Memory and the Computational Brain

Memory and the Computational Brain
Author: C. R. Gallistel,Adam Philip King
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2011-09-09
ISBN: 1444359762
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Memory and the Computational Brain Book Excerpt:

Memory and the Computational Brain offers a provocative argument that goes to the heart of neuroscience, proposing that the field can and should benefit from the recent advances of cognitive science and the development of information theory over the course of the last several decades. A provocative argument that impacts across the fields of linguistics, cognitive science, and neuroscience, suggesting new perspectives on learning mechanisms in the brain Proposes that the field of neuroscience can and should benefit from the recent advances of cognitive science and the development of information theory Suggests that the architecture of the brain is structured precisely for learning and for memory, and integrates the concept of an addressable read/write memory mechanism into the foundations of neuroscience Based on lectures in the prestigious Blackwell-Maryland Lectures in Language and Cognition, and now significantly reworked and expanded to make it ideal for students and faculty

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Cognitive Science

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Cognitive Science
Author: Eric Margolis,Richard Samuels,Stephen P. Stich
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2012-01-10
ISBN: 0199921458
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Cognitive Science Book Excerpt:

The philosophy of cognitive science is concerned with fundamental philosophical and theoretical questions connected to the sciences of the mind. How does the brain give rise to conscious experience? Does speaking a language change how we think? Is a genuinely intelligent computer possible? What features of the mind are innate? Advances in cognitive science have given philosophers important tools for addressing these sorts of questions; and cognitive scientists have, in turn, found themselves drawing upon insights from philosophy-insights that have often taken their research in novel directions. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Cognitive Science brings together twenty-one newly commissioned chapters by leading researchers in this rich and fast-growing area of philosophy. It is an indispensible resource for anyone who seeks to understand the implications of cognitive science for philosophy, and the role of philosophy within cognitive science.

Cognitive Science

Cognitive Science
Author: Harald Maurer
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2021-07-09
ISBN: 1351043501
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cognitive Science Book Excerpt:

The Mind and Brain are usually considered as one and the same nonlinear, complex dynamical system, in which information processing can be described with vector and tensor transformations and with attractors in multidimensional state spaces. Thus, an internal neurocognitive representation concept consists of a dynamical process which filters out statistical prototypes from the sensorial information in terms of coherent and adaptive n-dimensional vector fields. These prototypes serve as a basis for dynamic, probabilistic predictions or probabilistic hypotheses on prospective new data (see the recently introduced approach of "predictive coding" in neurophilosophy). Furthermore, the phenomenon of sensory and language cognition would thus be based on a multitude of self-regulatory complex dynamics of synchronous self-organization mechanisms, in other words, an emergent "flux equilibrium process" ("steady state") of the total collective and coherent neural activity resulting from the oscillatory actions of neuronal assemblies. In perception it is shown how sensory object informations, like the object color or the object form, can be dynamically related together or can be integrated to a neurally based representation of this perceptual object by means of a synchronization mechanism ("feature binding"). In language processing it is shown how semantic concepts and syntactic roles can be dynamically related together or can be integrated to neurally based systematic and compositional connectionist representations by means of a synchronization mechanism ("variable binding") solving the Fodor-Pylyshyn-Challenge. Since the systemtheoretical connectionism has succeeded in modeling the sensory objects in perception as well as systematic and compositional representations in language processing with this vector- and oscillation-based representation format, a new, convincing theory of neurocognition has been developed, which bridges the neuronal and the cognitive analysis level. The book describes how elementary neuronal information is combined in perception and language, so it becomes clear how the brain processes this information to enable basic cognitive performance of the humans.

Computational Models of Brain and Behavior

Computational Models of Brain and Behavior
Author: Ahmed A. Moustafa
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 584
Release: 2017-09-11
ISBN: 1119159075
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computational Models of Brain and Behavior Book Excerpt:

A comprehensive Introduction to the world of brain and behavior computational models This book provides a broad collection of articles covering different aspects of computational modeling efforts in psychology and neuroscience. Specifically, it discusses models that span different brain regions (hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia, visual cortex), different species (humans, rats, fruit flies), and different modeling methods (neural network, Bayesian, reinforcement learning, data fitting, and Hodgkin-Huxley models, among others). Computational Models of Brain and Behavior is divided into four sections: (a) Models of brain disorders; (b) Neural models of behavioral processes; (c) Models of neural processes, brain regions and neurotransmitters, and (d) Neural modeling approaches. It provides in-depth coverage of models of psychiatric disorders, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, and dyslexia; models of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and epilepsy; early sensory and perceptual processes; models of olfaction; higher/systems level models and low-level models; Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning; linking information theory to neurobiology; and more. Covers computational approximations to intellectual disability in down syndrome Discusses computational models of pharmacological and immunological treatment in Alzheimer's disease Examines neural circuit models of serotonergic system (from microcircuits to cognition) Educates on information theory, memory, prediction, and timing in associative learning Computational Models of Brain and Behavior is written for advanced undergraduate, Master's and PhD-level students—as well as researchers involved in computational neuroscience modeling research.

Neuroscience and Multilingualism

Neuroscience and Multilingualism
Author: Edna Andrews
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2014-09-04
ISBN: 1316061094
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neuroscience and Multilingualism Book Excerpt:

How are languages represented in the human brain? Ideas from neuroscience have increasingly been applied to the study of language, exploring the neural processes involved in acquisition, maintenance and loss of language and languages, and the interaction between languages in bi- and multilingual speakers. With a sharp focus on multilingualism, this culmination of cutting-edge research sheds light on this challenging question. Using data from a variety of experiments, this is the first book length study to offer a new neuroscientific model for analysing multilingualism. Alongside a comprehensive analysis of the theoretical and experimental contributions to the field, it presents new data and analysis obtained from a multilingualism fMRI study. It also includes a unique longitudinal study of second and third language acquisition combined with extensive empirically valid language proficiency data of the subjects. A must-read for researchers and advanced students interested in neurolinguistics, second language acquisition, and bi- and multilingualism.

Cognitive Science and the Social

Cognitive Science and the Social
Author: Stephen P. Turner
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 226
Release: 2018-03-09
ISBN: 1351180509
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cognitive Science and the Social Book Excerpt:

The rise of cognitive neuroscience is the most important scientific and intellectual development of the last thirty years. Findings pour forth, and major initiatives for brain research continue. The social sciences have responded to this development slowly--for good reasons. The implications of particular controversial findings, such as the discovery of mirror neurons, have been ambiguous, controversial within neuroscience itself, and difficult to integrate with conventional social science. Yet many of these findings, such as those of experimental neuro-economics, pose very direct challenges to standard social science. At the same time, however, the known facts of social science, for example about linguistic and moral diversity, pose a significant challenge to standard neuroscience approaches, which tend to focus on "universal" aspects of human and animal cognition. A serious encounter between cognitive neuroscience and social science is likely to be challenging, and transformative, for both parties. Although a literature has developed on proposals to integrate neuroscience and social science, these proposals go in divergent directions. None of them has a developed conception of social life. This book surveys these issues, introduces the basic alternative conceptions both of the mental world and the social world, and show how, with sufficient modification, they can be fit together in plausible ways. The book is not a "new theory " of anything, but rather an exploration of the critical issues that relate to the social aspects of cognition which expands the topic from the social neuroscience of immediate interpersonal interaction to the whole range of places where social variation interacts with the cognitive. The focus is on the conceptual problems produced by any attempt to take these issues seriously, and also on the new resources and considerations relevant to doing so. But it is also on the need for a revision of social theoretical concepts in order to utilize these resources. The book points to some conclusions, especially about how the process of what was known as socialization needs to be understood in cognitive science friendly terms. But there is no attempt to resolve the underlying issues within cognitive science, which will doubtless persist.

Current Topics in Language

Current Topics in Language
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 402
Release: 2018-10-19
ISBN: 0128150939
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Current Topics in Language Book Excerpt:

Language, Volume 68, the latest release in the Psychology of Learning and Motivation, features empirical and theoretical contributions in cognitive and experimental psychology, ranging from classical and instrumental conditioning, to complex learning and problem-solving. Each chapter thoughtfully integrates the writings of leading contributors, with this volume presenting the latest on Perceptual Learning for Native and Non-Native Speech, Common representations of serial order in language and memory, Neurocomputational Emergentism as a framework for language development, Syntactic adaptation, Neural indices of structured sentence representation: state-of-the-art, A review of familial sinistrality and language, Monitoring and control in language production, and more. Presents the latest information in the highly regarded Psychology of Learning and Motivation series Provides an essential reference for researchers and academics in cognitive science Contains information relevant to both applied concerns and basic research

Cognitive Sciences and Medieval Studies

Cognitive Sciences and Medieval Studies
Author: Juliana Dresvina,Victoria Blud
Publsiher: University of Wales Press
Total Pages: 269
Release: 2020-11-01
ISBN: 1786836750
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cognitive Sciences and Medieval Studies Book Excerpt:

With the rapid development of the cognitive sciences and their importance to how we contemplate questions about the mind and society, recent research in the humanities has been characterised by a ‘cognitive turn’. For their part, the humanities play an important role in forming popular ideas of the human mind and in analysing the way cognitive, psychological and emotional phenomena are experienced in time and space. This collection aims to inspire medievalists and other scholars within the humanities to engage with the tools and investigative methodologies deriving from cognitive sciences. Contributors explore topics including medieval and modern philosophy of mind, the psychology of religion, the history of psychological medicine and the re-emergence of the body in cognition. What is the value of mapping how neurons fire when engaging with literature and art? How can we understand psychological stress as a historically specific phenomenon? What can medieval mystics teach us about contemplation and cognition?

Neurocognitive Mechanisms

Neurocognitive Mechanisms
Author: Gualtiero Piccinini
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2020-11-12
ISBN: 0192636049
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neurocognitive Mechanisms Book Excerpt:

In Neurocognitive Mechanisms Gualtiero Piccinini presents the most systematic, rigorous, and comprehensive philosophical defence to date of the computational theory of cognition. His view posits that cognition involves neural computation within multilevel neurocognitive mechanisms, and includes novel ideas about ontology, functions, neural representation, neural computation, and consciousness. He begins by defending an ontologically egalitarian account of composition and realization, according to which all levels are equally real. He then explicates multiple realizability and mechanisms within this ontologically egalitarian framework, defends a goal-contribution account of teleological functions, and defends a mechanistic version of functionalism. This provides the foundation for a mechanistic account of computation, which in turn clarifies the ways in which the computational theory of cognition is a multilevel mechanistic theory supported by contemporary cognitive neuroscience. Piccinini argues that cognition is computational at least in a generic sense. He defends the computational theory of cognition from standard objections, yet also rebuts putative a priori arguments. He contends that the typical vehicles of neural computations are representations, and that, contrary to the received view, the representations posited by the computational theory of cognition are observable and manipulatable in the laboratory. He also contends that neural computations are neither digital nor analog; instead, neural computations are sui generis. He concludes by investigating the relation between computation and consciousness, suggesting that consciousness may be a functional phenomenon without being computational in nature. This book will be of interest to philosophers of cognitive science as well as neuroscientists.

Computational Neuroscience for Advancing Artificial Intelligence Models Methods and Applications

Computational Neuroscience for Advancing Artificial Intelligence  Models  Methods and Applications
Author: Alonso, Eduardo,Mondrag¢n, Esther
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 396
Release: 2010-11-30
ISBN: 1609600231
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computational Neuroscience for Advancing Artificial Intelligence Models Methods and Applications Book Excerpt:

"This book argues that computational models in behavioral neuroscience must be taken with caution, and advocates for the study of mathematical models of existing theories as complementary to neuro-psychological models and computational models"--

Explanation and Integration in Mind and Brain Science

Explanation and Integration in Mind and Brain Science
Author: David M. Kaplan
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 269
Release: 2017
ISBN: 0199685509
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Explanation and Integration in Mind and Brain Science Book Excerpt:

Is the relationship between psychology and neuroscience one of autonomy or mutual constraint and integration? This volume includes new papers from leading philosophers seeking to address this issue by deepening our understanding of the similarities and differences between the explanatory patterns employed across these domains.

Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence

Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence
Author: Vincent C. Müller
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 572
Release: 2016-06-07
ISBN: 3319264850
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence Book Excerpt:

This volume offers a look at the fundamental issues of present and future AI, especially from cognitive science, computer science, neuroscience and philosophy. This work examines the conditions for artificial intelligence, how these relate to the conditions for intelligence in humans and other natural agents, as well as ethical and societal problems that artificial intelligence raises or will raise. The key issues this volume investigates include the relation of AI and cognitive science, ethics of AI and robotics, brain emulation and simulation, hybrid systems and cyborgs, intelligence and intelligence testing, interactive systems, multi-agent systems, and super intelligence. Based on the 2nd conference on “Theory and Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence” held in Oxford, the volume includes prominent researchers within the field from around the world.

Computational Issues in Fluid Construction Grammar

Computational Issues in Fluid Construction Grammar
Author: Luc STEELS
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 331
Release: 2012-10-30
ISBN: 3642341209
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computational Issues in Fluid Construction Grammar Book Excerpt:

This state-of-the-art-survey documents the Fluid Construction Grammar (FCG), a new formalism for the representation of lexicons and grammars, which has been used in a wide range of case studies for different languages, both for studying specific grammatical phenomena and design patterns, as for investigating language learning and language evolution. The book focuses on the many complex computational issues that arise when writing challenging real world grammars and hence emphasises depth of analysis rather than broad scope. The volume contains 13 contributions organized in 5 parts from "Basic", and "Implementation", over "Case Studies", and "Formal Analysis", up to 3 papers presenting a "Conclusion".

Learning and Memory A Comprehensive Reference

Learning and Memory  A Comprehensive Reference
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 2402
Release: 2017-07-07
ISBN: 0128052910
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Learning and Memory A Comprehensive Reference Book Excerpt:

Learning and Memory: A Comprehensive Reference, Second Edition is the authoritative resource for scientists and students interested in all facets of learning and memory. This updated edition includes chapters that reflect the state-of-the-art of research in this area. Coverage of sleep and memory has been significantly expanded, while neuromodulators in memory processing, neurogenesis and epigenetics are also covered in greater detail. New chapters have been included to reflect the massive increase in research into working memory and the educational relevance of memory research. No other reference work covers so wide a territory and in so much depth. Provides the most comprehensive and authoritative resource available on the study of learning and memory and its mechanisms Incorporates the expertise of over 150 outstanding investigators in the field, providing a ‘one-stop’ resource of reputable information from world-leading scholars with easy cross-referencing of related articles to promote understanding and further research Includes further reading for each chapter that helps readers continue their research Includes a glossary of key terms that is helpful for users who are unfamiliar with neuroscience terminology

On Concepts Modules and Language

On Concepts  Modules  and Language
Author: Roberto G. De Almeida,Lila R. Gleitman
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2018
ISBN: 019046478X
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

On Concepts Modules and Language Book Excerpt:

What are the landmarks of the cognitive revolution? What are the core topics of modern cognitive science? Where is cognitive science heading to? Leading cognitive scientists-Chomsky, Pylyshyn, Gallistel, and others-examine their own work in relation to one of cognitive science's most influential and polemical figures: Jerry Fodor.

The Cognitive Science of Belief

The Cognitive Science of Belief
Author: Julien Musolino,Joseph Sommer,Pernille Hemmer
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 627
Release: 2022-11-17
ISBN: 1009007475
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Cognitive Science of Belief Book Excerpt:

Beliefs play a central role in our lives. They lie at the heart of what makes us human, they shape the organization and functioning of our minds, they define the boundaries of our culture, and they guide our motivation and behavior. Given their central importance, researchers across a number of disciplines have studied beliefs, leading to results and literatures that do not always interact. The Cognitive Science of Belief aims to integrate these disconnected lines of research to start a broader dialogue on the nature, role, and consequences of beliefs. It tackles timeless questions, as well as applications of beliefs that speak to current social issues. This multidisciplinary approach to beliefs will benefit graduate students and researchers in cognitive science, psychology, philosophy, political science, economics, and religious studies.

The Philosophy of Cognitive Science

The Philosophy of Cognitive Science
Author: Mark J. Cain
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2015-11-30
ISBN: 150950205X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Philosophy of Cognitive Science Book Excerpt:

In recent decades cognitive science has revolutionised our understanding of the workings of the human mind. Philosophy has made a major contribution to cognitive science and has itself been hugely influenced by its development. This dynamic book explores the philosophical significance of cognitive science and examines the central debates that have enlivened its history. In a wide-ranging and comprehensive account of the topic, philosopher M.J. Cain discusses the historical origins of cognitive science and its philosophical underpinnings; the nature and role of representations in cognition; the architecture of the mind and the modularity thesis; the nature of concepts; knowledge of language and its acquisition; perception; and the relationship between the brain and cognition. Cain draws upon an extensive knowledge of empirical developments and their philosophical interpretation. He argues that although the field has generated some challenging new views in recent years, many of the core ideas that initiated its birth are still to be taken seriously. Clearly written and incisively argued, The Philosophy of Cognitive Science will appeal to any student or researcher interested in the workings of the mind.

Human Language

Human Language
Author: Peter Hagoort
Publsiher: MIT Press
Total Pages: 752
Release: 2019-10-29
ISBN: 0262353873
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Human Language Book Excerpt:

A unique overview of the human language faculty at all levels of organization. Language is not only one of the most complex cognitive functions that we command, it is also the aspect of the mind that makes us uniquely human. Research suggests that the human brain exhibits a language readiness not found in the brains of other species. This volume brings together contributions from a range of fields to examine humans' language capacity from multiple perspectives, analyzing it at genetic, neurobiological, psychological, and linguistic levels. In recent decades, advances in computational modeling, neuroimaging, and genetic sequencing have made possible new approaches to the study of language, and the contributors draw on these developments. The book examines cognitive architectures, investigating the functional organization of the major language skills; learning and development trajectories, summarizing the current understanding of the steps and neurocognitive mechanisms in language processing; evolutionary and other preconditions for communication by means of natural language; computational tools for modeling language; cognitive neuroscientific methods that allow observations of the human brain in action, including fMRI, EEG/MEG, and others; the neural infrastructure of language capacity; the genome's role in building and maintaining the language-ready brain; and insights from studying such language-relevant behaviors in nonhuman animals as birdsong and primate vocalization. Section editors Christian F. Beckmann, Carel ten Cate, Simon E. Fisher, Peter Hagoort, Evan Kidd, Stephen C. Levinson, James M. McQueen, Antje S. Meyer, David Poeppel, Caroline F. Rowland, Constance Scharff, Ivan Toni, Willem Zuidema

Computational Phenotypes

Computational Phenotypes
Author: Sergio Balari,Guillermo Lorenzo,Guillermo Lorenzo González
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 254
Release: 2013
ISBN: 019966546X
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computational Phenotypes Book Excerpt:

This is a book about language as a species-typical trait of humans. It argues that language is not so exceptional after all, as according to the authors it is just the human version of a rather common and conservative organic system that they refer to as the Central Computational Complex.

The Routledge Companion to Theism

The Routledge Companion to Theism
Author: Charles Taliaferro,Victoria S. Harrison,Stewart Goetz
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 754
Release: 2013
ISBN: 0415881641
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Routledge Companion to Theism Book Excerpt:

There are deep and pervasive disagreements today in universities and colleges, and popular culture in general, over the credibility and value of belief in God. This has given rise to an urgent need for a balanced, comprehensive, accessible resource book that can inform the public and scholarly debate over theism. While scholars with as diverse interests as Daniel Dennett, Terry Eagleton, Richard Dawkins, Jrgen Habermas, and Rowan Williams have recently contributed books to this debate, "theism" as a concept remains poorly understood and requires a more thorough and systematic analysis than it has so far received in any single volume. The Routledge Companion to Theism addresses this need by investigating theism's history as well as its relationship to inquiry in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities, and to its wider cultural contexts. The contents are not confined within the philosophy of religion or even within the more expansive borders of philosophy. Rather, The Routledge Companion to Theism investigates its subject through the lens of a wide variety of disciplines and explores the ramifications of theism considered as a way of life as well as an intellectual conviction. The five parts of the volume indicate its inclusive scope: I. What is Theism?; II. Theism and Inquiry; III. Theism and the Socio-Political Realm; IV. Theism and Culture; V. Theism as a Way of Life. The result is a well ordered and thorough collection that should provide a wide spectrum of readers with a better understanding of a subject that's much discussed, but frequently misunderstood. As the editors note in their Introduction, while stimulating and informing the contemporary debate, a key aim of the volume is to open new avenues of inquiry into theism and thereby to encourage further research into this vital topic. Comprised of 54 essays by leading scholars in philosophy, history, theology, religious studies, political science, education and sociology, The Routledge Companion to Theism promises to be the most useful, comprehensive resource on an emerging subject of interest for students and scholars.