Description : This unique book provides an up-to-date overview of the concepts behind lead-free soldering techniques. Readers will find a description of the physical and mechanical properties of lead-free solders, in addition to lead-free electronics and solder alloys. Additional topics covered include the reliability of lead-free soldering, tin whiskering and electromigration, in addition to emerging technologies and research.
Description : Providing a viable alternative to lead-based solders is a major research thrust for the electrical and electronics industries - whilst mechanically compliant lead-based solders have been widely used in the electronic interconnects, the risks to human health and to the environment are too great to allow continued widescale usage. Lead-free Solders: Materials Reliability for Electronics chronicles the search for reliable drop-in lead-free alternatives and covers: Phase diagrams and alloy development Effect of minor alloying additions Composite approaches including nanoscale reinforcements Mechanical issues affecting reliability Reliability under impact loading Thermomechanical fatigue Chemical issues affecting reliability Whisker growth Electromigration Thermomigration Presenting a comprehensive understanding of the current state of lead-free electronic interconnects research, this book approaches the ongoing research from fundamental, applied and manufacturing perspectives to provide a balanced view of the progress made and the requirements which still have to be met.
Description : Proven 2D and 3D IC lead-free interconnect reliability techniques Reliability of RoHS-Compliant 2D and 3D IC Interconnects offers tested solutions to reliability problems in lead-free interconnects for PCB assembly, conventional IC packaging, 3D IC packaging, and 3D IC integration. This authoritative guide presents the latest cutting-edge reliability methods and data for electronic manufacturing services (EMS) on second-level interconnects, packaging assembly on first-level interconnects, and 3D IC integration on microbumps and through-silicon-via (TSV) interposers. Design reliable 2D and 3D IC interconnects in RoHS-compliant projects using the detailed information in this practical resource. Covers reliability of: 2D and 3D IC lead-free interconnects CCGA, PBGA, WLP, PQFP, flip-chip, lead-free SAC solder joints Lead-free (SACX) solder joints Low-temperature lead-free (SnBiAg) solder joints Solder joints with voids, high strain rate, and high ramp rate VCSEL and LED lead-free interconnects 3D LED and 3D MEMS with TSVs Chip-to-wafer (C2W) bonding and lead-free interconnects Wafer-to-wafer (W2W) bonding and lead-free interconnects 3D IC chip stacking with low-temperature bonding TSV interposers and lead-free interconnects Electromigration of lead-free microbumps for 3D IC integration
Description : The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects is a resource to be used in developing a solder joint reliability assessment. Each chapter is written to be used as a stand-alone resource for a particular aspect of materials and modeling issues. With this gained understanding, the reader in search of a solution to a solder joint reliability problem knows where in the materials and modeling communities to go for the appropriate answer.
Description : The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects is the work of the European network ELFNET which was founded by the European Commission in the 6th Framework Programme. It brings together contributions from the leading European experts in lead-free soldering. The limited validity of testing methods originating from tin-lead solder was a major point of concern in ELFNET members' discussions. As a result, the network's reliability group decided to bring together the material properties of lead-free solders, as well as the basics of material science, and to discuss their influence on the procedures for accelerated testing. This has led to a matrix of failure mechanisms and their activation and, as a result, to a comprehensive coverage of the scientific background and its applications in reliability testing of lead-free solder joints. The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects is written for scientists, engineers and researchers involved with lead-free electronics.
Description : 27 Required function (mission profile) • Set up the reliability block diagram FMEA where (RBD), by performing a redundancy appears Eliminate reliability weaknesses • Determine the component stresses • component/material selection • Compute the failure rate Ai of each • derating component • screening • Compute R(t) at the assembly level • redundancy • Check the fulfillment of reliability design rules • Perform a preliminary design review no yes Go to the next assembly or to the next integration level Figure 2. 1 Reliability analysis procedure at assembly level Taking account of the above considerations, Fig. 2. 1 shows the reliability analysis procedure used in practical applications at assembly level. The proce dure of Fig. 2. 1 is based on the part stress method discussed in Section 2. 2. 4 (see Section 2. 2. 7 for the part count method). Also included are a failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA/FMECA), to check the validity of the assumed failure modes, and a verification of the adherence to design guidelines for relia bility in a preliminary design review (Section 5. 1, Appendices A3. 3. 5 & A4). Verification of the assumed failure modes is mandatory where redundancy appears, in particular because of the series element in the reliability block diagram (see for instance Example 2. 6, Sections 2. 3. 6 for elements with more than one failure mode & 6. 8. 7 for common cause failures, and Figs. 2. 8- 2. 9 & 6. 17- 6.
Description : Lead-free solders are used extensively as interconnection materials in electronic assemblies and play a critical role in the global semiconductor packaging and electronics manufacturing industry. Electronic products such as smart phones, notebooks and high performance computers rely on lead-free solder joints to connect IC chip components to printed circuit boards. Lead Free Solder: Mechanics and Reliability provides in-depth design knowledge on lead-free solder elastic-plastic-creep and strain-rate dependent deformation behavior and its application in failure assessment of solder joint reliability. It includes coverage of advanced mechanics of materials theory and experiments, mechanical properties of solder and solder joint specimens, constitutive models for solder deformation behavior; numerical modeling and simulation of solder joint failure subject to thermal cycling, mechanical bending fatigue, vibration fatigue and board-level drop impact tests.
Description : Even though the effect of lead contamination on human health has been known for decades, very little attention has been paid to lead-based solders used in electronics until recently. This comprehensive book examines all the important issues associated with lead-free electronic solder. It collects the work of researchers recognized for their significant scientific contributions in the area.