Description : Assessing the scientific and technological aspects of lead-free soldering, Lead-Free Soldering in Electronics considers the necessary background and requirements for proper alloy selection. It highlights the metallurgical and mechanical properties; plating and processing technologies; and evaluation methods vital to the production of lead-free solders in electronics. A valuable resource for those interested in promoting environmentally-conscious electronic packaging practices! Responding to increasing environmental and health concerns over lead toxicity, Lead-Free Soldering in Electronics discusses: Soldering inspection and design Mechanical evaluation in electronics Lead-free solder paste and reflow soldering Wave soldering Plating lead-free soldering in electronics Lead-Free Soldering in Electronics will benefit manufacturing, electronics, and mechanical engineers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.
Description : Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described. Discusses whisker formation factors including surface grain geometry, crystallographic orientation-dependent surface grain boundary structure, and the localization of elastic strain/strain energy density distribution Examines how whiskers and hillocks evolve in time through real-time studies of whisker growth with the scanning electron microscope/focused ion beaming milling (SEM/FIB) Covers characterization methods of tin and tin-based alloy finishes such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) Reviews theories of mechanically-induced tin whiskers with case studies using pure tin and other lead-free finishes shown to evaluate the pressure-induced tin whiskers Mitigating Tin Whisker Risks: Theory and Practice is intended for the broader electronic packaging and manufacturing community including: manufacturing engineers, packaging development engineers, as well as engineers and researchers in high reliability industries.
Description : The worldwide trend toward lead-free components and soldering is especially urgent in the European Union with the implementation strict new standards in July 2006, and with pending implementation of laws in China and California. This book provides a standard reference guide for engineers who must meet the new regulations, including a broad collection of techniques for lead-free soldering design and manufacture, which up to now have been scattered in difficult-to-find scholarly sources.
Description : Even though the effect of lead contamination on human health has been known for decades, very little attention has been paid to lead-based solders used in electronics until recently. This comprehensive book examines all the important issues associated with lead-free electronic solder. It collects the work of researchers recognized for their significant scientific contributions in the area.
Description : By 2006, any company selling electronics to European Union nations and China will have to convert to a lead-free manufacturing process. This resource shows manufacturers how to select the right Lead Free process and make the conversion as efficient and inexpensive as possible. Contents: Selecting Component LeadCoating * Selecting PCB Surface Finish * Manufacturing Approaches * Solder Paste Application * Reflow Soldering * Wave Soldering * Other Manufacturing Techniques and Common Defect Consideration * Reliability and Compatibility.
Description : This unique book provides an up-to-date overview of the concepts behind lead-free soldering techniques. Readers will find a description of the physical and mechanical properties of lead-free solders, in addition to lead-free electronics and solder alloys. Additional topics covered include the reliability of lead-free soldering, tin whiskering and electromigration, in addition to emerging technologies and research.
Description : This reference provides a complete discussion of the conversion from standard lead-tin to lead-free solder microelectronic assemblies for low-end and high-end applications. Written by more than 45 world-class researchers and practitioners, the book discusses general reliability issues concerning microelectronic assemblies, as well as factors specific to the tin-rich replacement alloys commonly utilized in lead-free solders. It provides real-world manufacturing accounts of the introduction of reduced-lead and lead-free technology and discusses the functionality and cost effectiveness of alternative solder alloys and non-solder alternatives replacing lead-tin solders in microelectronics.
Description : Based on the results of a more than two-year study, Lead-Free Electronics: iNEMI Projects Lead to Successful Manufacturing is the first practical, primary reference to cover Pb-free solder assembly as well as the analysis and reasoning behind the selection of Sn-Ag-Cu as the recommended Pb-free replacement for Sn-Pb. Reflecting the results of a two-year study, Lead-Free Electronics: iNEMI Projects Lead to Successful Manufacturing provides full coverage of the issues surrounding the implementation of Pb-free solder into electronic board assembly. This book is extremely timelyâ??most electronic manufacturers are going to change over to Pb free soldering by 2006 to meet new European laws. All manufacturers around the globe are going to be affected by this change. The text provides specific results from the thirty company NEMI project activities. It contains integrated and fully documented book chapters with references to existing published work in the area. These serve as tremendous resources for engineers and companies faced with making the switch to Pb-free solder assembly.
Description : ELECTRONICS MANUFACTUIRNG WITH LEAD-FREE, HALOGEN-FREE, AND CONDUCTIVE-ADHESTIVE MATERIALS This comprehensive guide provides cutting edge information on lead-free, halogen-free, and conductive-adhesive technologies and their application to low-cost, high-density, reliable, and green products. Essential for electronics manufacturing and packaging professionals who wish to master lead-free, halogen-free, and conductive-adhesive problem solving methods, and those demanding cost-effective designs and high-yield environmental benign manufacturing processes, this valuable reference covers all aspects of this fast-growing field. Written for design, materials, process, equipment, manufacturing, reliability, component, packaging, and system engineers, and technical and marketing managers in electronics and photonics packaging and interconnection, this book teaches a practical understanding of the cost, design, materials, process, equipment, manufacturing, and reliability issues of lead-free, halogen-free, and conductive-adhesive technologies. Among the topics explored: * Chip (wafer) level interconnects with lead-free solder bumps * Lead-free solder wafer bumping with micro-ball mounting and paste printing methods * Lead-free solder joint reliability of WLCSPs on organic and ceramic substrates * Chip (wafer) level interconnects with solderless bumps such as Ni-Au, Au, and Cu, Cu wires, Au wires, Au studs, and Cu studs * Design, materials, process, and reliability of WLCSPs with solderless interconnects on PCB/substrate * Halogen-free molding compounds for PQFP, PBGA, and MAP-PBGA packages * Environmentally benign die-attach films for PQFP and PBGA packages and lead-free die-attach bonding techniques for IC packaging * Environmental issues for conventional PCBs and substrates * Some environmentally conscious flame-retardants for PCBs and organic substrates * Emerging technologies for fabricating environmental friendly PCBs such as design for environment, green PCB manufacturing, and environmental safety * Lead-free soldering activities such as legislation, consortia programs, and regional preferences on lead-free solder alternatives * Criteria, development approaches, and varieties of alloys and properties of lead-free solders * Physical, mechanical, chemical, electrical, and soldering properties of lead-free solders * Manufacturing process and performance of lead-free surface finishes for both PCB and component applications * Implementation and execution challenges of lead-free soldering, especially for the reflow and wave soldering process * Fundamental understanding of electrically conductive adhesive (ECA) technology * Effects of lubricant removal and cure shrinkage on ECAs * Mechanisms underlying the contact resistance shifts of ECAs * Effects of electrolytes and moisture absorption on contact resistance shifts of ECAs * Stabilization of contact resistance of ECAs using various additives