Labour Conditions In Asian Value Chains

Author by : Dev Nathan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 81
Total Download : 424
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Description : ""Brings together a set of studies of labour conditions in GVCs - in labour-intensive sectors, medium- and high-technology sectors and knowledge-intensive sectors"--Provided by publisher"--


Development With Global Value Chains

Author by : Dev Nathan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 87
Total Download : 110
File Size : 46,8 Mb
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Description : Examines upgradation and innovation by firms in GVCs through case studies of China, India, South Korea, the Philippines and Sri Lanka.


Towards Better Work

Author by : A. Rossi
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
Total Download : 685
File Size : 40,5 Mb
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Description : Globalization of production has created opportunities and challenges for developing country producers and workers. This volume provides solutions-oriented approaches for promoting improved working conditions and labour rights in the apparel industry.


Labour In Global Value Chains In Asia

Author by : Dev Nathan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 13
Total Download : 969
File Size : 53,5 Mb
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Description : This book brings together a set of studies on labour conditions in global value chains (GVCs) in a variety of sectors, ranging from labour-intensive sectors (garments, fresh fruits, tourism), to medium and high technology sectors (automobiles, electronics and telecom) and knowledge-intensive sectors (IT software services). The studies span a number of countries across Asia - Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. This book stands out for its grounded and detailed examination of both what is working and what is not working as Asian labour gets more embedded in global value chains. In trying to identify spaces for progressive action and policies in the current GVC-linked global work environment, the book goes against the grain in searching for an alternative to laissez faire forms of globalisation.


Global Value Chains And Global Production Networks

Author by : Jeffrey Neilson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 16
Total Download : 877
File Size : 43,8 Mb
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Description : The global economic system is experiencing a profound period of rapid change. The emergence of globalised production and distribution systems, which bring together diverse constellations of economic actors through a complex regime of global corporate governance, state regulation and new international divisions of labour, demands corresponding and innovative explanatory models. Global value chains (GVCs) and global production networks (GPNs) have been particularly useful as conceptual frameworks for understanding the global market engagement of firms, regions and nations. This book examines the rise of GVCs and GPNs as dominant features of the international political economy. It brings together leading thinkers in the field and sets out new directions for future scholarship in understanding the contemporary global economic system. In doing so, this book makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the international political economy and the global economic system in the post-Washington Consensus era of contemporary capitalism. This book was published as a special issue of the Review of International Political Economy.


Labor Global Supply Chains And The Garment Industry In South Asia

Author by : Sanchita Saxena
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 84
Total Download : 529
File Size : 45,8 Mb
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Description : This book argues that larger flaws in the global supply chain must first be addressed to change the way business is conducted to prevent factory owners from taking deadly risks to meet clients’ demands in the garment industry in Bangladesh. Using the 2013 Rana Plaza disaster as a departure point, and to prevent such tragedies from occurring in the future, this book presents an interdisciplinary analysis to address the disaster which resulted in a radical change in the functioning of the garment industry. The chapters present innovative ways of thinking about solutions that go beyond third-party monitoring. They open up possibilities for a renewed engagement of international brands and buyers within the garment sector, a focus on direct worker empowerment using technology, the role of community-based movements, developing a model of change through enforceable contracts combined with workers movements, and a more productive and influential role for both factory owners and the government. This book makes key interventions and rethinks the approaches that have been taken until now and proposes suggestions for the way forward. It engages with international brands, the private sector, and civil society to strategize about the future of the industry and for those who depend on it for their livelihood. A much-needed review and evaluation of the many initiatives that have been set up in Bangladesh in the wake of Rana Plaza, this book is a valuable addition to academics in the fields of development studies, gender and women’s studies, human rights, poverty and practice, political science, economics, sociology, anthropology, and South Asian studies.


Production Networks In Southeast Asia

Author by : Lili Yan Ing
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 14
Total Download : 770
File Size : 51,5 Mb
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Description : This book answers the recently topical questions of how China’s processed trade affects the trade of Southeast Asia. What is Southeast Asia’s role in Factory Asia, the region’s complex of cross-border supply chains? What is Southeast Asia’s involvement in building or joining production networks in the region? And, most important, how can Southeast Asia increase the value added of its products and improve its competitiveness? This book provides rigorous analysis of how trade policy affects value added, highly disaggregated at the firm and product level, of the six Southeast Asian countries – Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Viet Nam – and combines this with thorough examinations of their trade, industrial and labour policies.


Asian Economic Integration In An Era Of Global Uncertainty

Author by : Shiro Armstrong
Languange : en
Publisher by : ANU Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 46
Total Download : 469
File Size : 42,6 Mb
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Description : The Pacific Trade and Development (PAFTAD) conference series has been at the forefront of analysing challenges facing the economies of East Asia and the Pacific since its first meeting in Tokyo in January 1968. The 38th PAFTAD conference met at a key time to consider international economic integration. Earlier in the year, the people of the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union and the United States elected Donald Trump as their next president on the back of an inward-looking ‘America First’ promise. Brexit and President Trump represent a growing, and worrying, trend towards protectionism in the North Atlantic countries that have led the process of globalisation since the end of the Second World War. The chapters in the volume describe the state of play in Asian economic integration but, more importantly, look forward to the region’s future, and the role it might play in defending the global system that has underwritten its historic rise. Asia has the potential to stand as a bulwark against the dual threats of North Atlantic protectionism and slowing trade growth, but collective leadership will be needed regionally and difficult domestic reforms will be required in each country.


Industrial Policy Challenges For India

Author by : Smitha Francis
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 83
Total Download : 588
File Size : 48,8 Mb
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Description : This book looks at the debates on global value chains (GVCs) and free trade agreements (FTAs) as springboards for industrial development in developing countries, especially India. It connects the outcomes in GVC-led industrial restructuring and upgrading to industrial policy choices in trade and FDI liberalisation, in particular those through FTAs. With the share of manufacturing in GDP stagnant at around 15–16% since the 1980s, India’s policymakers have pinned their hopes on greater integration into GVCs to revitalise the manufacturing sector. The multiple FTAs the country has signed over the last few years, specifically the ones with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), South Korea, Malaysia and Japan have been sought to be rationalised using the same argument. The book argues that failing to factor in the industrial policy causalities involved in sustainable indigenous technology development, structural barriers to the entry into GVCs, the assessments of the available evidence on the impact of existing FTAs and FDI liberalisation on firm-level incentives for domestic production, and the industrial policy constraints imposed by FTAs can prove costly for the trajectories of developing country economies, including India. Rich in data, this book will be useful to scholars and researchers of development economics, economics in general, development studies and public policy as well as government bodies, industry experts and policymakers.


Global Value Chains And The Missing Links

Author by : Saon Ray
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 36
Total Download : 657
File Size : 53,6 Mb
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Description : Global value chains (GVCs) are fraught with the phenomenon of fragmentation and dispersion of production across the world. India presents a unique example with its high potential in manufacturing capability but low integration in GVCs. This book examines the reasons why India has failed to integrate within GVCs so far and looks at key examples to understand the impediments in this process. The chapters bring together case studies from across the manufacturing industry – labour-intensive (garment, paper and diamond), capital-intensive (automobile and petrochemical), and knowledge-intensive (semi-conductor microchip, chemical and pharmaceutical) sectors. Together, they present stories of successful integration of some firms in GVCs as well as the difficulties faced by them. The volume also highlights the importance of GVCs in the context of developing countries in terms of benefits such as income and value generation, knowledge and technology collaborations, and advances in systems and processes. This book will interest scholars and researchers in economics, international trade studies, development economics and business management as well as to practitioners, policymakers, government officials, and those in the corporate sector.


The New Offshoring Of Jobs And Global Development

Author by : Gary Gereffi
Languange : en
Publisher by : International Labour Organization
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 17
Total Download : 408
File Size : 52,5 Mb
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Description : Using the global value chains perspective, looks at how offshore outsourcing affects the quantity and quality of jobs in the global economy.


The Intangible Economy

Author by : Deborah K. Elms
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 66
Total Download : 298
File Size : 51,6 Mb
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Description : "Highlights the evolution and significance of services in the global economy, including as a vehicle for development"--Provided by publisher.


International Trade And Global Civil Society

Author by : Dev Nathan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 60
Total Download : 503
File Size : 47,6 Mb
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Description : This study challenges the dominant tendency of civil society to negate international trade as such. The authors argue that it is necessary to frame differentiated trade rules based on levels of economic development, and also to shift from subsidies to shore up uncompetitive livelihoods to productivity-enhancing investments.Most importantly, the book ends with a case for trade unions, women's organizations and other civil society organizations to imagine and create themselves as being global -- in order to take up the challenge of strengthening global countervailing power to capital.


Global Value Chains And Developing Country Employment

Author by : Ben Shepherd
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 88
Total Download : 109
File Size : 50,5 Mb
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Description : This paper provides a review of the available literature on global value chains (GVCs) and employment markets in developing countries. Due to the difficulty of observing intra-GVC transactions, there is very little direct empirical work on GVCs and labour markets. However, it is possible to extrapolate from the extensive empirical work already undertaken on firm internationalisation and labour markets to draw inferences as to the likely impacts of GVCs. The review therefore focuses on the labour market impacts of three processes that lie at the core of GVC development: importing, exporting, and foreign direct investment (FDI). It examines their impact on labour demand and wages, and disaggregates the effects whenever possible by skill level. The available empirical evidence strongly suggests that the type of activities undertaken by GVC participants influence labour market outcomes. For instance, many GVC firms are vectors of technological upgrading that in turn increases the relative demand for skilled labour. In these cases, GVC participation is linked to higher relative wages for skilled workers, but also greater wage inequality between skilled and unskilled workers. The evidence on outcomes is more mixed as regards pure processing trade (assembly), however: the limited data available on firms engaged purely in these activities suggests that they do not systematically pay higher wages than domestic firms, which is the reverse of the finding for foreign-owned firms, exporters, and importers in general. The labour market effects of GVCs in developing countries are therefore likely to be broadly positive, but highly case specific. The review therefore concludes with two case studies--electronics in Asia and services in Chile--that demonstrate the complexity of the issues involved, and the role of complementary policies in areas such as human capital development.


Production Networks And Industrial Clusters

Author by : Ikuo Kuroiwa
Languange : en
Publisher by : Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 71
Total Download : 510
File Size : 50,9 Mb
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Description : Explains how production networks and industrial clusters have played crucial roles in the industrial development of Indonesia and Malaysia (electronics industry), Singapore (biomedical science industry), and Thailand (automotive industry).


Manufacturing And Jobs In South Asia

Author by : Sachin Chaturvedi
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 78
Total Download : 361
File Size : 44,9 Mb
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Description : This book analyzes the structural factors that underlie the persistent mass poverty and extreme inequality in South Asian countries. It highlights the fact that the supposed trade-off between output growth and job creation is a false dilemma. Growth can create jobs, and jobs can drive growth, mutually reinforcing one another. Increased employment and better jobs would mitigate the problems arising from a widening inequality gap. The book argues that policies focused on employment generation, mostly through industrialization, are the way forward in terms of providing livelihoods, sustaining growth and reducing inequality. The book is divided into two main parts. Part A explores cases in selected countries in South Asia in detail, primarily focusing on the opportunities and challenges of job creation in the manufacturing sector, as well as related issues, including constraints on manufacturing-sector growth in South Asia, exports and trade linkages, participation in value chains and the role of investment. In turn, Part B addresses a number of aspects that can promote a deeper understanding of strategies for industrialization and employment creation in the South Asian context, including regional cooperation, skill development, and industrial competitiveness. Gathering contributions from some of the region’s top minds, this book is of interest to scholars, researchers, policymakers and industry analysts alike.


Integrating Smes Into Global Value Chains

Author by : ADBI
Languange : en
Publisher by : Brookings Institution Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 96
Total Download : 503
File Size : 41,9 Mb
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Description : Globalized production networks, or global value chains, provide an opportunity for SMEs to upscale their business models and to grow across borders. This process can enhance SME competitiveness, create more jobs, and promote inclusive growth in developing Asia. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the ADB Institute (ADBI) recognize the importance of integrating SMEs into global value chains. To provide pathways for such integration, this study examines ways of encouraging participation in value chains, and explores policy solutions to address the financial and nonfinancial barriers faced by these enterprises.


Global Value Chains In A Postcrisis World

Author by : Olivier Cattaneo
Languange : en
Publisher by : World Bank Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
Total Download : 511
File Size : 50,7 Mb
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Description : This book looks to address the following questions in a post-crisis world: How have lead firms responded to the crisis? Have they changed their traditional supply chain strategy and relocated and/or outsourced part of their production? How will those changes affect developing countries? What should be the policy responses to these changes?


Gender And Work In Global Value Chains

Author by : Stephanie Barrientos
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 9
Total Download : 476
File Size : 45,8 Mb
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Description : This book focuses on the changing gender patterns of work in a global retail environment associated with the rise of contemporary retail and global sourcing. This has affected the working lives of hundreds of millions of workers in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The growth of contemporary retail has been driven by the commercialised production of many goods previously produced unpaid by women within the home. Sourcing is now largely undertaken through global value chains in low- or middle-income economies, using a 'cheap' feminised labour force to produce low-price goods. As women have been drawn into the labour force, households are increasingly dependent on the purchase of food and consumer goods, blurring the boundaries between paid and unpaid work. This book examines how gendered patterns of work have changed and explores the extent to which global retail opens up new channels to leverage more gender-equitable gains in sourcing countries.


Geopolitics Supply Chains And International Relations In East Asia

Author by : Etel Solingen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 922
File Size : 54,8 Mb
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Description : An accessible overview of political, economic, and strategic dimensions of global supply chains in a changing global political economy.


The Local Impact Of Globalization In South And Southeast Asia

Author by : Bart Lambregts
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 63
Total Download : 206
File Size : 45,9 Mb
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Description : In the past two decades, several millions of IT-enabled services jobs have been relocated or ‘offshored’ from the US and Europe to, in particular, low cost economies around the world. Most of these jobs so far have landed in South and South-East Asia, with India and the Philippines receiving the bulk of them. This has caused profound changes in the international division of labour, and has had correspondingly wide social and economic effects. This book examines how this ‘next wave in globalization’ affects people and places in South and South-East Asia. It brings together twelve case studies from India, the Philippines, China, Hong Kong and Thailand, and explores how and for whom services offshoring creates opportunities, triggers local economic transformations and produces challenges. This book in addition compares how different countries take part in this ‘second global shift’, investigates service-sector driven economic development from a historical perspective, and engages with the question whether and to what extent services offer a new promising avenue of sustained economic growth for developing countries. It argues that service-led development in developing countries is not easy for all the workers involved, or a guaranteed path to sustained economic development and prosperity. This volume stands out from other books in the field in its exploration of the social and economic outcomes in the cities and countries where services have been located. Based on cutting edge empirical research and original data, the volume offers a state-of-the-art contribution to this growing debate. The book provides valuable insights for students, scholars and professionals interested in services offshoring, socio-economic development and contemporary transformations in South and South-East Asia.


Value Chains Social Inclusion And Economic Development

Author by : A.H.J. (Bert) Helmsing
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 80
Total Download : 821
File Size : 54,7 Mb
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Description : Lead firms, development organisations, donors and governments view value chains and voluntary standards as vital instruments for achieving millennium development goals through trade and market-related interventions. The precise foundations for these development strategies, which suggest positive development outcomes from integration of poor actors into value chains, are as yet underdeveloped. The interdisciplinary work in this volume shows how trade is managed and asks theory-driven questions about how value chains relate to locally-rooted development processes. Policy makers and development practitioners are increasingly using value chain analysis to frame pro-poor development interventions. This book offers multiple conceptualizations of development outcomes of inclusion of small producers, firms and workers in value chains. Processes of inclusion at different scales are unpacked in order to identify the terms of participation of small producers, firms and workers. As value chains are embedded, the book further argues that inclusion can be conceptualized as the degree of alignment between value chain logics and the institutions and capacities in the local business system. The combination of inclusive governance and endogenous development informs a grounded debate on roles of development-oriented partnerships. Chapters in this volume draw on multiple strands of economics, sociology, political science, geography and management studies; and for empirical grounding engage in comparative analysis of cases from Latin America, SubSaharan Africa and East and South East Asia. These are combined with processes taking place at a global level, such as the proliferation of standards and the growth of roundtables and multi-stakeholder partnerships. The contributions explore contrasts – between contexts, between industries or commodities/products, and between conceptual frameworks; and the context dependency of development impact necessitates cross-case investigations. This collection will be of interest to scholars in development studies, economics, business studies, as well as to development policy makers.


Handbook On Global Value Chains

Author by : Stefano Ponte
Languange : en
Publisher by : Edward Elgar Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 91
Total Download : 998
File Size : 45,7 Mb
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Description : Global value chains (GVCs) are a key feature of the global economy in the 21st century. They show how international investment and trade create cross-border production networks that link countries, firms and workers around the globe. This Handbook describes how GVCs arise and vary across industries and countries, and how they have evolved over time in response to economic and political forces. With chapters written by leading interdisciplinary scholars, the Handbook unpacks the key concepts of GVC governance and upgrading, and explores policy implications for advanced and developing economies alike. p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 10.0px Arial}


Routledge Handbook Of Human Resource Management In Asia

Author by : Fang Lee Cooke
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 16
Total Download : 440
File Size : 55,7 Mb
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Description : Human Resource Management (HRM) is fundamentally shaped by institutional and cultural factors, such as the different political environments and social philosophies of particular countries and regions. By examining the various organizational aspects of business life and systems of people management in Asia, the study of HRM across the continent can, therefore, give us a greater understanding of Asian societies, as well as the contemporary world of work more generally. This handbook provides an up-to-date and intellectually engaging overview of HRM in the Asian context. Distinctive in its comprehensive coverage of traditional as well as emerging topics of HRM, it analyzes important themes, such as the regulatory framework for work and employment, religiosity, family business, and gender. Using a comparative approach, it also effectively highlights the unique features of each country’s attitudes towards HRM. Covering a range of themes and case studies, sections include: • Institutional and cultural contexts, • Labour regulation and industrial relations, • Thematic and functional HRM, • HRM in selected Asian countries, such as China, Japan, Vietnam, India, and Singapore. Written in a highly accessible style, this book will be useful to students and scholars of Human Resource Management, Asian Business, Economics, and Sociology.


Global Value Chains And Development

Author by : Gary Gereffi
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 28
Total Download : 160
File Size : 44,6 Mb
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Description : Studies conceptual foundations of GVC analysis, twin pillars of 'governance' and 'upgrading', and detailed cases of emerging economies.


Transnational Legal Activism In Global Value Chains

Author by : Miriam Saage-Maaß
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Nature
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 95
Total Download : 547
File Size : 45,6 Mb
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Description : This open access book documents and analyses the various interventions – legal, political, and even artistic – that followed the Ali Enterprises factory fire in Karachi, Pakistan, in 2012. It illuminates the different substantive and procedural aspects of the legal proceedings and negotiations between the various local and transnational actors implicated in the Ali Enterprises fire, as well as the legal and policy reforms sparked by the incident. This endeavour serves to embed these legal cases and reform efforts in the larger context of human and labour rights protection and global value chain governance. It also offers a concrete case study relevant for ongoing debates around the role of transnational approaches in making human rights litigation, advocacy, and law reform more effective. In this regard, the book interrogates and critically reflects on such legal campaigns and local and transnational reform work with a view to future transformative legal and social activism.


The Contest For Value In Global Value Chains

Author by : Nachum, Lilac
Languange : en
Publisher by : Edward Elgar Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 76
Total Download : 974
File Size : 41,5 Mb
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Description : Who captures the value created in global supply chains? How should gaps in value capture among participants be amended and by whom? Focusing on the global apparel supply chain and employing value creation as a yardstick for evaluation of value capture, the book documents distortions in value distribution among global brands, manufacturers, labor, and consumers. It develops a novel approach for correcting for these distortions by creating a market for social justice that is based on interdependence relationships among the participants.


Plugging Into Production Networks

Author by : Ikuo Kuroiwa
Languange : en
Publisher by : Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 596
File Size : 54,9 Mb
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Description : This work focuses on how less developed economies in Southeast Asia, namely Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam (CLMV), can establish links with neighbouring countries and participate in production networks. It also takes a look at links between Singapore and the Batam-Bintan-Karimun (BBK) Special Economic Zone in Indonesia. Leading Southeast Asian economies have achieved rapid economic growth by participating in production networks organized by multinational enterprises. It is thus crucial for less developed economies in Southeast Asia to improve their investment climate, attract foreign direct investment, and form competitive industrial clusters. Service link costs must also be reduced substantially to make production fragmentation economically feasible. The authors in this book discuss these issues and provide policy recommendations.


Labour In The Circuits Of Global Markets

Author by : Ursula Huws
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 21
Total Download : 410
File Size : 48,6 Mb
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Description : Supply chains are becoming ever more tightly integrated as corporations vie with each other to bring their products to global markets before they lose their value through replication or obsolescence. This restructuring of supply chains involves the interaction of a range of different public and private, local and global actors, including companies


Emerging Economies And Challenges To Sustainability

Author by : Arve Hansen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 64
Total Download : 173
File Size : 54,9 Mb
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Description : The rise of emerging economies represents a challenge to traditional global power balances and raises the question of how we can combine sustainability with continued economic growth. Understanding this global shift and its impact on the environment is the paramount contemporary challenge for development-oriented researchers and policy makers alike. This book breaks new ground by combining scholarship on the role of emerging economies with research on sustainable development. The book investigates how the development strategies of emerging economies challenge traditional development theory and sustainability discourses. With regional introductions and original case studies from South Asia, East Asia, Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, it discusses how to conceptualise sustainable development in the global race for economic prosperity. What characterises the development strategies of emerging economies, and what challenges are these posing for global sustainable development? How can emerging economies shed light on the global challenges, dilemmas and paradoxes of the relationship between socio-economic improvements and environmental degradation? This book will be a valuable resource for researchers and postgraduates in development studies, geography, economics and environmental studies.