Description : Human activities have taken place in the world's oceans and seas for most of human history. With such a vast number of ways in which the oceans can be used for trade, exploited for natural resources and fishing, as well as concerns over maritime security, the legal systems regulating the rights and responsibilities of nations in their use of the world's oceans have long been a crucial part of international law. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea comprehensively defined the parameters of the law of the sea in 1982, and since the Convention was concluded it has seen considerable development. This Oxford Handbook provides a comprehensive and original analysis of its current debates and controversies, both theoretical and practical. Written by over forty expert and interdisciplinary contributors, the Handbook sets out how the law of the sea has developed, and the challenges it is currently facing. The Handbook consists of forty chapters divided into six parts. First, it explains the origins and evolution of the law of the sea, with a particular focus upon the role of key publicists such as Hugo Grotius and John Selden, the gradual development of state practice, and the creation of the 1982 UN Convention. It then reviews the components which comprise the maritime domain, assessing their definition, assertion, and recognition. It also analyses the ways in which coastal states or the international community can assert control over areas of the sea, and the management and regulation of each of the maritime zones. This includes investigating the development of the mechanisms for maritime boundary delimitation, and the decisions of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. The Handbook also discusses the actors and intuitions that impact on the law of the sea, considering their particular rights and interests, in particular those of state actors and the principle law of the sea institutions. Then it focuses on operational issues, investigating longstanding matters of resource management and the integrated oceans framework. This includes a discussion and assessment of the broad and increasingly influential integrated oceans management governance framework that interacts with the traditional law of the sea. It considers six distinctive regions that have been pivotal to the development of the law of the sea, before finally providing a detailed analysis of the critical contemporary issues facing the law of the sea. These include threatened species, climate change, bioprospecting, and piracy. The Handbook will be an invaluable and thought-provoking resource for scholars, students, and practitioners of the law of the sea.
Description : Navigational rights and freedoms have been central to the development of the law of the sea since the original debates over whether the seas were 'open' or 'closed' to maritime traffic. The 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea recognises the legitimate rights of coastal states to proclaim sovereignty and assert jurisdiction over vast areas of maritime space. In return, maritime states are given a range of navigational rights over waters ranging from the territorial sea through to the high sea. The new regime of the law of the sea created by the Convention presents an opportunity to review developments in the law of navigational rights and freedoms. This book assesses the navigational regime established by the 1982 Convention, with emphasis given to the continuing importance of the freedom of the seas. Navigation in the territorial sea and international straits is reviewed, especially in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore, and the Torres Strait. Archipelagic navigation from the perspective of two claimant states, Indonesia and the Philippines, and a user state, South Korea, is also considered. The interaction of environmental concerns with navigational rights is an important feature of the current law of the sea regime with relevant conventions assessed and the role of the International Maritime Organization in developing navigational standards considered. Both European and Canadian practice in the protection of sensitive marine environments and the impact upon navigational rights is also considered. Finally, the roles of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea and the International Maritime Organization in dispute resolution are reviewed, before a concluding consideration of the future for navigational rights and freedoms in the twenty-first century.
Description : The fact that the Montego Bay Convention has been only ratified by 37 States at present and that it will be some time before the 60 ratifications required by Article 308 are achieved has not prevented states from acting in accordance with the rules drawn up by the Conference. Close on one hundred states have established either exclusive economic zones broadly modelled on Part V or 200-nautical-mile fishery zones and drawn on the principles laid down for exploiting living resources. Although these laws have been formulated unilaterally by states, international custom, since the judgement by the International Court of Justice in the Fisheries Case of 18 December 1951, is derived from concordant national rules. This shift began even before the Conference ended, and has been consolidated since then. Moreover, the régime governing the sea-bed beyond the limits of national jurisdiction defined by Part XI, which was the stumbling block of the Conference, is subject to transitional arrangements on the basis of two resolutions adopted in the Conferences Final Act, one providing for the establishment of a Preparatory Commission and the other on the preliminary activities of pioneer investors. This two-volume work, an earlier edition of which appeared in French, has been written by a team of experts of international renown. It presents an analysis of the Convention with an additional Chapter on the legal régime governing underwater archaeological and historical objects.
Description : Provides comprehensive coverage of basic and contemporary issues of the law of the sea in a systematic manner.
Description : This volume covers a variety of topics in the fields of the law of the sea and the protection of the environment. The particular focus of the volume is on the role and function of judicial, quasi-judicial and administrative institutions in the prevention and settlement of disputes in both of these areas. This includes an overview and insightful analysis of the cases of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea during its first decade. Further substantive issues range from the allocation of shared marine resources, maritime boundary delimitation and issues of maritime security to the prevention of marine pollution as well as a coverage of the compliance and enforcement mechanisms of international environmental law. The views from both scholars' and practitioners' perspectives presented in this volume will offer readers a number of outstanding intellectual synergies to reflect on the development of international law. It can provide both scholars and policy-makers alike with new insights on how to address pressing problems in international law, including ideas for improved institutional design. The work has been compiled in honour of Thomas A. Mensah and comprises 59 essays from leading scholars and practitioners in international law.
Description : These commentaries are based almost entirely on the formal and informal documentation of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III, 1973-1982), coupled, where necessary, with the personal knowledge of editors, contributors, or reviewers, many of whom were principal negotiators or UN personnel who participated in the Conference.
Description : This is the seventh and final volume of the most authoritative reference on the Third United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III, 1973-1982). The volume provides the original text of the 1982 convention as fully integrated with the provisions of the 1994 Agreement on the Implementation of XI, in addition to an extensive subject index to Volumes I through VI of the series.
Description : Definitions for the Law of the Sea elucidates undefined terms and phrases used in The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) itself, as well as terms used in its analysis. Based on nearly a decade of work by the American Branch of the International Law Association’s Law of the Sea Committee, the volume provides clear definitions based on usage in the Convention, rather than geographical or geological concepts.
Description : Antarctica & the Southern Ocean cover one-tenth of the earth's surface. In a legal & environmental sense, Antarctica represents the geography of hope. It is the freshest & most pristine of regions, governed by a legal regime that offers Antarctica & its circumpolar water the unique possibility of becoming the world's first global wilderness preserve. But in today's age of resource scarcity, Antarctica still provokes much political, economic & legal debate. Over the past decade, international attention has increasingly focused on the legal status of the continent, the potential for hydrocarbon exploitation offshore, & opportunities for harvesting circumpolar living marine resources. In this fascinating treatment, Christopher C. Joyner undertakes the first serious examination of the intimate relationship between Antarctica & the law of the sea. Using Antarctica as a case study, Joyner probes large conceptual issues of ocean law & politics. He uses the intricate details of oceanography & law to unravel the dynamics of the Antarctic Treaty System. In doing so, he examines how the changing importance of Antarctic issues has affected the development of the law of the sea for the region, the ways in which states define their national interests, & the accommodation through various negotations that have contributed to the development of law for governing the Southern Ocean. While the study of law for the Antarctic is provocative in itself, this work goes much farther. The study critically analyzes the region's biogeography, the condition of sovereignty on the continent, the lawfulness of asserting jurisdictional zones offshore, & various legal implications for Antarctica's continental shelf, local island groups, circumpolar deep seabed, & the Southern Ocean's high seas. Moreover, the special legal efforts by the international community to protect the Antarctic seas from marine pollution & to conserve its living marine resources are comprehensively appraised. Thorough, authoritative, & objectively reasoned, Antarctica & the Law of the Sea provides an insightful assessment of how law can progressively develop for a resource-rich region of the world's ocean. As such, it should appeal to a broad range of international lawyers & social scientists who are interested in international relations, political economy, environmental politics, & the law of the sea.
Description : Pre- and post revolutionary doctrine and practice relating to the legal regimes of territorial waters, internal sea waters, closed seas, the continental shelf, the deep seabed and the high seas.