking took place in the Netherlands or not. The first part of the thesis revolves around the social position of the smith and the social organization of metalworking. My approach entails a re-evaluation of the current theories on metalworking, which I believe to be unfounded and one-sided. They tend to disregard production of everyday objects of which the most prominent example is the axe. The second part deals with the technological aspects of metalworking and how these processes are manifested in the archaeological record. Based on evidence from archaeological sites elsewhere in Europe and with the aid of experimental archaeology a metalworking toolkit is constructed. Finally, a method is presented which might help archaeologists recognize the workplace of a Bronze Age smith.


African Connections

Author by : Peter Mitchell
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman Altamira
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 28
Total Download : 883
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Description : From the exodus of early modern humans to the growth of African diasporas, Africa has had a long and complex relationship with the outside world. More than a passive vessel manipulated by external empires, the African experience has been a complex mix of internal geographic, environmental, sociopolitical and economic factors, and regular interaction with outsiders. Peter Mitchell attempts to outline these factors over the long period of modern human history, to find their commonalities and development over time. He examines African interconnections through Egypt and Nubia with the Near East, through multiple Indian Ocean trading systems, through the trans-Saharan trade, and through more recent incursion of Europeans. The African diaspora is also explored for continuities and resistance to foreign domination. Commonalities abound in the African experience, as do complexities of each individual period and interrelationship. Mitchell's sweeping analysis of African connections place the continent in context of global prehistory and history. The book should be of interest not only to Africanists, but to many other archaeologists, historians, geographers, linguists, social scientists and their students.