Description : Lead-free Electronics provides guidance on the design and use of lead-free electronics as well as technical and legislative perspectives. All the complex challenges confronting the elec-tronics industry are skillfully addressed: * Complying with state legislation * Implementing the transition to lead-free electronics, including anticipating associated costs and potential supply chain issues * Understanding intellectual property issues in lead-free alloys and their applications, including licensing and infringement * Implementing cost effective manufacturing and testing * Reducing risks due to tin whiskers * Finding lead-free solutions in harsh environments such as in the automotive and telecommunications industries * Understanding the capabilities and limitations of conductive adhesives in lead-free interconnects * Devising solutions for lead-free, flip-chip interconnects in high-performance integrated circuit products Each chapter is written by leading experts in the field and carefully edited to ensure a consistent approach. Readers will find all the latest information, including the most recent data on cyclic thermomechanical deformation properties of lead-free SnAgCu alloys and a comparison of the properties of standard Sn-Pb versus lead-free alloys, using the energy partitioning approach. With legislative and market pressure to eliminate the use of lead in electronics manufacturing, this timely publication is essential reading for all engineers and professionals in the electronics industry.
Description : This unique book provides an up-to-date overview of the concepts behind lead-free soldering techniques. Readers will find a description of the physical and mechanical properties of lead-free solders, in addition to lead-free electronics and solder alloys. Additional topics covered include the reliability of lead-free soldering, tin whiskering and electromigration, in addition to emerging technologies and research.
Description : Providing a viable alternative to lead-based solders is a major research thrust for the electrical and electronics industries - whilst mechanically compliant lead-based solders have been widely used in the electronic interconnects, the risks to human health and to the environment are too great to allow continued widescale usage. Lead-free Solders: Materials Reliability for Electronics chronicles the search for reliable drop-in lead-free alternatives and covers: Phase diagrams and alloy development Effect of minor alloying additions Composite approaches including nanoscale reinforcements Mechanical issues affecting reliability Reliability under impact loading Thermomechanical fatigue Chemical issues affecting reliability Whisker growth Electromigration Thermomigration Presenting a comprehensive understanding of the current state of lead-free electronic interconnects research, this book approaches the ongoing research from fundamental, applied and manufacturing perspectives to provide a balanced view of the progress made and the requirements which still have to be met.
Description : This book focuses on the assembly and reliability of lead-free solder joints. Both the principles and engineering practice are addressed, with more weight placed on the latter. This is achieved by providing in-depth studies on a number of major topics such as solder joints in conventional and advanced packaging components, commonly used lead-free materials, soldering processes, advanced specialty flux designs, characterization of lead-free solder joints, reliability testing and data analyses, design for reliability, and failure analyses for lead-free solder joints. Uniquely, the content not only addresses electronic manufacturing services (EMS) on the second-level interconnects, but also packaging assembly on the first-level interconnects and the semiconductor back-end on the 3D IC integration interconnects. Thus, the book offers an indispensable resource for the complete food chain of electronics products.
Description : 27 Required function (mission profile) • Set up the reliability block diagram FMEA where (RBD), by performing a redundancy appears Eliminate reliability weaknesses • Determine the component stresses • component/material selection • Compute the failure rate Ai of each • derating component • screening • Compute R(t) at the assembly level • redundancy • Check the fulfillment of reliability design rules • Perform a preliminary design review no yes Go to the next assembly or to the next integration level Figure 2. 1 Reliability analysis procedure at assembly level Taking account of the above considerations, Fig. 2. 1 shows the reliability analysis procedure used in practical applications at assembly level. The proce dure of Fig. 2. 1 is based on the part stress method discussed in Section 2. 2. 4 (see Section 2. 2. 7 for the part count method). Also included are a failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA/FMECA), to check the validity of the assumed failure modes, and a verification of the adherence to design guidelines for relia bility in a preliminary design review (Section 5. 1, Appendices A3. 3. 5 & A4). Verification of the assumed failure modes is mandatory where redundancy appears, in particular because of the series element in the reliability block diagram (see for instance Example 2. 6, Sections 2. 3. 6 for elements with more than one failure mode & 6. 8. 7 for common cause failures, and Figs. 2. 8- 2. 9 & 6. 17- 6.
Description : The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects is the work of the European network ELFNET which was founded by the European Commission in the 6th Framework Programme. It brings together contributions from the leading European experts in lead-free soldering. The limited validity of testing methods originating from tin-lead solder was a major point of concern in ELFNET members' discussions. As a result, the network's reliability group decided to bring together the material properties of lead-free solders, as well as the basics of material science, and to discuss their influence on the procedures for accelerated testing. This has led to a matrix of failure mechanisms and their activation and, as a result, to a comprehensive coverage of the scientific background and its applications in reliability testing of lead-free solder joints. The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects is written for scientists, engineers and researchers involved with lead-free electronics.
Description : Proven 2D and 3D IC lead-free interconnect reliability techniques Reliability of RoHS-Compliant 2D and 3D IC Interconnects offers tested solutions to reliability problems in lead-free interconnects for PCB assembly, conventional IC packaging, 3D IC packaging, and 3D IC integration. This authoritative guide presents the latest cutting-edge reliability methods and data for electronic manufacturing services (EMS) on second-level interconnects, packaging assembly on first-level interconnects, and 3D IC integration on microbumps and through-silicon-via (TSV) interposers. Design reliable 2D and 3D IC interconnects in RoHS-compliant projects using the detailed information in this practical resource. Covers reliability of: 2D and 3D IC lead-free interconnects CCGA, PBGA, WLP, PQFP, flip-chip, lead-free SAC solder joints Lead-free (SACX) solder joints Low-temperature lead-free (SnBiAg) solder joints Solder joints with voids, high strain rate, and high ramp rate VCSEL and LED lead-free interconnects 3D LED and 3D MEMS with TSVs Chip-to-wafer (C2W) bonding and lead-free interconnects Wafer-to-wafer (W2W) bonding and lead-free interconnects 3D IC chip stacking with low-temperature bonding TSV interposers and lead-free interconnects Electromigration of lead-free microbumps for 3D IC integration
Description : Even though the effect of lead contamination on human health has been known for decades, very little attention has been paid to lead-based solders used in electronics until recently. This comprehensive book examines all the important issues associated with lead-free electronic solder. It collects the work of researchers recognized for their significant scientific contributions in the area.