Landslides in Practice

Landslides in Practice
Author: Derek Cornforth
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
Total Pages: 596
Release: 2005-02-25
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Landslides in Practice Book Excerpt:

The authoritative guide to landslide investigation, evaluation, and mitigation design Landslides in Practice combines clearly written descriptions and real-life case histories in an authoritative, practical guide to landslide investigation, evaluation, and mitigation design. It presents state-of-the-art investigative techniques and practical information on proven remediation techniques and technologies, including handy checklists for undertaking an initial field examination of a landslide. Landslides in Practice describes the technical tools needed to study landslides—site investigations, soil shear strength properties, and slope stability analyses—and details forty-five methods for stabilizing landslides or preventing instability in soils from occurring. Most remediation techniques are keyed to the ENR Construction Cost Index to help readers determine a rough estimate of the costs associated with the various techniques. To-the-point summaries explain presented techniques without confusing jargon, and dozens of succinct case histories integrated throughout the book serve as useful examples. In addition, twelve expanded case histories illustrate in depth many aspects of the landslide events and remediation strategies covered. Complete with hundreds of informative illustrations, Landslides in Practice is a valuable resource for engineers, geologists, consulting firms, and construction companies, as well as landscape architects, land developers, and trial lawyers in the construction industry.

Landslides and Engineered Slopes Experience Theory and Practice

Landslides and Engineered Slopes  Experience  Theory and Practice
Author: Stefano Aversa,Leonardo Cascini,Luciano Picarelli,Claudio Scavia
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 2224
Release: 2018-04-17
ISBN: 1498788076
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Landslides and Engineered Slopes Experience Theory and Practice Book Excerpt:

Landslides and Engineered Slopes. Experience, Theory and Practice contains the invited lectures and all papers presented at the 12th International Symposium on Landslides, (Naples, Italy, 12-19 June 2016). The book aims to emphasize the relationship between landslides and other natural hazards. Hence, three of the main sessions focus on Volcanic-induced landslides, Earthquake-induced landslides and Weather-induced landslides respectively, while the fourth main session deals with Human-induced landslides. Some papers presented in a special session devoted to "Subareal and submarine landslide processes and hazard” and in a “Young Session” complete the books. Landslides and Engineered Slopes. Experience, Theory and Practice underlines the importance of the classic approach of modern science, which moves from experience to theory, as the basic instrument to study landslides. Experience is the key to understand the natural phenomena focusing on all the factors that play a major role. Theory is the instrument to manage the data provided by experience following a mathematical approach; this allows not only to clarify the nature and the deep causes of phenomena but mostly, to predict future and, if required, manage similar events. Practical benefits from the results of theory to protect people and man-made works. Landslides and Engineered Slopes. Experience, Theory and Practice is useful to scientists and practitioners working in the areas of rock and soil mechanics, geotechnical engineering, engineering geology and geology.

Geotechnical Slope Analysis

Geotechnical Slope Analysis
Author: Robin Chowdhury,Phil Flentje,Gautam Bhattacharya
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 738
Release: 2009-11-18
ISBN: 1135192103
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Geotechnical Slope Analysis Book Excerpt:

Freshly updated and extended version of Slope Analysis (Chowdhury, Elsevier, 1978). This reference book gives a complete overview of the developments in slope engineering in the last 30 years. Its multi-disciplinary, critical approach and the chapters devoted to seismic effects and probabilistic approaches and reliability analyses, reflect the distinctive style of the original. Subjects discussed are: the understanding of slope performance, mechanisms of instability, requirements for modeling and analysis, and new techniques for observation and modeling. Special attention is paid to the relation with the increasing frequency and consequences of natural and man-made hazards. Strategies and methods for assessing landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk are also explored. Moreover, the relevance of geotechnical analysis of slopes in the context of climate change scenarios is discussed. All theory is supported by numerous examples. ''...A wonderful book on Slope Stability....recommended as a refernence book to those who are associated with the geotechnical engineering profession (undergraduates, post graduates and consulting engineers)...'' Prof. Devendra Narain Singh, Indian Inst. of Technology, Mumbai, India ''I have yet to see a book that excels the range and depth of Geotechnical Slope Analysis... I have failed to find a topic which is not covered and that makes the book almost a single window outlet for the whole range of readership from students to experts and from theoreticians to practicing engineers...'' Prof. R.K. Bhandari, New Delhi, India

Landslides

Landslides
Author: John J. Clague,Douglas Stead
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 420
Release: 2012-08-23
ISBN: 1107002060
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Landslides Book Excerpt:

A comprehensive, one-stop synthesis of landslide science, for researchers and graduate students in geomorphology, engineering geology and geophysics.

Advancing Culture of Living with Landslides

Advancing Culture of Living with Landslides
Author: Matjaž Mikoš,Željko Arbanas,Yueping Yin,Kyoji Sassa
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 621
Release: 2017-05-16
ISBN: 3319534874
Category: Nature
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advancing Culture of Living with Landslides Book Excerpt:

This volume contains peer-reviewed papers from the Fourth World Landslide Forum organized by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL), the Global Promotion Committee of the International Programme on Landslides (IPL), University of Ljubljana (UL) and Geological Survey of Slovenia in Ljubljana, Slovenia from May 29 to June 2, 2017. The complete collection of papers from the Forum is published in five full-color volumes. This third volume contains the following: • One keynote lecture • Landslide Monitoring and Warning: Monitoring Techniques and Technologies, • Early Warning Systems • Landslide Disasters and Relief: Case Studies, Emergency Measures, First Aid, • Civil Protection Measures • Landslide Mitigation, Remediation and Stabilization: Landslide Protection Works, • Landslide Stabilization And Remediation Measures, Landslide Non-Structural Measures Prof. Matjaž Mikoš is the Forum Chair of the Fourth World Landslide Forum. He is the Vice President of International Consortium on Landslides and President of the Slovenian National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction. Prof. Željko Arbanas is representative of Croatian Landslide Group, member of the International Consortium on Landslides. He is the Head of Geotechnical Chair at Faculty of Civil Engineering University of Rijeka, Croatia and the Assistant Editor-in-Chief of International Journal “Landslides”.“/p> Prof. Yueping Yin is the President of the International Consortium on Landslides and the Chairman of the Committee of Geo-Hazards Prevention of China, and the Chief Geologist of Geo-Hazard Emergency Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources, P.R. China. Prof. Kyoji Sassa is the Founding President of the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL). He is Executive Director of ICL and the Editor-in-Chief of International Journal “Landslides” since its foundation in 2004. IPL (International Programme on Landslides) is a programme of the ICL. The programme is managed by the IPL Global Promotion Committee including ICL and ICL supporting organizations, UNESCO, WMO, FAO, UNISDR, UNU, ICSU, WFEO, IUGS and IUGG. The IPL contributes to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction and the ISDR-ICL Sendai Partnerships 2015–2025.

Landslides Global Risk Preparedness

Landslides  Global Risk Preparedness
Author: Kyoji Sassa,Badaoui Rouhban,Sálvano Briceño,Mauri McSaveney,Bin He
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 387
Release: 2012-08-31
ISBN: 3642220878
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Landslides Global Risk Preparedness Book Excerpt:

This book presents the global landslide risk preparedness implemented through the International Programme on Landslides (IPL). IPL was initiated by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) in 2002, and developed to a joint international programme by the IPL Global Promotion Committee (UNESCO, WMO, FAO, UNISDR, UNU, ICSU and WFEO as well as ICL) through the 2006 Tokyo Action Plan. The materials consists of four parts: Outline of the International Programme on Landslides & IPL Global Promotion Committee; Achievements of major IPL projects in research and capacity building; World Centres of Excellence on Landslide Risk Reduction (WCoEs) and Landslide School Network; Key documents of IPL and ICL including Tokyo Action Plan, Application of ICL, IPL Projects, WCoEs and Landslide School Network

Bridge Engineering Handbook Five Volume Set

Bridge Engineering Handbook  Five Volume Set
Author: Wai-Fah Chen,Lian Duan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 3130
Release: 2014-01-24
ISBN: 1482255030
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bridge Engineering Handbook Five Volume Set Book Excerpt:

Over 140 experts, 14 countries, and 89 chapters are represented in the second edition of the Bridge Engineering Handbook. This extensive collection provides detailed information on bridge engineering, and thoroughly explains the concepts and practical applications surrounding the subject, and also highlights bridges from around the world.Published

Bridge Engineering Handbook

Bridge Engineering Handbook
Author: Wai-Fah Chen,Lian Duan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 386
Release: 2014-01-24
ISBN: 1439852308
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bridge Engineering Handbook Book Excerpt:

Over 140 experts, 14 countries, and 89 chapters are represented in the second edition of the Bridge Engineering Handbook. This extensive collection highlights bridge engineering specimens from around the world, contains detailed information on bridge engineering, and thoroughly explains the concepts and practical applications surrounding the

Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry Third Edition

Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry  Third Edition
Author: Stanley E. Manahan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1264
Release: 2011-03-05
ISBN: 1420052691
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry Third Edition Book Excerpt:

Written by an expert, using the same approach that made the previous two editions so successful, Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry, Third Edition expands the scope of book to include the strongly emerging areas broadly described as sustainability science and technology, including green chemistry and industrial ecology. The new edition includes: Increased emphasis on the applied aspects of environmental chemistry Hot topics such as global warming and biomass energy Integration of green chemistry and sustainability concepts throughout the text More and updated questions and answers, including some that require Internet research Lecturers Pack on CD-ROM with solutions manual, PowerPoint presentations, and chapter figures available upon qualifying course adoptions The book provides a basic course in chemical science, including the fundamentals of organic chemistry and biochemistry. The author uses real-life examples from environmetnal chemistry, green chemistry, and related areas while maintaining brevity and simplicity in his explanation of concepts. Building on this foundation, the book covers environmental chemistry, broadly defined to include sustainability aspects, green chemistry, industrial ecology, and related areas. These chapters are organized around the five environmental spheres, the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, biosphere, and the anthrosphere. The last two chapters discuss analytical chemistry and its relevance to environmental chemistry. Manahan’s clear, concise, and readable style makes the information accessible, regardless of the readers’ level of chemistry knowledge. He demystifies the material for those who need the basics of chemical science for their trade, profession, or study curriculum, as well as for readers who want to have an understanding of the fundamentals of sustainable chemistry in its crucial role in maintaining a livable planet.

Slope Engineering for Mountain Roads

Slope Engineering for Mountain Roads
Author: Gareth J. Hearn
Publsiher: Geological Society of London
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2011
ISBN: 9781862393318
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Slope Engineering for Mountain Roads Book Excerpt:

Provides a complete guide to the study, design, construction and management of landslide and slope engineering measures for mountain roads, with emphasis on low-cost. The geographical focus is on the tropics and sub-tropics, but is also highly relevant to other regions where heavy rain, steep slopes and weak soils and rocks combine to create slope instability. The causes and mechanisms of landslides are described, and the hazards they pose to mountain roads are illustrated. Methods of desk study, field mapping and ground investigation are reviewed and illustrated, with emphasis on geomorphological and engineering geological techniques. The design and construction of alignments, earthworks, drainage, retaining structures, the stabilization of soil slopes and rock slopes, and the control of erosion on slopes and in streams covered. Slope management as part of road maintenance and operation is reviewed, and procedures for risk assessment and works prioritization are described.

Geological Hazards in the UK

Geological Hazards in the UK
Author: D.P. Giles,J.S. Griffiths
Publsiher: Geological Society of London
Total Pages: 490
Release: 2020-06-09
ISBN: 1786204614
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Geological Hazards in the UK Book Excerpt:

The UK is perhaps unique globally in that it presents the full spectrum of geological time, stratigraphy and associated lithologies within its boundaries. With this wide range of geological assemblages comes a wide range of geological hazards, whether they be geophysical (earthquakes, effects of volcanic eruptions, tsunami, landslides), geotechnical (collapsible, compressible, liquefiable, shearing, swelling and shrinking soils), geochemical (dissolution, radon and methane gas hazards) or georesource related (coal, chalk and other mineral extraction). An awareness of these hazards and the risks that they pose is a key requirement of the engineering geologist. The Geological Society considered that a Working Party Report would help to put the study and assessment of geohazards into the wider social context, helping the engineering geologist to better communicate the issues concerning geohazards in the UK to the client and the public. This volume sets out to define and explain these geohazards, to detail their detection, monitoring and management and to provide a basis for further research and understanding.

Environmental Science and Technology

Environmental Science and Technology
Author: Stanley E. Manahan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 647
Release: 2006-10-20
ISBN: 1420003216
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Science and Technology Book Excerpt:

Formally established by the EPA nearly 15 years ago, the concept of green chemistry is beginning to come of age. Although several books cover green chemistry and chemical engineering, none of them transfer green principles to science and technology in general and their impact on the future. Defining industrial ecology, Environmental Science and Technology: A Sustainable Approach to Green Science and Technology provides a general overview of green science and technology and their essential role in ensuring environmental sustainability. Written by a leading expert, the book provides the essential background for understanding green science and technology and how they relate to sustainability. In addition to the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere traditionally covered in environmental science books, this book is unique in recognizing the anthrosphere as a distinct sphere of the environment. The author explains how the anthrosphere can be designed and operated in a manner that does not degrade environmental quality and, in most favorable circumstances, may even enhance it. With the current emphasis shifting from end-of-pipe solutions to pollution prevention and control of resource consumption, green principles are increasingly moving into the mainstream. This book provides the foundation not only for understanding green science and technology, but also for taking its application to the next level.

Disaster Risk Reduction for the Built Environment

Disaster Risk Reduction for the Built Environment
Author: Lee Bosher,Ksenia Chmutina
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2017-04-03
ISBN: 1118921518
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Disaster Risk Reduction for the Built Environment Book Excerpt:

Disaster Risk Reduction for the Built Environment provides a multi-facetted introduction to how a wide range of risk reduction options can be mainstreamed into formal and informal construction decision making processes, so that Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) can become part of the ‘developmental DNA’. The contents highlight the positive roles that practitioners such as civil and structural engineers, urban planners and designers, and architects (to name just a few) can undertake to ensure that disaster risk is addressed when (re)developing the built environment. The book does not set out prescriptive (‘context blind’) solutions to complex problems because such solutions can invariably generate new problems. Instead it raises awareness, and in doing so, inspires a broad range of people to consider DRR in their work or everyday practices. This highly-illustrated text book provides a broad range of examples, case studies and thinking points that can help the reader to consider how DRR approaches might be adapted for differing contexts.

Nodes in Transport Networks Research Data Analysis and Modelling

Nodes in Transport Networks     Research  Data Analysis and Modelling
Author: Elżbieta Macioszek,Nan Kang,Grzegorz Sierpiński
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 199
Release: 2020-01-06
ISBN: 3030391094
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nodes in Transport Networks Research Data Analysis and Modelling Book Excerpt:

The publication delivers numerous valuable guidelines, particularly useful when making decisions related in the subject matter to road and rail nodes located in dense transport networks. The know-how displayed while discussing practical examples as well as the decision making support systems described in the publication will certainly attract the interest of those who daily face the challenge of seeking solutions to the operational and functional problems of transport nodes in contemporary transport networks and systems. This publication is dedicated to local authorities involved in planning and preparation of development strategies for specific transport-related issues (in both urban and regional areas) as well as to representatives of business and industry, being those who participate directly in the implementation of traffic engineering solutions. The guidelines provided in individual chapters of the publication will make it possible to address the given problem in an advanced manner and simplify the choice of appropriate strategies (including those related to synchronisation of road traffic streams, improving the capacity, road traffic safety analysis, evaluation of changes in drivers’ behaviour on account of introducing countdown timers at signal-controlled intersections using UAV data, the influence of the type of traffic organisation on the behaviour of pedestrians at tram line crossings). On the other hand, since the publication also concerns the new approach to theoretical models (including potential places of integration of public transport with the railway network or the speed adviser for pedestrians enabling them to choose the optimal path at signal-controlled intersections), it should also attract the attention of researches and scientists studying this body of problems. The publication entitled "Nodes in transport networks - research, data analysis and modelling" contains selected papers submitted to and presented at the 16th ”Transport Systems. Theory and Practice” Scientific and Technical Conference organized by the Department of Transport Systems and Traffic Engineering at the Faculty of Transport of the Silesian University of Technology. The conference was held on 16-18 September 2019 in Katowice (Poland).

Shear Behavior of Composite Soils

Shear Behavior of Composite Soils
Author: Yanrong Li
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 136
Release: 2016-12-08
ISBN: 1315317699
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Shear Behavior of Composite Soils Book Excerpt:

This book has the purpose of developing an understanding of the factors determining and influencing the shear behavior of soils, with emphasis on composite soils, as they are the most encountered materials in geological and geotechnical engineering in mountainous areas. This objective is reached by examining the soil compressibility, structure of shear zone and its evolution, and water content of shear zone and shear mode of soils together with analyses of the influences of intrinsic properties, e.g. Atterberg limits, particle size distribution, particle shape, and testing conditions, e.g. normal stress and shearing rate. An in-depth review is presented in an approximately chronological order and covers almost all the factors that are believed to influence the mechanical behavior of soils. The equipment and test techniques for shear strength of soils are detailed. The residual shear behavior of composite soil is investigated by means of a systematic laboratory testing program using a large ring shear apparatus and an intermediate direct shear box. The Fast Fourier Transform is employed for the first time to analyze the fluctuations of measured shearstress and discovers the close relationships with both intrinsic properties of soils and testing conditions. Although the book is aimed primarily at researchers in geological and geotechnical engineering, it contains material of interest to students of geology and soil science and also should be a useful reference for practicing engineers faced with composite soils.

Geology Applied to Engineering

Geology Applied to Engineering
Author: Terry R. West,Abdul Shakoor
Publsiher: Waveland Press
Total Pages: 576
Release: 2018-03-19
ISBN: 1478637226
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Geology Applied to Engineering Book Excerpt:

Geology Applied to Engineering bridges the gap between the two fields through its versatile application of the physical aspects of geology to engineering design and construction. The Second Edition elucidates real-world practices, concerns, and issues for today’s engineering geologists and geotechnical engineers. Both undergraduate and graduate students will benefit from the book’s thorough coverage, as will professionals involved in assessing sites for engineering projects, evaluating construction materials, developing water resources, and conducting tests using industry standards. West and Shakoor offer expanded coverage of important topics such as slope stability and ground subsidence and significant fields in engineering geology, such as highways, dams, tunnels, and rock blasting. In order to allow for the diverse backgrounds of geologists and engineers, material on the properties of minerals, rocks, and soil provides a working knowledge of applied geology as a springboard to more comprehensive subjects in engineering. Example problems throughout the text demonstrate the practical applications of soil mechanics, rock weathering and soils, structural geology, groundwater, and geophysics. Thought-provoking and challenging exercises supplement core concepts such as determining shear strength and failure conditions, calculating the depth needed for borings, reading and analyzing maps, and constructing stratigraphic cross sections.

Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering for Protection and Development of Environment and Constructions

Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering for Protection and Development of Environment and Constructions
Author: Francesco Silvestri,Nicola Moraci
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 5946
Release: 2019-07-19
ISBN: 0429632010
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering for Protection and Development of Environment and Constructions Book Excerpt:

Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering for Protection and Development of Environment and Constructions contains invited, keynote and theme lectures and regular papers presented at the 7th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering (Rome, Italy, 17-20 June 2019. The contributions deal with recent developments and advancements as well as case histories, field monitoring, experimental characterization, physical and analytical modelling, and applications related to the variety of environmental phenomena induced by earthquakes in soils and their effects on engineered systems interacting with them. The book is divided in the sections below: Invited papers Keynote papers Theme lectures Special Session on Large Scale Testing Special Session on Liquefact Projects Special Session on Lessons learned from recent earthquakes Special Session on the Central Italy earthquake Regular papers Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering for Protection and Development of Environment and Constructions provides a significant up-to-date collection of recent experiences and developments, and aims at engineers, geologists and seismologists, consultants, public and private contractors, local national and international authorities, and to all those involved in research and practice related to Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering.

Disaster Risk

Disaster Risk
Author: Irasema Alcántara-Ayala,Christopher Gomez,Ksenia Chmutina,Dewald van Niekerk,Emmanuel Raju,Victor Marchezini,Jake Rom Cadag,JC Gaillard
Publsiher: Taylor & Francis
Total Pages: 552
Release: 2022-09-13
ISBN: 1315469596
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Disaster Risk Book Excerpt:

The text offers a comprehensive and unique perspective on disaster risk associated with natural hazards. It covers a wide range of topics, reflecting the most recent debates but also older and pioneering discussions in the academic field of disaster studies as well as in the policy and practical areas of disaster risk reduction (DRR). This book will be of particular interest to undergraduate students studying geography and environmental studies/science. It will also be of relevance to students/professionals from a wide range of social and physical science disciplines, including public health and public policy, sociology, anthropology, political science and geology.

Landslide Science and Practice

Landslide Science and Practice
Author: Claudio Margottini,Paolo Canuti,Kyoji Sassa
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 333
Release: 2013-08-15
ISBN: 3642313132
Category: Nature
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Landslide Science and Practice Book Excerpt:

This book contains peer-reviewed papers from the Second World Landslide Forum, organised by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL), that took place in September 2011. The entire material from the conference has been split into seven volumes, this one is the seventh: 1. Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility and Hazard Zoning, 2. Early Warning, Instrumentation and Monitoring, 3. Spatial Analysis and Modelling, 4. Global Environmental Change, 5. Complex Environment, 6. Risk Assessment, Management and Mitigation, 7. Social and Economic Impact and Policies.

Handbook of Research on Advancements in Environmental Engineering

Handbook of Research on Advancements in Environmental Engineering
Author: Gaurina-Medjimurec, Nediljka
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 660
Release: 2014-11-30
ISBN: 1466673370
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Research on Advancements in Environmental Engineering Book Excerpt:

The protection of clean water, air, and land for the habitation of humans and other organisms has become a pressing concern amid the intensification of industrial activities and the rapidly growing world population. The integration of environmental science with engineering principles has been introduced as a means of long-term sustainable development. The Handbook of Research on Advancements in Environmental Engineering creates awareness of the role engineering plays in protecting and improving the natural environment. Providing the latest empirical research findings, this book is an essential reference source for executives, educators, and other experts who seek to improve their project's environmental costs.