Isoprenoid Synthesis In Plants And Microorganisms

Author by : Thomas J. Bach
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 36
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Description : Isoprenoids are important in primary and secondary metabolism. They have implications in a myriad of physiological processes notably in plants, microorganisms and parasites, and biological activities at the cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. The importance of isoprenoids in various areas of the scientific world has spurred intense research worldwide. Also their role in "nutraceuticals" has stimulated scientific curiosity. Literature on isoprenoids is widely scattered in journals with quite differing readerships and geographic distribution. A comprehensive book on isoprenoids does not exist. Isoprenoid Synthesis in Plants and Microorganisms: New Concepts and Experimental Approaches fills this gap by presenting the latest and the most applicable information on isoprenoids. The most recent TERPNET conference serves as the backdrop and provides much of the inspiration for the topics covered in the book. Additional topics of interest are covered as well, making Isoprenoid Synthesis in Plants and Microorganisms: New Concepts and Experimental Approaches the most comprehensive review of isoprenoid synthesis to date.


Isoprenoid Synthesis In Plants And Microorganisms

Author by : Thomas J. Bach
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
Total Download : 567
File Size : 47,9 Mb
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Description : Isoprenoids are important in primary and secondary metabolism. They have implications in a myriad of physiological processes notably in plants, microorganisms and parasites, and biological activities at the cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. The importance of isoprenoids in various areas of the scientific world has spurred intense research worldwide. Also their role in "nutraceuticals" has stimulated scientific curiosity. Literature on isoprenoids is widely scattered in journals with quite differing readerships and geographic distribution. A comprehensive book on isoprenoids does not exist. Isoprenoid Synthesis in Plants and Microorganisms: New Concepts and Experimental Approaches fills this gap by presenting the latest and the most applicable information on isoprenoids. The most recent TERPNET conference serves as the backdrop and provides much of the inspiration for the topics covered in the book. Additional topics of interest are covered as well, making Isoprenoid Synthesis in Plants and Microorganisms: New Concepts and Experimental Approaches the most comprehensive review of isoprenoid synthesis to date.


Studies Of Non Mevalonate Isoprenoid Biosynthesis

Author by : Youn-Hi Woo
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 84
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Description : This dissertation details the investigation of an alternate pathway to isoprenoids that occurs in plants and microorganisms, the non-mevalonate pathway. This exploration of the pathway focuses on the second step, the conversion of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) to 2-C-methylerythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) by the enzyme DXP isomeroreductase (DXR). These studies led to an appreciation of the stereochemical course of the enzymatic reduction step and to a better understanding of the structural requirements for inhibitors to have optimal interactions at the active site of the enzyme, DXR. The investigation of the reduction step mediated by DXR revealed that the C1 pro-S hydrogen in 2-C-methylerythritol-4-phosphate derives from C3 of DXP for the DXR from Synechocystis sp PCC6803. The pro-R hydrogen originates from NADPH. The pro-S hydride of NADPH is transferred to the re face of the proposed aldehyde intermediate, which designates DXR as a class B dehydrogenase. Based on the structural features of fosmidomycin, a known inhibitor of DXR, several analogs were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against DXR. It was discovered that a polar head group with two ionizable groups, a suitable length of intervening carbons, and an N-acyl N-hydroxy moiety are important factors to demonstrate significant inhibition activity. These studies also provided information that is complementary to structural data obtained from recent X-ray crystal structures of DXR.


Biotechnology Of Isoprenoids

Author by : Jens Schrader
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 33
Total Download : 727
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Description : This book review series presents current trends in modern biotechnology. The aim is to cover all aspects of this interdisciplinary technology where knowledge, methods and expertise are required from chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, genetics, chemical engineering and computer science. Volumes are organized topically and provide a comprehensive discussion of developments in the respective field over the past 3-5 years. The series also discusses new discoveries and applications. Special volumes are dedicated to selected topics which focus on new biotechnological products and new processes for their synthesis and purification. In general, special volumes are edited by well-known guest editors. The series editor and publisher will however always be pleased to receive suggestions and supplementary information. Manuscripts are accepted in English.


Microorganisms In Biorefineries

Author by : Birgit Kamm
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 84
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Description : The book describes how plant biomass can be used as renewable feedstock for producing and further processing various products. Particular attention is given to microbial processes both for the digestion of biomass and the synthesis of platform chemicals, biofuels and secondary products. Topics covered include: new metabolic pathways of microbes living on green plants and in silage; using lignocellulosic hydrolysates for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates; fungi such as Penicillium as host for the production of heterologous proteins and enzymes; bioconversion of sugar hydrolysates into lipids; production of succinic acid, lactones, lactic acid and organic lactates using different bacteria species; cellulose hydrolyzing bacteria in the production of biogas from plant biomass; and isoprenoid compounds in engineered microbes.


Coffee In Health And Disease Prevention

Author by : Victor R. Preedy
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 13
Total Download : 297
File Size : 54,7 Mb
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Description : Coffee in Health and Disease Prevention presents a comprehensive look at the compounds in coffee, their reported benefits (or toxicity risks) and also explores them on a health-condition specific level, providing researchers and academics with a single-volume resource to help in identifying potential treatment uses. No other book on the market considers all the varieties of coffee in one volume, or takes the disease-focused approach that will assist in directing further research and studies. The book embraces a holistic approach and effectively investigates coffee and its specific compounds from the biochemical to the nutritional well-being of geographical populations. This book represents essential reading for researchers in nutrition, dietetics, food science, biochemistry, and public health. Presents one comprehensive, translational source for all aspects of how coffee plays a role in disease prevention and health Experts in nutrition, diet, and food chemistry (from all areas of academic and medical research) take readers from the bench research (cellular and biochemical mechanisms of vitamins and nutrients) to new preventive and therapeutic approaches Focuses on coffee composition; nutritional aspects of coffee; protective aspects of coffee-related compounds; specific coffee components and their effects on tissue and organ systems Features sections on both the general effects of coffee consumption on the body as well as the effects of specific coffee compounds on specific organ systems


New Biotechnologies For Increased Energy Security

Author by : Juan Carlos Serrano-Ruiz
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 81
Total Download : 474
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Description : This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. The information contained in this compendium volume sets the stage for the future's large-scale production of biofuels. Biomass is an abundant carbon-neutral renewable feedstock for producing fuel. First-generation biofuels gained attention for their problems, but the authors of this book demons


Deciphering Chemical Language Of Plant Communication

Author by : James D. Blande
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 83
Total Download : 549
File Size : 43,9 Mb
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Description : This book provides an overview of the intricacies of plant communication via volatile chemicals. Plants produce an extraordinarily vast array of chemicals, which provide community members with detailed information about the producer’s identity, physiology and phenology. Volatile organic chemicals, either as individual compounds or complex chemical blends, are a communication medium operating between plants and any organism able to detect the compounds and respond. The ecological and evolutionary origins of particular interactions between plants and the greater community have been, and will continue to be, strenuously debated. However, it is clear that chemicals, and particularly volatile chemicals, constitute a medium akin to a linguistic tool. As well as possessing a rich chemical vocabulary, plants are known to detect and respond to chemical cues. These cues can originate from neighbouring plants, or other associated community members. This book begins with chapters on the complexity of chemical messages, provides a broad perspective on a range of ecological interactions mediated by volatile chemicals, and extends to cutting edge developments on the detection of chemicals by plants.


Plant Derived Natural Products

Author by : Anne E. Osbourn
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 63
Total Download : 875
File Size : 52,5 Mb
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Description : Plants produce a huge array of natural products (secondary metabolites). These compounds have important ecological functions, providing protection against attack by herbivores and microbes and serving as attractants for pollinators and seed-dispersing agents. They may also contribute to competition and invasiveness by suppressing the growth of neighboring plant species (a phenomenon known as allelopathy). Humans exploit natural products as sources of drugs, flavoring agents, fragrances and for a wide range of other applications. Rapid progress has been made in recent years in understanding natural product synthesis, regulation and function and the evolution of metabolic diversity. It is timely to bring this information together with contemporary advances in chemistry, plant biology, ecology, agronomy and human health to provide a comprehensive guide to plant-derived natural products. Plant-derived natural products: synthesis, function and application provides an informative and accessible overview of the different facets of the field, ranging from an introduction to the different classes of natural products through developments in natural product chemistry and biology to ecological interactions and the significance of plant-derived natural products for humans. In the final section of the book a series of chapters on new trends covers metabolic engineering, genome-wide approaches, the metabolic consequences of genetic modification, developments in traditional medicines and nutraceuticals, natural products as leads for drug discovery and novel non-food crops.


Microbial Production Of Isoprene

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 60
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Description : Isoprene is a volatile hydrocarbon of unknown function, produced by certain bacteria, plants and animals, sometimes in huge amounts--the Earth's forests are estimated to emit>500 x 106 tons of isoprene per year. With funding from this program we explored the biochemistry and regulation of isoprene formation in the model bacterial system, Bacillus subtilis, with the goals of explaining the biological rationale for isoprene biogenesis and constructing an isoprene-overproducing microbial system. Although the role for isoprene formation in B. subtilis is still uncertain, our current model for regulation of this hydrocarbon's synthesis is that isoprene production in B. subtilis is controlled by a combination of i) rapid regulation of isoprene synthase activity and ii) supply of the substrate for isoprene synthase, dimethyallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). This model parallels our current thinking about the control of isoprene formation in plant chloroplasts. In this reporting period we have been working to test part ii) of this model; this work has produced new results using genetic and analytical approaches. For examples, we have developed an analytical method to resolve DMAPP and its isomer, isopentenyl diphosphate, from each other in bacteria and plants. We have also shown that the IPP isomerase (type 2) of B. subtilis is not the source of "isoprene synthase" activity, and discovered that B. subtilis releases C5 isoprenoid alcohols to the medium, suggesting that isoprene plus other C5 isoprenoids may be common by-products of metabolism. In addition, we have continued to work on our discovery that wild type B. subtilis strains form prolific biofilms, are normal components of plant root microflora, and are testing the idea that B. subtilis growing in biofilms uses isoprene to induce plant root exudation.


Volatiles And Metabolites Of Microbes

Author by : Ajay Kumar
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 68
Total Download : 523
File Size : 47,6 Mb
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Description : Volatiles and Metabolites of Microbes compiles the latest research and advancement in the field of volatiles, metabolites synthesized from the microbial strains such as actinomycetes, bacteria, cyanobacteria, and fungal species and their potential applications in the field of healthcare issue and sustainable agriculture. There is an urgent need to explore new and advanced biological methods for health industries and sustainable agriculture and to protect the environment from environmental pollution or contaminates, global warming, and also control the health of human beings from the side effects of various pharmaceuticals products. Focusing all these factors, Volatiles and Metabolites of Microbes explores new aspects of microorganism in terms of volatiles, enzymes, bioactive compounds synthesized from the microbes and their potential applications in the field of sustainable agriculture and health-related issues Provides a broad aspect about volatiles, bioactive compounds, and secondary metabolites of microbes compiled in one cover Gives the latest research and advancement in the field of volatiles, secondary metabolites, and bioactive compounds synthesized from the different microbial strains Responds to new developments in the detection of the complex compound structures of volatiles Offers insight to a very broad audience in Biotechnology, Applied Microbiology, Agronomy, and Pathology


New Light On Alkaloid Biosynthesis And Future Prospects

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 11
Total Download : 512
File Size : 41,5 Mb
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Description : Advances in Botanical Research publishes in-depth and up-to-date reviews on a wide range of topics in plant sciences. Currently in its 68th volume, the series features varied reviews by recognized experts on all aspects of plant genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, physiology and ecology. This thematic volume features reviews on a new light on alkaloid biosynthesis and future prospects. In-depth and up-to-date reviews on a wide range of topics in plant sciences Features varied reviews by recognized experts on all aspects of plant genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, physiology and ecology Features reviews on biosynthesis of alkaloids in plants


Secondary Metabolism In Microorganisms Plants And Animals

Author by : M. Luckner
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 59
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Description : Many of the reactions and compounds involved in metabolism are almost identical in the different groups of living organisms. They are known as primary metabolic reactions and primary metabolic products. In addition, however, a wide variety of biochemical pathways are characteristic of only a few species of organisms, of single "chemical races" or even of a certain stage of differentiation of special ized cells. Such pathways are collectively referred to as "secondary metabolism", and the compounds formed are called "secondary products". Secondary products are frequently revealed by their color, smell, or taste. They are responsible for the flavor of most foodstuffs and beverages and for the color and fragrance of flowers and fruits. Many of them are part of the materia medica, e. g. , alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, antibiotics, or compounds acting as hormones. Others are used by industry, e. g. , rubber, tannins, and cellulose. This book treats the organization and significance of biosynthesis, storage, transformation, and degradation of the most important groups of secondary products in microorganisms, plants, and animals. It shows that the formation of secondary products is a common characteristic of specialized cells brought about by the action of special enzymes encoded by specific genetic material. It demon strates that the. biosynthesis of secondary products is typically without signifi cance for the individual producer cell, but may play a decisive role in the develop· ment and function of the producer organism as a whole.


Synthetic Biology And Metabolic Engineering In Plants And Microbes Part A Metabolism In Microbes

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 85
Total Download : 454
File Size : 42,5 Mb
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Description : Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering in Plants and Microbes: Part A, the new volume in the Methods in Enzymology series, continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers research methods, synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering in plants and microbes, and includes sections on such topics as the uses of integrases in microbial engineering, biosynthesis, and engineering of tryptophan derived metabolites, regulation and discovery of fungal natural products, and elucidation and localization of plant pathways. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Contains two volumes covering research methods in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering in plants and microbes Presents sections on such topics as the uses of integrases in microbial engineering, biosynthesis, and engineering of tryptophan derived metabolites, regulation and discovery of fungal natural products, and elucidation and localization of plant pathways


Molecular Pharming

Author by : Allison R. Kermode
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 94
Total Download : 925
File Size : 42,9 Mb
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Description : A single volume collection that surveys the exciting field of plant-made pharmaceuticals and industrial proteins This comprehensive book communicates the recent advances and exciting potential for the expanding area of plant biotechnology and is divided into six sections. The first three sections look at the current status of the field, and advances in plant platforms and strategies for improving yields, downstream processing, and controlling post-translational modifications of plant-made recombinant proteins. Section four reviews high-value industrial and pharmacological proteins that are successfully being produced in established and emerging plant platforms. The fifth section looks at regulatory challenges facing the expansion of the field. The final section turns its focus toward small molecule therapeutics, drug screening, plant specialized metabolites, and plants as model organisms to study human disease processes. Molecular Pharming: Applications, Challenges and Emerging Areas offers in-depth coverage of molecular biology of plant expression systems and manipulation of glycosylation processes in plants; plant platforms, subcellular targeting, recovery, and downstream processing; plant-derived protein pharmaceuticals and case studies; regulatory issues; and emerging areas. It is a valuable resource for researchers that are in the field of plant molecular pharming, as well as for those conducting basic research in gene expression, protein quality control, and other subjects relevant to molecular and cellular biology. Broad ranging coverage of a key area of plant biotechnology Describes efforts to produce pharmaceutical and industrial proteins in plants Provides reviews of recent advances and technology breakthroughs Assesses realities of regulatory and cost hurdles Forward looking with coverage of small molecule technologies and the use of plants as models of human disease processes Providing wide-ranging and unique coverage, Molecular Pharming: Applications, Challenges and Emerging Areas will be of great interest to the plant science, plant biotechnology, protein science, and pharmacological communities.


Springer Handbook Of Odor

Author by : Andrea Büttner
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 70
Total Download : 265
File Size : 46,9 Mb
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Description : The Springer Handbook of Odor is the definitive guide to all aspects related to the study of smell and their impact on human life. For the first time, this handbook aligns the senso-chemo-analytical characterization of everyday smells encountered by mankind, with the elucidation of perceptual, hedonic, behavioral and physiological responses of humans to such odors. From birth onwards we learn to interact with our environment using our sense of smell. Moreover, evolutionary processes have engendered a multi-faceted communication that is supported – even dominated – by olfaction. This compilation examines the responses of humans to odors at different stages of life, thereby building a foundation for a widely overseen area of research with broader ramifications for human life. The expert international authors and editor align aspects, concepts, methodologies and perspectives from a broad range of different disciplines related to the science of smell. These include chemistry, physiology, psychology, material sciences, technology but also disciplines related to linguistics, culture, art and design. This handbook, edited by an internationally renowned aroma scientist with the support of an outstanding team of over 60 authors, is an authoritative reference for researchers in the field of odors both in academia and in industry and is also a useful reference for newcomers to the area.


Grasses And Grassland Aspects

Author by : Valentin Missiakô Kindomihou
Languange : en
Publisher by : BoD – Books on Demand
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 48
Total Download : 582
File Size : 51,7 Mb
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Description : Renewed attention is being given to global agricultural productivity such as food security, food prices, financial viability of farm businesses under rising costs, declining availability and affordability of critical inputs including suitable land, etc.Thus, farming systems need to combine space maintenance and food herds in rural areas. Facing these new challenges, interest in grasses and grasslands as important forage systems has increased over the past 30 years, due to their economic, environmental, and ecological properties. A better use of economic and ecological potentials requires an understanding of their functions, and the development of tools for feeding herds, managing space, maintaining biodiversity, and limiting pollution.This book intends to provide the reader with the latest aspects on grasses and grassland for the well-being of farming systems.


Synthetic Biology And Metabolic Engineering In Plants And Microbes Part B Metabolism In Plants

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 41
Total Download : 789
File Size : 53,6 Mb
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Description : Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering in Plants and Microbes, Part B, the latest volume in the Methods in Enzymology series, continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers research methods, synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering in plants and microbes, and includes sections on such topics as the usage of integrases in microbial engineering, biosynthesis, and engineering of tryptophan derived metabolites, regulation and discovery of fungal natural products, and elucidation and localization of plant pathways. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field of enzymology Contains two volumes covering research methods in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering in plants and microbes Includes sections on such topics as the uses of integrases in microbial engineering, biosynthesis and engineering of tryptophan derived metabolites, regulation and discovery of fungal natural products, and elucidation and localization of plant pathways


Progress In The Chemistry Of Organic Natural Products 104

Author by : A. Douglas Kinghorn
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Total Read : 9
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Description : The first contribution describes apolar and polar molecular fossils and, in particular biomarkers, along the lines usually followed in organic chemistry textbooks, and points to their bioprecursors when available. Thus, the apolar compounds are divided in linear and branched alkanes followed by alicyclic compounds and aromatic and heterocyclic molecules, and, in particular, the geoporphyrins. The polar molecular fossils contain as functional groups or constituent units ethers, alcohols, phenols, carbonyl groups, flavonoids, quinones, and acids, or are polymers like kerogen, amber, melanin, proteins, or nucleic acids. The final sections discuss the methodology used and the fundamental processes encountered by the biomolecules described, including diagenesis, catagenesis, and metagenesis. The second contribution covers the distribution of phthalides in nature and the findings in the structural diversity, chemical reactivity, biotransformations, syntheses, and bioactivity of natural and semisynthetic phthalides.


Biology Of Floral Scent

Author by : Natalia Dudareva
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 65
Total Download : 434
File Size : 52,6 Mb
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Description : As with nearly all living creatures, humans have always been attracted and intrigued by floral scents. Yet, while we have been manufacturing perfumes for at least 5000 years to serve a myriad of religious, sexual, and medicinal purposes, until very recently, the limitation of our olfactory faculty has greatly hindered our capacity to clearly and ob


Natural Product Biosynthesis By Microorganisms And Plants

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 24
Total Download : 953
File Size : 46,8 Mb
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Description : This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial by containing quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. The first of 3 volumes covering Natural product biosynthesis by microorganisms and plants, it has chapters on such topics as Kinetics of plant sesquiterpene synthases, Terpenoid biosynthesis in fungi, and plant Type III polyketide synthases. Contains quality chapters authored by leaders in the field The first of 3 volumes Has chapters on such topics as kinetics of plant sesquiterpene synthases, terpenoid biosynthesis in fungi, and plant Type III polyketide synthases


Therapeutic Use Of Medicinal Plants And Their Extracts Volume 2

Author by : A.N.M. Alamgir
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 38
Total Download : 356
File Size : 44,8 Mb
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Description : This book starts with a general introduction to phytochemistry, followed by chapters on plant constituents, their origins and chemistry, but also discussing animal-, microorganism- and mineral-based drugs. Further chapters cover vitamins, food additives and excipients as well as xenobiotics and poisons. The book also explores the herbal approach to disease management and molecular pharmacognosy and introduces methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant constituents. Phytochemicals are classified as primary (e.g. carbohydrates, lipids, amino acid derivations, etc.) or secondary (e.g. alkaloids, terpenes and terpenoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides, etc.) metabolites according to their metabolic route of origin, chemical structure and function. A wide variety of primary and secondary phytochemicals are present in medicinal plants, some of which are active phytomedicines and some of which are pharmaceutical excipients.


Engineering A Novel Pathway For Isoprenoid Synthesis

Author by : Alkiviadis Orfefs Chatzivasileiou
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 46
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Description : Isoprenoids comprise a large class of chemicals, of significant interest due to their diverse properties. Most isoprenoids are plant secondary metabolites and are of commercial importance due to their varied applications in fields spanning medicine, agriculture, flavors, fragrances, cosmetics and nutrition. Biological production of isoprenoids in microbes is considered to be the most efficient and commercially viable way for their large-scale production. Thus far, isoprenoid biosynthesis has been performed through pathways inextricably linked to glycolysis. Furthermore, these pathways are inherently limited due to their extensive cofactor requirements, complex regulation and large number of steps. In this thesis we present a novel pathway for isoprenoid synthesis, the Isopentenol Utilization Pathway (IUP), which aims to overcome these limitations. This pathway functions through the double phosphorylation of an isopentenol, either isoprenol or prenol, to produce the main precursors to isoprenoid synthesis, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). This pathway is radically different from naturally-occurring pathways or their engineered variants because it is only two steps long, uses an externally-provided isoprenol as its substrate instead of a glucose-derived catabolite, and uses only a single co-factor, ATP. We identify suitable enzymes, construct the pathway and proceed to demonstrate an in vivo proof of concept. After optimizing the pathway feedstock, we proceed to show that IUP is decoupled from central carbon metabolism. We demonstrate that the IUP can quickly produce copious amounts of IPP & DMAPP and can be used for the production of a variety of isoprenoids. The IUP flux exceeded the capacity of almost all downstream pathways tested, was competitive with the highest isoprenoid fluxes reported as well as against state-of-the art isoprenoid pathways. Furthermore, we elaborate on our progress towards improving the capacity of a downstream farnesene synthesis pathway, to catch up with and fully utilize IUP's production capacity. Finally, we propose a new scheme for the use of the IUP to produce functionalized isoprenoids using functionalized isopentenols to introduce functionalizations in isoprenoid backbones, and we show preliminary results of this application.


Engineering Microbial Metabolism For Chemical Synthesis Reviews And Perspectives

Author by : Yan Yajun
Languange : en
Publisher by : World Scientific
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
Total Download : 162
File Size : 44,9 Mb
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Description : Microbial metabolism refers to how microbes obtain energy and nutrients needed to live and reproduce. Its uses in chemical synthesis are multiple, and, when engineered, can provide reliable and reproducible reactions for application in industrial or biogeochemical processes. This book provides expert reviews and perspectives on how to engineer microbial metabolism for chemical synthesis. Major metabolic pathways or networks in microbial systems, including glycolysis, citric acid and photosynthesis, are briefly summarized. Following this, the metabolic engineering efforts of extending these pathways and networks for the biosynthesis of various chemicals are reviewed with the emphasis on the biochemical reactions and engineering strategies. The potential of these pathways for further metabolic engineering are also discussed. From graduate to professional level, cellular metabolism and metabolic engineering applications are introduced to the readers gradually and systematically, making it perfect for students, researchers and practitioners of chemistry, biochemistry and metabolic engineering. Contents: Glycolysis and Its Metabolic Engineering Applications (Jian Wang and Yajun Yan)Citric Acid Cycle and Its Metabolic Engineering Applications (Jia Wang and Xiaolin Shen)Amino Acid Biosynthesis and Its Metabolic Engineering Applications (Yi-Xin Huo)Fatty Acid Biosynthesis and Its Metabolic Engineering Applications (Yi Liu and Tiangang Liu)Photosynthesis and Its Metabolic Engineering Applications (Jason T Ku and Ethan I Lan)Pentose Phosphate Pathway and Its Metabolic Engineering Applications (Ying Wang and Chun Li)Mevalonate/2-Methylerythritol 4-Phosphate Pathways and Their Metabolic Engineering Applications (Xinxiao Sun and Qipeng Yuan)Xylose Metabolism and Its Metabolic Engineering Applications (Maria K McClintock and Kechun Zhang)Engineering Metabolism for the Synthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Biopolymers (Guo-Qiang Chen and Xiao-Ran Jiang) Readership: Graduate students, researchers and practitioners of chemistry, biochemistry and metabolic engineering. Keywords: Microbial Metabolism;Chemical Synthesis;Biosynthesis;Biochemical Reactions;Photosynthesis;Metabolic Engineering;Cellular Metabolism;GlycolysisReview:0