Description : Did you ever read something on a book, felt the need to comment, took up a pencil and scribbled something on the books’ text’? If you did, you just annotated a book. But that process has now become something fundamental and revolutionary in these days of computing. Annotation is all about adding further information to text, pictures, movies and even to physical objects. In practice, anything which can be identified either virtually or physically can be annotated. In this book, we will delve into what makes annotations, and analyse their significance for the future evolutions of the web. We will explain why it was thought to be unreasonable to annotate documents manually and how Web 2.0 is making us rethink our beliefs. We will have a look at tools which make use of Artificial Intelligence techniques to support people in the annotation task. Behind these tools, there exists an important property of the web known as redundancy; we will explain what it is and show how it can be exploited. Finally we will gaze into the crystal ball and see what we might expect to see in the future. Until people understand what the web is all about and its grounding in annotation, people cannot start appreciating it. And until they do so, they cannot start creating the web of the future.
Description : This book and its companion volume, LNCS vols. 7331 and 7332, constitute the Proceedings of the Third International conference on Swarm Intelligence, ICSI 2012, held in Shenzhen, China in June 2012. The 145 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 247 submissions. The papers are organized in 27 cohesive sections covering all major topics of swarm intelligence research and developments.
Description : Although organizational decision-making can be very complex, the understanding of technology applications is significant in not only determining the usefulness of virtual groups in organizations, but also in the designing of electronic collaborative activities. Collaborative Communication Processes and Decision Making in Organizations focuses on the role of technology in organizational decision-making processes and activities, providing academics and management teams with current research in the field of virtual teams in organizations. This publication is an essential resource for instructors and students of organization and group communication, and institutions that have networks of offices and employees in multiple geographical locations.
Description : The four-volume set LNCS 9296-9299 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 15th IFIP TC13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, INTERACT 2015, held in Bamberg, Germany, in September 2015. The 47 papers included in the second volume are organized in topical sections on computer-supported cooperative work and social computing; end-user development; evaluation methods / usability evaluation; eye tracking; gesture interaction; HCI and security; HCI for developing regions and social development; HCI for education.
Description : Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, little research has been done from the perspective of computer science and associated disciplines like machine learning, information theory and neuroscience. This book is a major contribution to such research. Some of the particular topics addressed include: How should we formalise rational decision making of a single imperfect decision maker? Does the answer change for a system of imperfect decision makers? Can we extend existing prescriptive theories for perfect decision makers to make them useful for imperfect ones? How can we exploit the relation of these problems to the control under varying and uncertain resources constraints as well as to the problem of the computational decision making? What can we learn from natural, engineered, and social systems to help us address these issues?
Description : This annotated bibliography lists books and articles that have direct application to managing the human side of knowledge acquisition, transfer, and application. What is meant by the human dimension of knowledge is how motivation and learning affect the acquisition and transfer of knowledge and how group dynamics mediate the role of knowledge in an organization. Thus, the texts cited in this bibliography focus on building knowledge-management (KM) cultures that affect organizational productivity and success. The report is divided into four sections. Section one contains annotations of 60 works that represent current thinking on the emerging field of KM. The next three sections organize information into those subject areas most frequently addressed by people responsible for organizational transformation efforts. Section two, "What is Knowledge Management?" sums up varying working understandings of KM and shows how KM differs from purely technology-driven data management. This section addresses the differences between explicit and tacit knowledge and their derivations and also gives examples of KM efforts in contemporary organizations. Section three explores the frameworks that apply to culture building, and section four identifies projects and tools that can enhance success. An appendix outlines additional resources, with a focus on the World Wide Web. (Contains three indices.) (RJM)
Description : The volume consists of twenty-five chapters selected from among peer-reviewed papers presented at the CELDA (Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age) 2013 Conference held in Fort Worth, Texas, USA, in October 2013 and also from world class scholars in e-learning systems, environments and approaches. The following sub-topics are included: Exploratory Learning Technologies (Part I), e-Learning social web design (Part II), Learner communities through e-Learning implementations (Part III), Collaborative and student-centered e-Learning design (Part IV). E-Learning has been, since its initial stages, a synonym for flexibility. While this dynamic nature has mainly been associated with time and space it is safe to argue that currently it embraces other aspects such as the learners’ profile, the scope of subjects that can be taught electronically and the technology it employs. New technologies also widen the range of activities and skills developed in e-Learning. Electronic learning environments have evolved past the exclusive delivery of knowledge. Technology has endowed e-Learning with the possibility of remotely fomenting problem solving skills, critical thinking and team work, by investing in information exchange, collaboration, personalisation and community building.
Description : Current language technology is dominated by approaches that either enumerate a large set of rules, or are focused on a large amount of manually labelled data. The creation of both is time-consuming and expensive, which is commonly thought to be the reason why automated natural language understanding has still not made its way into “real-life” applications yet. This book sets an ambitious goal: to shift the development of language processing systems to a much more automated setting than previous works. A new approach is defined: what if computers analysed large samples of language data on their own, identifying structural regularities that perform the necessary abstractions and generalisations in order to better understand language in the process? After defining the framework of Structure Discovery and shedding light on the nature and the graphic structure of natural language data, several procedures are described that do exactly this: let the computer discover structures without supervision in order to boost the performance of language technology applications. Here, multilingual documents are sorted by language, word classes are identified, and semantic ambiguities are discovered and resolved without using a dictionary or other explicit human input. The book concludes with an outlook on the possibilities implied by this paradigm and sets the methods in perspective to human computer interaction. The target audience are academics on all levels (undergraduate and graduate students, lecturers and professors) working in the fields of natural language processing and computational linguistics, as well as natural language engineers who are seeking to improve their systems.
Description : This book contains a collection of thoroughly refereed papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, ENASE 2010, held in Athens, Greece, in July 2010. The 19 revised and extended full papers were carefully selected from 70 submissions. They cover a wide range of topics, such as quality and metrics; service and Web engineering; process engineering; patterns, reuse and open source; process improvement; aspect-oriented engineering; and requirements engineering.