Literature And The Cult Of Personality

Author by : Gregory Maertz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Columbia University Press
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Description : The construction of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe as an Anglo-American sage and literary icon was the product of a cult of personality that lay at the center of nineteenth-century cultural politics. A reconstruction of the culture wars fought over Goethe’s authority, a previously hidden chapter in the intellectual history of the period ranging from the late eighteenth century to the threshold of Modernism, is the focus of Literature and the Cult of Personality. Marginal as well as canonical writers and critics figured prominently in this process, and Literature and the Cult of Personality offers insight into the mediation activities of Mary Wollstonecraft, Henry Crabb Robinson, the canonical Romantic poets, Thomas Carlyle, Margaret Fuller, George Eliot, Matthew Arnold, and others. For women writers and Jacobins, Scots, and Americans, translating Goethe served as an empowering cultural platform that challenges the myth of the self-sufficiency of British literature. Reviewing and translating German authors provided a means of gaining literary enfranchisement and offered a paradigm of literary development according to which 're-writers' become original writers through an apprenticeship of translation and reviewing. In the diverse and fascinating body of critical writing examined in this book, textual exegesis plays an unexpectedly minor role; in its place, a full-blown cult of personality emerges along with a blueprint for the ideology of hero-worship that is more fully mapped out in the cultural and political life of twentieth-century Europe.


Carlyle S Critique Of Goethe

Author by : Gregory Maertz
Languange : en
Publisher by :
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Behind The Legends

Author by : John Heath
Languange : en
Publisher by : Peter Lang
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Description : Stefan Heym's very beginnings as a writer were a direct response to the threat of Fascism and the mass veneration of Hitler, and in his American exile he was to encounter the marketing and image machinery of capitalism and democratic politics. After arriving in the GDR in the wake of McCarthyism he was then confronted with the Stalin cult and the stark contradiction between the personality cult and the purported aims of the Communist vision. This book examines Heym's response to a problem that did not die out with the collapse of the Soviet bloc and which he treated as a universal phenomenon, and probes the extent to which he employed various publicity techniques to shape his own reception as a writer. In this analysis of an often controversial figure, the author draws on much uncovered archive material, and places close readings in a broad context; this is one of few studies that deal with Heym's career as a whole, from his beginnings in the Weimar Republic and Czechoslovakia and his overnight success in America through to his eminence as an intellectual public figure in the GDR and the reunified Germany.


Personality Cults In Stalinism

Author by : Klaus Heller
Languange : de
Publisher by : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
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The Teacher And Student In Literature

Author by : Robert Eidelberg
Languange : en
Publisher by : Xlibris Corporation
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Description : The information about the book is not available as of this time.


The Personality Cult Of Stalin In Soviet Posters 1929 1953

Author by : Anita Pisch
Languange : en
Publisher by : ANU Press
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Description : From 1929 until 1953, Iosif Stalin’s image became a central symbol in Soviet propaganda. Touched up images of an omniscient Stalin appeared everywhere: emblazoned across buildings and lining the streets; carried in parades and woven into carpets; and saturating the media of socialist realist painting, statuary, monumental architecture, friezes, banners, and posters. From the beginning of the Soviet regime, posters were seen as a vitally important medium for communicating with the population of the vast territories of the USSR. Stalin’s image became a symbol of Bolshevik values and the personification of a revolutionary new type of society. The persona created for Stalin in propaganda posters reflects how the state saw itself or, at the very least, how it wished to appear in the eyes of the people. The ‘Stalin’ who was celebrated in posters bore but scant resemblance to the man Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, whose humble origins, criminal past, penchant for violent solutions and unprepossessing appearance made him an unlikely recipient of uncritical charismatic adulation. The Bolsheviks needed a wise, nurturing and authoritative figure to embody their revolutionary vision and to legitimate their hold on power. This leader would come to embody the sacred and archetypal qualities of the wise Teacher, the Father of the nation, the great Warrior and military strategist, and the Saviour of first the Russian land, and then the whole world. This book is the first dedicated study on the marketing of Stalin in Soviet propaganda posters. Drawing on the archives of libraries and museums throughout Russia, hundreds of previously unpublished posters are examined, with more than 130 reproduced in full colour. The personality cult of Stalin in Soviet posters, 1929–1953 is a unique and valuable contribution to the discourse in Stalinist studies across a number of disciplines.


The Thaw

Author by : Denis Kozlov
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Toronto Press
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Description : The period from Stalin's death in 1953 to the end of the 1960s marked a crucial epoch in Soviet history. Though not overtly revolutionary, this era produced significant shifts in policies, ideas, language, artistic practices, daily behaviours, and material life. It was also during this time that social, cultural, and intellectual processes in the USSR began to parallel those in the West (and particularly in Europe) as never before. This volume examines in fascinating detail the various facets of Soviet life during the 1950s and 1960s, a period termed the 'Thaw.' Featuring innovative research by historical, literary, and film scholars from across the world, this book helps to answer fundamental questions about the nature and ultimate fortune of the Soviet order – both in its internal dynamics and in its long-term and global perspectives.


Scottish Literary Journal

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Henry Crabb Robinson

Author by : Philipp Hunnekuhl
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : Henry Crabb Robinson (1775-1867) earned his place in literary history as a perceptive diarist from 1811 onwards. Drawing substantially on hitherto unpublished manuscript sources, this book discusses his formal and informal engagement with a wide variety of English and European literature prior to this point. Robinson emerges as a pioneering literary critic whose unique philosophical erudition underpinned his activity as a cross-cultural disseminator of literature during the early Romantic period. A Dissenter barred from the English universities, Robinson educated himself thoroughly during his teenage years and began to publish in radical journals. Godwin's philosophy subsequently inspired his first theory of literature. When in Germany from 1800 to 1805, he became the leading British scholar of Kant, whose philosophy informed his discussions of Goethe, Schiller, Lessing, and August Wilhelm Schlegel. After his return to London, Robinson aided Hazlitt's understanding of Kant and, thus, Hazlitt's early career as a writer. His distinctive comparative criticism further enabled him to draw compelling parallels between Wordsworth, Blake, and Herder, and to discern 'moral excellence' in Christian Leberecht Heyne's Amathonte. This also prompted Robinson's transmission of Friedrich Schlegel and Jean Paul in 1811, as well as a profound exchange of ideas with Coleridge. In this new study, Philipp Hunnekuhl finds that Robinson's ingenious adaptation of Kantian aesthetic autonomy into a revolutionary theory of literature's moral relevance anticipated the current 'ethical turn' in literary studies.


Mass Mobilization In The Democratic Republic Of Vietnam 1945 1960

Author by : Alec Holcombe
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Hawaii Press
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Description : Immediately after its founding by Hồ Chí Minh in September 1945, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) faced challenges from rival Vietnamese political organizations and from a France determined to rebuild her empire after the humiliations of WWII. Hồ, with strategic genius, courageous maneuver, and good fortune, was able to delay full-scale war with France for sixteen months in the northern half of the country. This was enough time for his Communist Party, under the cover of its Vietminh front organization, to neutralize domestic rivals and install the rough framework of an independent state. That fledgling state became a weapon of war when the DRV and France finally came to blows in Hanoi during December of 1946, marking the official beginning of the First Indochina War. With few economic resources at their disposal, Hồ and his comrades needed to mobilize an enormous and free contribution in manpower and rice from DRV-controlled regions. Extracting that contribution during the war’s early days was primarily a matter of patriotic exhortation. By the early 1950s, however, the infusion of weapons from the United States, the Soviet Union, and China had turned the Indochina conflict into a “total war.” Hunger, exhaustion, and violence, along with the conflict’s growing political complexity, challenged the DRV leaders’ mobilization efforts, forcing patriotic appeals to be supplemented with coercion and terror. This trend reached its revolutionary climax in late 1952 when Hồ, under strong pressure from Stalin and Mao, agreed to carry out radical land reform in DRV-controlled areas of northern Vietnam. The regime’s 1954 victory over the French at Điện Biên Phủ, the return of peace, and the division of the country into North and South did not slow this process of socialist transformation. Over the next six years (1954–1960), the DRV’s Communist leaders raced through land reform and agricultural collectivization with a relentless sense of urgency. Mass Mobilization in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, 1945–1960 explores the way the exigencies of war, the dreams of Marxist-Leninist ideology, and the pressures of the Cold War environment combined with pride and patriotism to drive totalitarian state formation in northern Vietnam.


The Abc Of Sycophancy

Author by : Adrian Teodor Popan
Languange : en
Publisher by :
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Description : The purpose of this dissertation is to identify the structural conditions necessary for a cult of personality of state leaders to develop. I define the cult of personality of state leaders as quantitatively exaggerated and qualitatively extravagant public demonstration of praise of the leader. Although the subject has interested several disciplines, which produced a vast literature, bringing valuable insight for the study of the phenomenon, the causal explanations proposed so far are unsatisfactory, either because they cannot be generalized to all known cases, or because they cannot explain the lack of personality cults in otherwise similar dictatorships. Integrating the literature and further exploring the phenomenon from a historical comparative sociology perspective, I outline a causal explanation which avoids both pitfalls identified in the literature. Thus, I am confident that my theory is reliable, explaining all known cases of personality cults, and valid, as I test it against negative cases. The explanation presupposes a combination of necessary, but not sufficient, structural condition, and a path dependent chain of events which, together, lead to the cult formation. As stated, the present dissertation focuses only on the structural conditions. Starting from a thick description of the personality cult of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu, and testing the theory by comparing it with other cases of personality cults, I identify three necessary conditions: a particular combination of patrimonialism and clientelism, lack of dissidence, and systematic falsification pervading the society’s culture. Personality cults of state leaders depend on the presence of all three stated conditions.


Soviet Literature

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Images Of Dictatorship Routledge Library Editions Joseph Stalin

Author by : Rosalind Marsh
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : Originally published in 1989, this book presented the first study of the image of Stalin in literature. Analysing the literary presentaiton of historical character and the treatment of 20th Century tyrants in European prose fiction, the book draws a comparison between the depiction of Hitler in German literature and Stalin in Russian literature. It explores the way in which Stalin has been portrayed by Soviet, emigré Russian, and European writers including Orwell, Nabokov, Mandelstam, Pasternak and Solzhenitsyn. It examines in detail two important novels which had hitherto received little critical attention: the revised (1978) version of Sozhenitsyn's The First Circle and Anatoly Rybakov's Children of the Arbat. This book will be of interest to students of Soviet/Russian literature, history and politics and those intsted in the relationship between history and fiction in the 20th Century.


Myth Memory Trauma

Author by : Polly Jones
Languange : en
Publisher by : Yale University Press
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Description : Drawing on newly available materials from the Soviet archives, Polly Jones offers an innovative, comprehensive account of de-Stalinization in the Soviet Union during the Khrushchev and early Brezhnev eras. Jones traces the authorities' initiation and management of the de-Stalinization process and explores a wide range of popular reactions to the new narratives of Stalinism in party statements and in Soviet literature and historiography. Engaging with the dynamic field of memory studies, this book represents the first sustained comparison of this process with other countries' attempts to rethink their own difficult pasts, and with later Soviet and post-Soviet approaches to Stalinism.


World Literature Today

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Languange : en
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Relics Of Death In Victorian Literature And Culture

Author by : Deborah Lutz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : This literary and cultural study explores the practice in nineteenth-century Britain of treasuring objects that had belonged to the dead.


Generation Stalin

Author by : Andrew Sobanet
Languange : en
Publisher by : Indiana University Press
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Description : Generation Stalin traces Joseph Stalin's rise as a dominant figure in French political culture from the 1930s through the 1950s. Andrew Sobanet brings to light the crucial role French writers played in building Stalin's cult of personality and in disseminating Stalinist propaganda in the international Communist sphere, including within the USSR. Based on a wide array of sources—literary, cinematic, historical, and archival—Generation Stalin situates in a broad cultural context the work of the most prominent intellectuals affiliated with the French Communist Party, including Goncourt winner Henri Barbusse, Nobel laureate Romain Rolland, renowned poet Paul Eluard, and canonical literary figure Louis Aragon. Generation Stalin arrives at a pivotal moment, with the Stalin cult and elements of Stalinist ideology resurgent in twenty-first-century Russia and authoritarianism on the rise around the world.


Adolescent Literature As A Complement To The Content Areas

Author by : Paula Greathouse
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman & Littlefield
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Description : This text offers 6th - 12th grade educators guided instructional approaches for including young adult (YA) literature in the social sciences and humanities classroom in order to promote literacy development while learning content.


Problems Of Communism

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The Chinese Debate About Soviet Socialism 1978 1985

Author by : Gilbert Rozman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Princeton University Press
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Description : This study, based largely on Chinese journals rarely available to Western scholars, explores the abrupt turnabout of Chinese views of the Soviet Union from condemnations of revisionism" to appreciation for problems common to both countries. Originally published in 1987. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.


Politics And Literature In Mongolia 1921 1948

Author by : Simon Wickhamsmith
Languange : en
Publisher by : Amsterdam University Press
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Description : This study investigates the relationship between literature and politics during Mongolia's early revolutionary period. Between the 1921 socialist revolution and the first Writers' Congress, held in April 1948, the literary community constituted a key resource in the formation and implementation of policy. At the same time, debates within the party, discontent among the population, and questions of religion and tradition led to personal and ideological conflict among the intelligentsia and, in many cases, to trials and executions. Using primary texts, many of them translated into English for the first time, Simon Wickhamsmith shows the role played by the literary arts - poetry, fiction and drama - in the complex development of the "new society," helping to bring Mongolia's nomadic herding population into the utopia of equality, industrial progress and social well-being promised by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party.


Fictions Of Power In English Literature

Author by : Lee Horsley
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : As a result of its imperial role, Britain was closely involved with such romantic and disruptive myths of power such as the imperial adventure hero and the self-deified charismatic leader. Lee Horsley explores fictional representations of political power during this period, surveying a wide range of texts from the adventure story, romance, thriller and science fiction to the novels of Conrad, Huxley, Orwell and Greene.


The Cult Of Personality Testing

Author by : Annie Murphy Paul
Languange : en
Publisher by : Simon and Schuster
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Description : Award-winning psychology writer Annie Paul delivers a scathing exposé on the history and effects of personality tests. Millions of people worldwide take personality tests each year to direct their education, to decide on a career, to determine if they'll be hired, to join the armed forces, and to settle legal disputes. Yet, according to award-winning psychology writer Annie Murphy Paul, the sheer number of tests administered obscures a simple fact: they don't work. Most personality tests are seriously flawed, and sometimes unequivocally wrong. They fail the field's own standards of validity and reliability. They ask intrusive questions. They produce descriptions of people that are nothing like human beings as they actually are: complicated, contradictory, changeable across time and place. The Cult Of Personality Testing documents, for the first time, the disturbing consequences of these tests. Children are being labeled in limiting ways. Businesses and the government are wasting hundreds of millions of dollars every year, only to make ill-informed decisions about hiring and firing. Job seekers are having their privacy invaded and their rights trampled, and our judicial system is being undermined by faulty evidence. Paul's eye-opening chronicle reveals the fascinating history behind a lucrative and largely unregulated business. Captivating, insightful, and sometimes shocking, The Cult Of Personality Testing offers an exhilarating trip into the human mind and heart.


Literature History And Identity In Post Soviet Russia 1991 2006

Author by : Rosalind J. Marsh
Languange : en
Publisher by : Peter Lang
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Description : "The aim of this book is to explore some of the main pre-occupations of literature, culture and criticism dealing with historical themes in post-Soviet Russia, focusing mainly on literature in the years 1991 to 2006." --introd.


Power And Literature

Author by : Florin Oprescu
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
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Description : At the core of this book lies the relation between Power (as socio-political phenomenon) and the novel (as literary discourse). It shows that, in a society facing the excess of power in its various forms, novelistic fiction mediates knowledge about societal Power structures and uses specific strategies to subvert and denounce them. The first part of the study is theoretical: it presents some of the most prominent theories of Power, from Plato, Machiavelli, Nietzsche to Weber, Dahl, Lukes, Parsons, Bourdieu or Foucault. After offering a critical approach to the concepts of Power defined in the social, political and philosophical fields, it articulates the relations of Power imprinted in literary discourse within a typology of four categories. In the second part of the book, this taxonomy of Power is applied to four key novels in the context of Romanian "literary crossroads", showing how novelistic fiction not only assume a critical and subversive position against the excess of Power, but also unveils our fragility when experiencing History.