Recent Advancements in Microbial Diversity

Recent Advancements in Microbial Diversity
Author: Jae Youl Cho
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 488
Release: 2022-03-17
ISBN: 0128223685
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Recent Advancements in Microbial Diversity Book Excerpt:

In recent years, researchers around the globe have deep dived into the fascination world of the Macrophage and its diverse role in tissue development, angiogenesis, and wound healing, and above all the untapped mystery of the wondering immune system within our body. Macrophages and their role in inflammation includes all the latest information of macrophages and inflammation as well as it provides an in-depth understanding of this complex and rapidly progressing field of study. Outlines the role of macrophages in inflammation Contains chapters by leading authors on the basic and translational aspects of macrophage biology Deals with internal and external treats

Macrophages Biology and Role in the Pathology of Diseases

Macrophages  Biology and Role in the Pathology of Diseases
Author: Subhra K. Biswas,Alberto Mantovani
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 615
Release: 2014-11-12
ISBN: 1493913115
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Macrophages Biology and Role in the Pathology of Diseases Book Excerpt:

Macrophages are a key component of the innate immune system and play an integral role in host defense and homeostasis. On one hand, these cells contribute to host defence by triggering inflammation, displaying microbicidal/tumoricidal properties, regulating the activation of adaptive immunity and promoting resolution of inflammation. On the other hand, they contribute to essential trophic functions such as neural patterning, bone morphogenesis and ductal branching in mammary glands. Thus, macrophages are extremely versatile cells that can respond efficiently to tissue micro environmental cues by polarizing to distinct phenotypes, depending on the functions they need to perform. Indeed, functional diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of these cells. Macrophages may also play a detrimental role. An overwhelming body of literature has indicated their crucial role in pathogenesis. The list includes sepsis, cancer, metabolic syndrome, immunodeficiency, auto-immune disease-virtually impacting every major pathology that we know. These observations have suggested macrophages and their related molecules as potential targets in therapeutic applications. Available evidence proclaims macrophages as a key player in homeostasis, host defense and disease. Crucial developments in the past few years call for a re-evaluation and update of our understanding of macrophages. The present book is an endeavour that attempts provide state-of-the art knowledge of these cells in health and disease.

Toll like Receptors in Inflammation

Toll like Receptors in Inflammation
Author: Luke A.J. O'Neill,Elizabeth Brint
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 268
Release: 2005-12-09
ISBN: 9783764372859
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Toll like Receptors in Inflammation Book Excerpt:

A repertoire of 10 TLRs mediate the first response to all microbes that infect mammals. They are the long sought receptors for a wide range of microbial products. Notable examples include TLR4 which recognizes LPS from gram negative bacteria, TLR3 which recognizes viral double-stranded RNA and TLR9 which recognizes CpG DNA motifs, found commonly in both viruses and bacteria. TLRs are increasingly being implicated in both infectious and inflammatory diseases, notable examples being sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis and asthma. There is therefore great interest in targeting TLRs therapeutically since blocking TLRs will result in a decrease in the production of inflammatory mediators such as TNF. This volume covers our current understanding of TLRs, and their role in inflammation. Given the primacy of TLRs in the inflammatory process and their emerging role in inflammatory diseases the book is of great interest to researchers working in inflammation and immunology.

Macrophage Activation

Macrophage Activation
Author: Khalid Hussain Bhat
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 134
Release: 2020-03-25
ISBN: 1789846447
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Macrophage Activation Book Excerpt:

Macrophages are the sentinels of the immune system whose role has evolved beyond providing aseptic conditions to homeostasis, immune regulation, development, and behaviour. These cells have varied ontogenetic origins which reflects in their phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. Macrophage functions are fine-tuned by exogenous and endogenous signals and once tweaked, the information is included in their genetic makeup, albeit not indefinitely. Subversion of the macrophage functions is the hallmark of many pathogenic organisms and modulation of macrophage activity is pivotal to many therapeutic strategies. Fascinating and rapid developments in this field have necessitated the maintenance of currency of knowledge. This book provides a current account of information on varied topics in macrophage biology. Literature surveys have been presented in a captivating and lucid language. The contributing authors have also provided brief accounts of their own research. Every chapter provides a future perspective of what more could be achieved in the context of the current knowledge. The book will be of interest to students and researchers in microbiology, immunobiology, translational research, pathology, and related fields.

Macrophages in inflammation and its resolution

Macrophages in inflammation and its resolution
Author: Heiko Mühl,Patrizia Rovere-Querini,Amiram Ariel,Jerrold S. Levine,Isabelle Maridonneau-Parini
Publsiher: Frontiers E-books
Total Pages: 139
Release: 2022
ISBN: 2889190730
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Macrophages in inflammation and its resolution Book Excerpt:

Macrophages were initially identified as a key element in the innate host response to infection and injury due to their phagocytic clearance and elimination of pathogenic and non-pathogenic entities. However, as macrophage research advanced it became clear that not only are these cells amenable to the acquisition of multiple plastic phenotypes during inflammatory responses to different pathogens, they also play a paramount role in the termination of inflammation and acquired immune responses. In addition, macrophages profoundly affect host physiology when they migrate to distant sites and differentiate to specialized cells, like foam cells, osteoclasts, adipose tissue- and tumor -associated macrophages and other macrophage-derived cell types. These processes are affected by the inflammation-resolution axis and can result in health threats, such as atherosclerosis, bone loss, obesity, fibrosis and cancer. This Research Topic issue will cover a wide range of topics in macrophage biology: 1. Macrophages in immune responses to pathogens 2. Macrophages in the termination of acute and acquired immunity. 3. The role of macrophages and their descendents in inflammation-associated pathologies. 4. Macrophage polarization and differentiation. Particular focus will be given to the modulation of macrophage phenotype and function following their encounter with apoptotic cells and the signaling cascades that govern these changes.

Macrophages in the Human Body

Macrophages in the Human Body
Author: Niels Olson Saraiva Camara,Tárcio Teodoro Braga
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 322
Release: 2022-06-15
ISBN: 012821385X
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Macrophages in the Human Body Book Excerpt:

Through recent research, there has been a significant number of findings involving the biology of macrophages. Beyond the 1st line of defense, macrophages have several specific characteristics across different tissues, organs, and systems. Macrophages comprehend a heterogeneous phagocytic population with wide range phenotypes, and tissue-specific functions, such as bone resorption, extracellular matrix production, red blood cells and bacteria removal, among others. Through innate immune receptors macrophages can modulate several pathways that culminate in the production of various types of inflammatory mediators such as chemokines, cytokines, oxygen reactive species, and lipid mediators which ultimately altered the behavior of other cells. Moreover, environment signals modify and induce metabolic reprograming that it alters phenotype and functions. Macrophages in the Human Body: A Tissue Level Approach presents a current overview of the diversity of macrophages across multiple human body systems, their phenotype, function and metabolic characteristics. It covers translational aspects where there is research support to indicate the therapeutic potential. Covers translational aspects where there is research support to indicate potential therapeutic potential Aims at presenting a current overview of the diversity of macrophages across multiple human body systems, their phenotype, function and metabolic characteristics Introduces Macrophages generally and dive into the organ/tissue/specific representations covering their phenotype, function, and metabolic characteristics Brings updated aspects of macrophages biology

Angiogenesis in Inflammation Mechanisms and Clinical Correlates

Angiogenesis in Inflammation  Mechanisms and Clinical Correlates
Author: Michael Seed,David A. Walsh
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 180
Release: 2008-11-14
ISBN: 3764376503
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Angiogenesis in Inflammation Mechanisms and Clinical Correlates Book Excerpt:

This much-needed text develops current knowledge on the mechanisms of angiogenesis at the molecular and cellular levels as they relate to inflammation, including acute and chronic inflammation, neurogenic initiation, and the role of the multiple cellular components that comprise inflammation. The volume brings together experts in each of these fields to link the molecular and cellular processes in angiogenesis to those of inflammation and disease, culminating in a discourse on areas for future therapies.

Macrophages Role in Integrating Tissue Signals and Biological Processes in Chronic Inflammation and Fibrosis

Macrophages Role in Integrating Tissue Signals and Biological Processes in Chronic Inflammation and Fibrosis
Author: Tarcio Teodoro Braga,Ivan C. Moura,Ana Paula Lepique,Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 104
Release: 2017-10-13
ISBN: 2889453324
Category: Electronic book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Macrophages Role in Integrating Tissue Signals and Biological Processes in Chronic Inflammation and Fibrosis Book Excerpt:

Macrophages comprehend a heterogeneous mononuclear phagocytic population with wide range phenotypes and roles in homeostasis maintenance and diseases, such as infections, autoimmunity and cancer. Technology improvements enable researchers to track different macrophage populations in different tissues and situations and hypothesize on their role in promoting inflammation or stimulating tissue repair. Through innate immune recognition system macrophages can launch several effector artilleries that culminate in the production of various types of inflammatory mediators as cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators and oxygen reactive species, which in turn, influence the behavior of other cells. Furthermore, macrophages and interacting cells are also susceptible to metabolic changes that ultimately will define the outcome macrophage signaling and its effect in the tissue. Here, we present a concise series of discussions on the role of macrophages, its response to the microenvironment and effects on other cells during tissue injury and repair. Triggering of inflammasome in macrophage activation and function is of special interest in this issue. We will emphasize the role of different macrophage subpopulations and the plasticity of these cells during fibrotic process in different models of diseases.

Phagocytosis past and future

Phagocytosis   past and future
Author: Liana Bolis
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2012-12-02
ISBN: 0323144691
Category: Nature
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phagocytosis past and future Book Excerpt:

Phagocytosis—Past and Future is a collection of contributions by investigators who met in the Province of Messina, Sicily, in October 1980 to discuss the functions of phagocytic leukocytes in the host-parasite relationship. The topics discussed are largely in the areas of cell biology, cellular immunology, and biochemistry. They ranged from aspects of cellular movement and the ingestion process per se, to definition of substances that affect the function of phagocytic leukocytes and the nature of cidal mechanisms at the molecular level. This volume is organized into six sections encompassing 33 chapters and begins with an overview of Ilya Ilich Metchnikoff's life as well as his scientific contributions, particularly in the area of bacteriology and his research on mesodermal amoeboid cells. The next chapters focus on the mechanism of phagocytosis, with reference to aspects of cell membrane, cell movement, and ingestion. The reader is methodically introduced to the biochemical aspects of phagocytosis, from molecular modulations to energetics, oxygen radicals, and enzymes. The discussion then shifts to macrophages, their function in antigen recognition, receptor-mediated endocytosis in macrophage cell hybrids, and the role of phagocytosis in macrophage activation. The remaining chapters examine the cidal mechanisms of phagocytic leukocytes and aspects of inflammation. This book will be of interest to scientists and researchers in fields such as biology, biochemistry, immunology, pathology, pharmacology, and physiology.

Stretch Intensity and the Inflammatory Response A Paradigm Shift

Stretch Intensity and the Inflammatory Response  A Paradigm Shift
Author: Nikos C. Apostolopoulos
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 231
Release: 2018-12-27
ISBN: 3319968009
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stretch Intensity and the Inflammatory Response A Paradigm Shift Book Excerpt:

In this manuscript, practitioners and students who are concerned with sports and rehabilitation medicine, kinesiology, as well as coaches and athletes, are introduced to numerous concepts, including mechanotransduction, inflammation, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, calpains, the extracellular matrix, neutrophils and macrophages, and their relevance to stretching, particularly stretching intensity. Although the quantitative parameters of training, duration, and frequency are important, it is the qualitative criterion of intensity (“how much”) that the author suggests is ultimately of greater concern. Intensity, the rate and magnitude of force, may be responsible for the proper recovery, regeneration, and adaptation of the musculoskeletal tissues from training, competition, or rehabilitation from injuries. Research suggests that too much force results in the stimulation of an inflammatory response, one associated with a biochemical feedback emerging from a mechanical stimulus. The intent of this manuscript is twofold: to initiate the discussion of the importance of stretching intensity with regard to proper recovery, regeneration, and adaptation, and to suggest that researchers need to explore its potential role in addressing numerous inflammatory (RA) and non-inflammatory (OA, recurrent tendinitis etc.) musculoskeletal conditions as well.

The Role of NR4A Orphan Nuclear Receptors in Glucose Metabolism and Inflammation

The Role of NR4A Orphan Nuclear Receptors in Glucose Metabolism and Inflammation
Author: Liming Pei
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 244
Release: 2006
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Role of NR4A Orphan Nuclear Receptors in Glucose Metabolism and Inflammation Book Excerpt:

Targeting Monocytes Macrophages to Treat Atherosclerotic Inflammation

Targeting Monocytes Macrophages to Treat Atherosclerotic Inflammation
Author: Alessandro Corti,Caroline Gaucher,Alfonso Pompella
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 127
Release: 2020-03-23
ISBN: 2889635996
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Targeting Monocytes Macrophages to Treat Atherosclerotic Inflammation Book Excerpt:

Macrophages in the Human Body

Macrophages in the Human Body
Author: Niels Olson Saraiva Camara,Tárcio Teodoro Braga
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 322
Release: 2022-06-20
ISBN: 0128213868
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Macrophages in the Human Body Book Excerpt:

Through recent research, there has been a significant number of findings involving the biology of macrophages. Beyond the 1st line of defense, macrophages have several specific characteristics across different tissues, organs, and systems. Macrophages comprehend a heterogeneous phagocytic population with wide range phenotypes, and tissue-specific functions, such as bone resorption, extracellular matrix production, red blood cells and bacteria removal, among others. Through innate immune receptors macrophages can modulate several pathways that culminate in the production of various types of inflammatory mediators such as chemokines, cytokines, oxygen reactive species, and lipid mediators which ultimately altered the behavior of other cells. Moreover, environment signals modify and induce metabolic reprograming that it alters phenotype and functions. Macrophages in the Human Body: A Tissue Level Approach presents a current overview of the diversity of macrophages across multiple human body systems, their phenotype, function and metabolic characteristics. It covers translational aspects where there is research support to indicate the therapeutic potential. Covers translational aspects where there is research support to indicate potential therapeutic potential Aims at presenting a current overview of the diversity of macrophages across multiple human body systems, their phenotype, function and metabolic characteristics Introduces Macrophages generally and dive into the organ/tissue/specific representations covering their phenotype, function, and metabolic characteristics Brings updated aspects of macrophages biology

M1 M2 Macrophages The Arginine Fork in the Road to Health and Disease

M1 M2 Macrophages  The Arginine Fork in the Road to Health and Disease
Author: Charles Dudley Mills,Laurel L Lenz,Klaus Ley
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 281
Release: 2015-03-23
ISBN: 288919499X
Category: Immunologic diseases
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

M1 M2 Macrophages The Arginine Fork in the Road to Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

Macrophages have unique and diverse functions necessary for survival. And, in humans (and other species), they are the most abundant leukocytes in tissues. The Innate functions of macrophages that are best known are their unusual ability to either “Kill” or “Repair”. Since killing is a destructive process and repair is a constructive process, it was stupefying how one cell could exhibit these 2 polar – opposite functions. However, in the late 1980’s, it was shown that macrophages have a unique ability to enzymatically metabolize Arginine to Nitric Oxide (NO, a gaseous non – specific killer molecule) or to Ornithine (a precursor of polyamines and collagen for repair). The dual Arginine metabolic capacity of macrophages provided a functional explanation for their ability to kill or repair. Macrophages predominantly producing NO are called M1 and those producing Ornithine are called M2. M1 and M2 – dominant responses occur in lower vertebrates, and in T cell deficient vertebrates being directly driven by Damage and Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMP and PAMP). Thus, M1 and M2 are Innate responses that protect the host without Adaptive Immunity. In turn, M1/M2 is supplanting previous models in which T cells were necessary to “activate” or “alternatively activate” macrophages (the Th1/Th2 paradigm). M1 and M2 macrophages were named such because of the additional key findings that these macrophages stimulate Th1 and Th2 – like responses, respectively. So, in addition to their unique ability to kill or repair, macrophages also govern Adaptive Immunity. All of the foregoing would be less important if M1 or M2 – dominant responses were not observed in disease. But, they are. The best example to date is the predominance of M2 macrophages in human tumors where they act like wound repair macrophages and actively promote growth. More generally, humans have become M2 – dominant because sanitation, antibiotics and vaccines have lessened M1 responses. And, M2 dominance seems the cause of ever - increasing allergies in developed countries. Obesity represents a new and different circumstance. Surfeit energy (e.g., lipoproteins) causes monocytes to become M1 dominant in the vessel walls causing plaques. Because M1 or M2 dominant responses are clearly causative in many modern diseases, there is great potential in developing the means to selectively stimulate (or inhibit) either M1 or M2 responses to kill or repair, or to stimulate Th1 or Th2 responses, depending on the circumstance. The contributions here are meant to describe diseases of M1 or M2 dominance, and promising new methodologies to modulate the fungible metabolic machinery of macrophages for better health.

Immunosuppression

Immunosuppression
Author: Suman Kapur,Maristela Portela
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 488
Release: 2012-02-24
ISBN: 9535101528
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Immunosuppression Book Excerpt:

A need for a book on immunology which primarily focuses on the needs of medical and clinical research students was recognized. This book, "Immunosuppression - Role in Health and Diseases" is relatively short and contains topics relevant to the understanding of human immune system and its role in health and diseases. Immunosuppression involves an act that reduces the activation or efficacy of the immune system. Therapeutic immunosuppression has applications in clinical medicine, ranging from prevention and treatment of organ/bone marrow transplant rejection, management of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It brings important developments both in the field of molecular mechanisms involved and active therapeutic approaches employed for immunosuppression in various human disease conditions. There was a need to bring this information together in a single volume, as much of the recent developments are dispersed throughout biomedical literature, largely in specialized journals. This book will serve well the practicing physicians, surgeons and biomedical scientists as it provides an insight into various approaches to immunosuppression and reviews current developments in each area.

Macrophage Targeted Delivery Systems

Macrophage Targeted Delivery Systems
Author: Swati Gupta,Yashwant V. Pathak
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 556
Release: 2022-02-22
ISBN: 3030841642
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Macrophage Targeted Delivery Systems Book Excerpt:

The proposed book is envisioned for the nascent and entry-level researchers who are interested to work in the field of drug delivery and its applications specifically for macrophage targeting. Macrophages have gained substantial attention as therapeutic targets for drug delivery considering their major role in health and regulation of diseases. Macrophage-targeted therapeutics have now added significant value to the lives and quality of life of patients, without undue adverse effects in multiple disease settings. We anticipate examining and integrating the role of macrophages in the instigation and advancement of various diseases. The major focus of the book is on recent advancements in various targeting strategies using delivery systems or nanocarriers followed by application of these nanocarriers for the treatment of macrophage associated disorders. Macrophage Targeted Delivery Systems is primarily targeted to Pharmaceutical Industry & Academia, Medical & Pharmaceutical Professionals, Undergraduate & Post graduate students and Research Scholars, Ph.D, post docs working in the field of medical and pharmaceutical sciences.

Macrophages

Macrophages
Author: Malgorzata Kloc
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 376
Release: 2017-04-26
ISBN: 3319540904
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Macrophages Book Excerpt:

This volume gives a state-of-the-art overview on macrophage functions in various invertebrate and vertebrate systems and diseases. It also covers various aspects of macrophage development and formation, behavior and response to nano- and biomaterials, the latter of which have become very important components of modern medicine. Macrophages are evolutionarily conserved phagocytotic cells. In recent years macrophages have emerged as one of the most versatile cells of immune system, which, depending on the milieu and circumstance, participate in development or inhibition of cancer, regeneration, wound healing, inflammation, organ rejection and interaction between mother and a fetus. This book will be of particular interest to researchers working in immunology, cancer research, developmental biology, or related fields.

Inflammation and Hypoxia

Inflammation and Hypoxia
Author: Carine White
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 198
Release: 2008
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Anoxemia
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Inflammation and Hypoxia Book Excerpt:

Copper is an essential cofactor of enzymes involved in a variety of important metabolic processes including ATP production, iron transport, and antioxidant defense. The maintenance of copper homeostasis requires a balance of copper uptake and export, as well as the appropriate partitioning of copper between the cytoplasm, mitochondria and secretory compartments. Although many of the proteins involved in copper homeostasis have been identified, it is unknown whether specific pathophysiological conditions lead to compensatory changes in the intracellular copper distribution. In this study, we identify changes in copper homeostasis in response to pro-inflammatory mediators. We also show a novel role for the copper-transporting ATPase, ATP7A, in the bactericidal activity of RAW264.7 macrophage cell. We also identify striking alterations in copper homeostasis in response to hypoxia in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. In response to hypoxia, we observe a change in the hierarchy of intracellular distribution favoring delivery of copper to ATP7A and to the secretory pathway, as evidenced by enhanced activity of the ferroxidase, ceruloplasmin, and by copper-dependent trafficking of ATP7A in hypoxic macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Our study underscores the potential for pathophysiological conditions to regulate adaptive responses involving altered copper distribution to cuproenzymes.

Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry

Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 339
Release: 1977-10-05
ISBN: 0080583563
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry Book Excerpt:

Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry

Macrophages in Liver Disease

Macrophages in Liver Disease
Author: Ruchi Bansal,Pranoti Mandrekar,Sujit K. Mohanty,Ralf Weiskirchen
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 178
Release: 2020-10-08
ISBN: 2889660389
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Macrophages in Liver Disease Book Excerpt:

This eBook is a collection of articles from a Frontiers Research Topic. Frontiers Research Topics are very popular trademarks of the Frontiers Journals Series: they are collections of at least ten articles, all centered on a particular subject. With their unique mix of varied contributions from Original Research to Review Articles, Frontiers Research Topics unify the most influential researchers, the latest key findings and historical advances in a hot research area! Find out more on how to host your own Frontiers Research Topic or contribute to one as an author by contacting the Frontiers Editorial Office: frontiersin.org/about/contact.