Description : Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described. Discusses whisker formation factors including surface grain geometry, crystallographic orientation-dependent surface grain boundary structure, and the localization of elastic strain/strain energy density distribution Examines how whiskers and hillocks evolve in time through real-time studies of whisker growth with the scanning electron microscope/focused ion beaming milling (SEM/FIB) Covers characterization methods of tin and tin-based alloy finishes such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) Reviews theories of mechanically-induced tin whiskers with case studies using pure tin and other lead-free finishes shown to evaluate the pressure-induced tin whiskers Mitigating Tin Whisker Risks: Theory and Practice is intended for the broader electronic packaging and manufacturing community including: manufacturing engineers, packaging development engineers, as well as engineers and researchers in high reliability industries.
Description : Covering the major topics in lead-free soldering Lead-free Soldering Process Development and Reliability provides a comprehensive discussion of all modern topics in lead-free soldering. Perfect for process, quality, failure analysis and reliability engineers in production industries, this reference will help practitioners address issues in research, development and production. Among other topics, the book addresses: · Developments in process engineering (SMT, Wave, Rework, Paste Technology) · Low temperature, high temperature and high reliability alloys · Intermetallic compounds · PCB surface finishes and laminates · Underfills, encapsulants and conformal coatings · Reliability assessments In a regulatory environment that includes the adoption of mandatory lead-free requirements in a variety of countries, the book’s explanations of high-temperature, low-temperature, and high-reliability lead-free alloys in terms of process and reliability implications are invaluable to working engineers. Lead-free Soldering takes a forward-looking approach, with an eye towards developments likely to impact the industry in the coming years. These will include the introduction of lead-free requirements in high-reliability electronics products in the medical, automotive, and defense industries. The book provides practitioners in these and other segments of the industry with guidelines and information to help comply with these requirements.
Description : This reference provides a complete discussion of the conversion from standard lead-tin to lead-free solder microelectronic assemblies for low-end and high-end applications. Written by more than 45 world-class researchers and practitioners, the book discusses general reliability issues concerning microelectronic assemblies, as well as factors specific to the tin-rich replacement alloys commonly utilized in lead-free solders. It provides real-world manufacturing accounts of the introduction of reduced-lead and lead-free technology and discusses the functionality and cost effectiveness of alternative solder alloys and non-solder alternatives replacing lead-tin solders in microelectronics.
Description : The worldwide trend toward lead-free components and soldering is especially urgent in the European Union with the implementation strict new standards in July 2006, and with pending implementation of laws in China and California. This book provides a standard reference guide for engineers who must meet the new regulations, including a broad collection of techniques for lead-free soldering design and manufacture, which up to now have been scattered in difficult-to-find scholarly sources.
Description : The book is important because it reflects a trend, especially in microelectronics manufacture toward recyclability. Europe and Asia are moving towards legislation to ban the use of lead in solders and public demand in the US will likely have the same result. Producers of solders and manufacturers who use them will have to invent and employ suitable substitutes and A Guide to Lead-free Solders will show them how to do so.
Description : Based on the results of a more than two-year study, Lead-Free Electronics: iNEMI Projects Lead to Successful Manufacturing is the first practical, primary reference to cover Pb-free solder assembly as well as the analysis and reasoning behind the selection of Sn-Ag-Cu as the recommended Pb-free replacement for Sn-Pb. Reflecting the results of a two-year study, Lead-Free Electronics: iNEMI Projects Lead to Successful Manufacturing provides full coverage of the issues surrounding the implementation of Pb-free solder into electronic board assembly. This book is extremely timelyâ??most electronic manufacturers are going to change over to Pb free soldering by 2006 to meet new European laws. All manufacturers around the globe are going to be affected by this change. The text provides specific results from the thirty company NEMI project activities. It contains integrated and fully documented book chapters with references to existing published work in the area. These serve as tremendous resources for engineers and companies faced with making the switch to Pb-free solder assembly.
Description : Lead-free Electronics provides guidance on the design and use of lead-free electronics as well as technical and legislative perspectives. All the complex challenges confronting the elec-tronics industry are skillfully addressed: * Complying with state legislation * Implementing the transition to lead-free electronics, including anticipating associated costs and potential supply chain issues * Understanding intellectual property issues in lead-free alloys and their applications, including licensing and infringement * Implementing cost effective manufacturing and testing * Reducing risks due to tin whiskers * Finding lead-free solutions in harsh environments such as in the automotive and telecommunications industries * Understanding the capabilities and limitations of conductive adhesives in lead-free interconnects * Devising solutions for lead-free, flip-chip interconnects in high-performance integrated circuit products Each chapter is written by leading experts in the field and carefully edited to ensure a consistent approach. Readers will find all the latest information, including the most recent data on cyclic thermomechanical deformation properties of lead-free SnAgCu alloys and a comparison of the properties of standard Sn-Pb versus lead-free alloys, using the energy partitioning approach. With legislative and market pressure to eliminate the use of lead in electronics manufacturing, this timely publication is essential reading for all engineers and professionals in the electronics industry.