Latin American Economic Outlook 2011 How Middle Class Is Latin America

Author by : OECD
Languange : en
Publisher by : OECD Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Description : This year's Latin American Economic Outlook includes a macroeconomic overview of the ongoing economic recovery from the global financial crisis as well as an in-depth report on the middle class in Latin America.


Latin America S Emerging Middle Classes

Author by : J. Dayton-Johnson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 22
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Description : Politicians, business leaders and citizens look with hope to the Latin American middle class for political stability and purchasing power, but the economic position of the middle class remains vulnerable. The contributors document the remarkable emergence of this middle group in Latin America, whose measurement turns out not to be an easy task.


Latin American Economic Outlook 2019 Development In Transition

Author by : OECD
Languange : en
Publisher by : OECD Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 86
Total Download : 201
File Size : 48,5 Mb
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Description : The Latin American Economic Outlook 2019: Development in Transition (LEO 2019) presents a fresh analytical approach in the region. It assesses four development traps relating to productivity, social vulnerability, institutions and the environment.


Latin American Economic Outlook 2017 Youth Skills And Entrepreneurship

Author by : OECD
Languange : en
Publisher by : OECD Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 46
Total Download : 228
File Size : 54,6 Mb
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Description : The 2017 edition of the Latin American Economic Outlook explores youth, skills and entrepreneurship. Young Latin Americans embody the region’s promise and perils. They stand at the crossroads of a region whose once promising economy and social progress is now undergoing a slowdown.


Latin American Economic Outlook 2012 Transforming The State For Development

Author by : OECD
Languange : en
Publisher by : OECD Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 34
Total Download : 659
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Description : Latin America’s solid economic performance since 2003 has created the possibility of transforming the state for development. This year’s Latin American Economic Outlook examines the reform of the state in this context and recommends that Latin American states act now to deliver better services.


Latin American Economic Outlook 2018 Rethinking Institutions For Development

Author by : OECD
Languange : en
Publisher by : OECD Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
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File Size : 41,9 Mb
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Description : The Latin American Economic Outlook 2018: Rethinking Institutions for Development focuses on how institutions can underpin the foundations of a long period of sustained and inclusive growth and increased well-being. The report begins with an overview of the main macroeconomic challenges ...


Latin American Economic Outlook 2011 How Middle Class Is Latin America

Author by : OECD
Languange : en
Publisher by : OECD Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
Total Download : 542
File Size : 43,9 Mb
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Description : This year's Latin American Economic Outlook includes a macroeconomic overview of the ongoing economic recovery from the global financial crisis as well as an in-depth report on the middle class in Latin America.


Economic Mobility And The Rise Of The Latin American Middle Class

Author by : Francisco H. G. Ferreira
Languange : en
Publisher by : World Bank Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 51
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Description : After decades of stagnation, the size of Latin America's middle class recently expanded to the point where, for the first time ever, the number of people in poverty is equal to the size of the middle class. This volume investigates the nature, determinants and possible consequences of this remarkable process of social transformation. We propose an original definition of the middle class, tailor-made for Latin America, centered on the concept of economic security and thus a low probability of falling into poverty. Given our definition of the middle class, there are four, not three, classes in Latin America. Sandwiched between the poor and the middle class there lies a large group of people who appear to make ends meet well enough, but do not enjoy the economic security that would be required for membership of the middle class. We call this group the 'vulnerable'. In an almost mechanical sense, these transformations in Latin America reflect both economic growth and declining inequality in over the period. We adopt a measure of mobility that decomposes the 'gainers' and 'losers' in society by social class of each household. The continent has experienced a large amount of churning over the last 15 years, at least 43% of all Latin Americans changed social classes between the mid 1990s and the end of the 2000s. Despite the upward mobility trend, intergenerational mobility, a better proxy for inequality of opportunity, remains stagnant. Educational achievement and attainment remain to be strongly dependent upon parental education levels. Despite the recent growth in pro-poor programs, the middle class has benefited disproportionally from social security transfers and are increasingly opting out from government services. Central to the region's prospects of continued progress will be its ability to harness the new middle class into a new, more inclusive social contract, where the better-off pay their fair share of taxes, and demand improved public services.


Entrepreneurship In Latin America

Author by : Eduardo Lora
Languange : en
Publisher by : World Bank Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
Total Download : 364
File Size : 51,6 Mb
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Description : This book looks at both the potential and limits of policies to promote entrepreneurship as an important vehicle for social mobility in Latin America and the Caribbean. Who are the region's entrepreneurs? They tend to be middle-aged males with secondary and, often, tertiary education who represent only a small segment of the economically active population in the six countries considered in this book. They come from families in which a parent is, or was, an entrepreneur. In fact, a parent's occupation is more important in the decision to become an entrepreneur than a parent's wealth, income or education. Middle class entrepreneurship tends to dominate the sample in part since this is the majority class in society. However, as a percentage of each social class, entrepreneurship tends to be higher in the upper class, followed by the middle and lower class. Entrepreneurs concentrate in micro enterprises with fewer than five employees. They enjoy greater social mobility than employees and the self-employed, but this mobility is not always in the upward direction. Entrepreneurs face multiple obstacles including stifling bureaucracy, burdensome tax procedures, and lack of financing, human capital, technological skills, and supportive networks. The support of family and friends and a modicum of social capital help cope with these obstacles to entrepreneurship.


The Oxford Handbook Of Latin American Political Economy

Author by : Javier Santiso
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP USA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 84
Total Download : 952
File Size : 40,9 Mb
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Description : Understanding Latin America's recent economic performance calls for a multidisciplinary analysis. This handbook looks at the interaction of economics and politics in the region and includes a number of contributions from top academic experts who have also served as key policy makers (a former president, ministers of finance, a central bank governor), reflecting upon the challenges of reform.


Government At A Glance Latin America And The Caribbean 2014 Towards Innovative Public Financial Management

Author by : OECD
Languange : en
Publisher by : OECD Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 35
Total Download : 945
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Description : Latin American and Caribbean Government at a Glance offers a dashboard of more than 30 indicators to help decision makers and citizens analyze and benchmark government performance both within the LAC region and compared to the OECD countries.


Cepal Review No 119 August 2016

Author by : United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
Languange : en
Publisher by : United Nations
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 79
Total Download : 600
File Size : 51,6 Mb
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Description : Cepal Review is the leading journal for the study of economic and social development issues in Latin America and the Caribbean. Edited by the Economic Commission for Latin America, each issue focuses on economic trends, industrialization, income distribution, technological development and monetary systems, as well as the implementation of reforms and transfer of technology. Written in English and Spanish (Revista De La Cepal), each tri-annual issue brings you approximately 12 studies and essays undertaken by authoritative experts or gathered from conference proceedings.


Innovation And Inclusion In Latin America

Author by : Alejandro Foxley
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 98
Total Download : 615
File Size : 45,7 Mb
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Description : This book argues that Latin America must confront two main challenges: greater innovation to increase productivity, and greater inclusion to incorporate more of the population into the benefits of economic growth. These two tasks are interrelated, and both require greater institutional capacity to facilitate both innovation and inclusion. Most countries in Latin America are struggling to escape what economists label “the middle income trap.” While much if not all of the region has emerged from low income status, neither growth nor productivity has increased sufficiently to enable Latin America to narrow the gap separating it from the world’s most developed economies. Although income inequality has diminished across much of the region in recent years, social vulnerability remains widespread and institutional weaknesses continue to plague efforts to achieve equitable development. This volume identifies lessons that can be learned and adapted from experiences within the region and in East Asia, where the middle income trap has largely been avoided. This book is the result of a collaborative project undertaken by American University’s Center for Latin American & Latino Studies (CLALS) and the Corporation for Latin American Studies (CIEPLAN) in Chile, with financial support from the Inter-American Development Bank’s Office of Strategic Planning and Development Effectiveness.


Development Centre Studies E Learning In Higher Education In Latin America

Author by : OECD
Languange : en
Publisher by : OECD Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 69
Total Download : 316
File Size : 53,5 Mb
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Description : This report analyses the incorporation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education in Latin America, focusing mainly on what is commonly referred to as “e-learning”.


Pensions At A Glance Latin America And The Caribbean

Author by : OECD
Languange : en
Publisher by : OECD Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 34
Total Download : 220
File Size : 55,9 Mb
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Description : This comprehensive book on pensions in Latin America and the Caribbean examines recent demographic trends, pension design and entitlements before providing a series of country profiles. The special chapter examines coverage and adequacy.


Falling Inequality In Latin America

Author by : Giovanni Andrea Cornia
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 99
Total Download : 531
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Description : "A study prepared by the United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)


The Palgrave Handbook Of Contemporary International Political Economy

Author by : Timothy M. Shaw
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 18
Total Download : 265
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Description : Published 35 years after Palgrave Macmillan’s landmark International Political Economy (IPE) series was first founded, this Handbook captures the state of the art of contemporary IPE. It draws on the series’ history of focusing on the oft-neglected study of the global South. Providing interdisciplinary perspectives from scholars hailing from the global North and South, the Handbook illustrates the theoretical innovations and empirical richness necessary to explain today’s ever-changing world. This is a world in which the global South and North are not only being transformed by the end of bipolarity and the rise of the BRICS, but also by diverse global crises and growing cross-border challenges. It is a world where human development, governance and security are becoming ever more elusive, where, profoundly altered by the rise of new technologies, the structure of relations between nations itself is changing, becoming increasingly interconnected, both digitally and physically. Understanding these issues is of critical importance to better anticipate current and future global transformations. This Handbook is the ideal primer for all scholars, practitioners and policy makers looking to do so.


We Count We Matter

Author by : Christopher Steed
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 96
Total Download : 709
File Size : 49,5 Mb
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Description : This book examines the meaning of Brexit, the election of Trump and the rising tide of populist revolt on the right amidst the collapse of the left. Exploring the reaction against the establishment or ‘the system’, the author contends that we are witnessing a new divide between those who wish to see an interconnected world and those who seek distance: as transport and technology shrink the world, we witness a backlash that favours protectionism and opposes immigration. Distance is the new frontier: for some, remote players are rejected in favour of identities closer to home. This divide plays out in relation to the notion of ‘face’, as individuals react to ‘faceless’ organisations and processes such as globalisation and automation, responding to a sense of alienation on social media and developing a conception of themselves as networked individuals. Thus, we move towards a type of society characterised not by honour and dishonour, or right and wrong, but by voice and choice. A fascinating and very accessible analysis of the divisions and transformations that have come to dominate the contemporary landscape, this book will appeal to political leaders and social scientists with interests in globalisation, social movements and social theory.


The Glass Half Empty

Author by : Rodrigo Aguilera
Languange : en
Publisher by : Watkins Media Limited
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 76
Total Download : 501
File Size : 52,9 Mb
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Description : Despite the doom and gloom of financial crises, global terrorism, climate collapse, and the rise of the far-right, a number of leading intellectuals (Steven Pinker, Hans Rosling, Johan Norberg, and Matt Ridley, among others) have been arguing in recent years that the world is getting better and better. But this “progress narrative” is little more than a very conservative defence of the capitalist status quo. At a time when liberal democracy appears incapable of stemming the tide of the far-right populism, and when laissez-faire capitalism is ill-equipped to deal with socio-economic problems like climate change, inequality, and the future of wok, the real advocates of progress are those willing to challenge these established paradigms. The Glass Half-Empty argues that, without criticising the systems of capitalism, the changes needed to make a better world will always fall short of our expectations. The "progress narrative" needs to be challenged before we stumble into a potentially catastrophic future, despite having the means to build a truly better world.


Sustainable Development Goals And Income Inequality

Author by : Peter A.G. van Bergeijk
Languange : en
Publisher by : Edward Elgar Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 62
Total Download : 950
File Size : 48,9 Mb
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Description : This timely book documents and analyses the seriousness of growing national inequality in different regions around the world. It argues that the treatment of inequality in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is wholly insufficient due to their failure to recognise the growing difference between the income of work and the income of capital and the super rich, and the strain this places on a country’s social fabric.


Latin American Economic Outlook 2020 Digital Transformation For Building Back Better

Author by : OECD
Languange : en
Publisher by : OECD Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 67
Total Download : 120
File Size : 54,9 Mb
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Description : The Latin American Economic Outlook (LEO) 2020 focuses on the role of digital transformation in helping to navigate through challenging times. The Covid-19 pandemic is having a profound impact on socio-economic conditions, accentuating the already complex scenario faced by a region with significant structural weaknesses. This unprecedented crisis comes at a time of high aspirations and reinforces the need to transform the very foundations of the development model in the region.


All On Board Making Inclusive Growth Happen

Author by : OECD
Languange : en
Publisher by : OECD Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 78
Total Download : 610
File Size : 55,9 Mb
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Description : All on Board: Making Inclusive Growth Happen puts forth a new approach to economic growth that goes beyond traditional monetary indicators and includes dimensions that reflect people's well-being.


Oecd Territorial Reviews Brazil 2013

Author by : OECD
Languange : en
Publisher by : OECD Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 21
Total Download : 105
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Description : This review, which draws on data and comparative perspectives from OECD countries, highlights challenges that Brazil will need to tackle.