Description : Lead-free Electronics provides guidance on the design and use of lead-free electronics as well as technical and legislative perspectives. All the complex challenges confronting the elec-tronics industry are skillfully addressed: * Complying with state legislation * Implementing the transition to lead-free electronics, including anticipating associated costs and potential supply chain issues * Understanding intellectual property issues in lead-free alloys and their applications, including licensing and infringement * Implementing cost effective manufacturing and testing * Reducing risks due to tin whiskers * Finding lead-free solutions in harsh environments such as in the automotive and telecommunications industries * Understanding the capabilities and limitations of conductive adhesives in lead-free interconnects * Devising solutions for lead-free, flip-chip interconnects in high-performance integrated circuit products Each chapter is written by leading experts in the field and carefully edited to ensure a consistent approach. Readers will find all the latest information, including the most recent data on cyclic thermomechanical deformation properties of lead-free SnAgCu alloys and a comparison of the properties of standard Sn-Pb versus lead-free alloys, using the energy partitioning approach. With legislative and market pressure to eliminate the use of lead in electronics manufacturing, this timely publication is essential reading for all engineers and professionals in the electronics industry.
Description : By 2006, any company selling electronics to European Union nations and China will have to convert to a lead-free manufacturing process. This resource shows manufacturers how to select the right Lead Free process and make the conversion as efficient and inexpensive as possible. Contents: Selecting Component LeadCoating * Selecting PCB Surface Finish * Manufacturing Approaches * Solder Paste Application * Reflow Soldering * Wave Soldering * Other Manufacturing Techniques and Common Defect Consideration * Reliability and Compatibility.
Description : Based on the results of a more than two-year study, Lead-Free Electronics: iNEMI Projects Lead to Successful Manufacturing is the first practical, primary reference to cover Pb-free solder assembly as well as the analysis and reasoning behind the selection of Sn-Ag-Cu as the recommended Pb-free replacement for Sn-Pb. Reflecting the results of a two-year study, Lead-Free Electronics: iNEMI Projects Lead to Successful Manufacturing provides full coverage of the issues surrounding the implementation of Pb-free solder into electronic board assembly. This book is extremely timelyâ??most electronic manufacturers are going to change over to Pb free soldering by 2006 to meet new European laws. All manufacturers around the globe are going to be affected by this change. The text provides specific results from the thirty company NEMI project activities. It contains integrated and fully documented book chapters with references to existing published work in the area. These serve as tremendous resources for engineers and companies faced with making the switch to Pb-free solder assembly.
Description : Even though the effect of lead contamination on human health has been known for decades, very little attention has been paid to lead-based solders used in electronics until recently. This comprehensive book examines all the important issues associated with lead-free electronic solder. It collects the work of researchers recognized for their significant scientific contributions in the area.
Description : Assessing the scientific and technological aspects of lead-free soldering, Lead-Free Soldering in Electronics considers the necessary background and requirements for proper alloy selection. It highlights the metallurgical and mechanical properties; plating and processing technologies; and evaluation methods vital to the production of lead-free sold
Description : Providing a viable alternative to lead-based solders is a major research thrust for the electrical and electronics industries - whilst mechanically compliant lead-based solders have been widely used in the electronic interconnects, the risks to human health and to the environment are too great to allow continued widescale usage. Lead-free Solders: Materials Reliability for Electronics chronicles the search for reliable drop-in lead-free alternatives and covers: Phase diagrams and alloy development Effect of minor alloying additions Composite approaches including nanoscale reinforcements Mechanical issues affecting reliability Reliability under impact loading Thermomechanical fatigue Chemical issues affecting reliability Whisker growth Electromigration Thermomigration Presenting a comprehensive understanding of the current state of lead-free electronic interconnects research, this book approaches the ongoing research from fundamental, applied and manufacturing perspectives to provide a balanced view of the progress made and the requirements which still have to be met.
Description : This reference provides a complete discussion of the conversion from standard lead-tin to lead-free solder microelectronic assemblies for low-end and high-end applications. Written by more than 45 world-class researchers and practitioners, the book discusses general reliability issues concerning microelectronic assemblies, as well as factors specif