Memory Systems

Memory Systems
Author: Bruce Jacob,Spencer Ng,David Wang
Publsiher: Morgan Kaufmann
Total Pages: 900
Release: 2010-07-28
ISBN: 9780080553849
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Memory Systems Book Excerpt:

Is your memory hierarchy stopping your microprocessor from performing at the high level it should be? Memory Systems: Cache, DRAM, Disk shows you how to resolve this problem. The book tells you everything you need to know about the logical design and operation, physical design and operation, performance characteristics and resulting design trade-offs, and the energy consumption of modern memory hierarchies. You learn how to to tackle the challenging optimization problems that result from the side-effects that can appear at any point in the entire hierarchy. As a result you will be able to design and emulate the entire memory hierarchy. Understand all levels of the system hierarchy -Xcache, DRAM, and disk. Evaluate the system-level effects of all design choices. Model performance and energy consumption for each component in the memory hierarchy.

The Evolution of Memory Systems

The Evolution of Memory Systems
Author: Kim S. Graham
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2016-11-03
ISBN: 0199686432
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Evolution of Memory Systems Book Excerpt:

Current theories about human memory have been shaped by clinical observations and animal experiments. This doctrine holds that the medial temporal lobe subserves one memory system for explicit or declarative memories, while the basal ganglia subserves a separate memory system for implicit or procedural memories, including habits. Cortical areas outside the medial temporal lobe are said to function in perception, motor control, attention, or other aspects of executive function, but not in memory. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' advances dramatically different ideas on all counts. It proposes that several memory systems arose during evolution and that they did so for the same general reason: to transcend problems and exploit opportunities encountered by specific ancestors at particular times and places in the distant past. Instead of classifying cortical areas in terms of mutually exclusive perception, executive, or memory functions, the authors show that all cortical areas contribute to memory and that they do so in their own ways-using specialized neural representations. The book also presents a proposal on the evolution of explicit memory. According to this idea, explicit (declarative) memory depends on interactions between a phylogenetically ancient navigation system and a representational system that evolved in humans to represent one's self and others. As a result, people embed representations of themselves into the events they experience and the facts they learn, which leads to the perception of participating in events and knowing facts. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' is an important new work for students and researchers in neuroscience, psychology, and biology.

Intelligent Memory Systems

Intelligent Memory Systems
Author: Frederic T. Chong,Christoforos Kozyrakis,Mark Oskin
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2003-06-29
ISBN: 3540445706
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Intelligent Memory Systems Book Excerpt:

We are pleased to present this collection of papers from the Second Workshop on Intelligent Memory Systems. Increasing die densities and inter chip communication costs continue to fuel interest in intelligent memory systems. Since the First Workshop on Mixing Logic and DRAM in 1997, technologies and systems for computation in memory have developed quickly. The focus of this workshop was to bring together researchers from academia and industry to discuss recent progress and future goals. The program committee selected 8 papers and 6 poster session abstracts from 29 submissions for inclusion in the workshop. Four to five members of the program committee reviewed each submission and their reviews were used to numerically rank them and guide the selection process. We believe that the resulting program is of the highest quality and interest possible. The selected papers cover a wide range of research topics such as circuit technology, processor and memory system architecture, compilers, operating systems, and applications. They also present a mix of mature projects, work in progress, and new research ideas. The workshop also included two invited talks. Dr. Subramanian Iyer (IBM Microelectronics) provided an overview of embedded memory technology and its potential. Dr. Mark Snir (IBM Research) presented the Blue Gene, an aggressive supercomputer system based on intelligent memory technology.

High Performance Memory Systems

High Performance Memory Systems
Author: Haldun Hadimioglu,David Kaeli,Jeffrey Kuskin,Ashwini Nanda,Josep Torrellas
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 297
Release: 2011-06-27
ISBN: 1441989870
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

High Performance Memory Systems Book Excerpt:

The State of Memory Technology Over the past decade there has been rapid growth in the speed of micropro cessors. CPU speeds are approximately doubling every eighteen months, while main memory speed doubles about every ten years. The International Tech nology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) study suggests that memory will remain on its current growth path. The ITRS short-and long-term targets indicate continued scaling improvements at about the current rate by 2016. This translates to bit densities increasing at two times every two years until the introduction of 8 gigabit dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips, after which densities will increase four times every five years. A similar growth pattern is forecast for other high-density chip areas and high-performance logic (e.g., microprocessors and application specific inte grated circuits (ASICs)). In the future, molecular devices, 64 gigabit DRAMs and 28 GHz clock signals are targeted. Although densities continue to grow, we still do not see significant advances that will improve memory speed. These trends have created a problem that has been labeled the Memory Wall or Memory Gap.

Information processing Capabilities as a Transactive Memory System

Information processing Capabilities as a Transactive Memory System
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: University of Vaasa
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2008
ISBN: 9524762404
Category: Memory
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Information processing Capabilities as a Transactive Memory System Book Excerpt:

Computer Peripheral Memory System Forecast

Computer Peripheral Memory System Forecast
Author: Robert B. J. Warnar,Peter J. Calomeris,Steve A. Recicar
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 136
Release: 1979
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Computer storage devices
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computer Peripheral Memory System Forecast Book Excerpt:

The Memory System

The Memory System
Author: Bruce Jacob
Publsiher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Total Pages: 77
Release: 2009-07-08
ISBN: 1598295888
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Memory System Book Excerpt:

Today, computer-system optimization, at both the hardware and software levels, must consider the details of the memory system in its analysis; failing to do so yields systems that are increasingly inefficient as those systems become more complex. This lecture seeks to introduce the reader to the most important details of the memory system; it targets both computer scientists and computer engineers in industry and in academia. Roughly speaking, computer scientists are the users of the memory system and computer engineers are the designers of the memory system. Both can benefit tremendously from a basic understanding of how the memory system really works: the computer scientist will be better equipped to create algorithms that perform well and the computer engineer will be better equipped to design systems that approach the optimal, given the resource limitations. Currently, there is consensus among architecture researchers that the memory system is "the bottleneck," and this consensus has held for over a decade. Somewhat inexplicably, most of the research in the field is still directed toward improving the CPU to better tolerate a slow memory system, as opposed to addressing the weaknesses of the memory system directly. This lecture should get the bulk of the computer science and computer engineering population up the steep part of the learning curve. Not every CS/CE researcher/developer needs to do work in the memory system, but, just as a carpenter can do his job more efficiently if he knows a little of architecture, and an architect can do his job more efficiently if he knows a little of carpentry, giving the CS/CE worlds better intuition about the memory system should help them build better systems, both software and hardware. Table of Contents: Primers / It Must Be Modeled Accurately / ...\ and It Will Change Soon

The Memory System of the Brain

The Memory System of the Brain
Author: J Delacour
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 892
Release: 1994-04-22
ISBN: 9814505404
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Memory System of the Brain Book Excerpt:

The purpose of this book is to describe the memory system of the brain, taking into account all the levels of neural organization: molecule, cell, small network, and anatomical circuit. This synthetic approach is necessary for determining the real mechanisms among the potential ones, that is the neural bases of learning and memory in intact organisms functioning under normal conditions. For this purpose, data from molecular, cellular and behavioral neurobiology, neuropsychology, animal and human psychology, and neural modellization are comprehensively reviewed by leading specialists and brought together in an original synthesis. Contents:Introduction: The Memory System of the Brain (J Delacour)Physiological Integration of the Declarative Memory System (E Halgren)Context Effects in Learning and Memory: Human and Animal Perspectives (T Archer & L-G Nilsson)Hippocampal Function and Relational Processing (E A Phelps et al.)Amnesia Following Limited Thalamic Lesions (M Rousseaux)Molecular Devices in Neuronal Learning Machines (Y Dudai)Central Cholinergic Systems, Learning and Memory (R Jaffard & J Micheau)Long-Term Potentiation and Depression in Visual Cortex: Functional Significance and Molecular Basis (T Tsumoto)Mechanisms of Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation (L L Voronin)Learning-Induced Receptive Field Plasticity in the Auditory Cortex: Specificity of Information Storage (N M Weinberger et al.)Hemispheric Distribution of Memory Traces (R W Doty & J L Ringo)A Mosaic-Cycle Approach to Neural Computation (P Ruján)and other papers Readership: Neurobiologists, neurologists, psychologists, researchers in medicine and artificial intelligence. keywords:Eclarative Memory;Hippocampus;Thalamus;Amnesia;Long-Term Potentiation: Cell Assembly;Brain Model;Conditioning;Long-Term Depression

Innovations in the Memory System

Innovations in the Memory System
Author: Rajeev Balasubramonian
Publsiher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Total Pages: 151
Release: 2019-09-10
ISBN: 1627059695
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Innovations in the Memory System Book Excerpt:

This is a tour through recent and prominent works regarding new DRAM chip designs and technologies, near data processing approaches, new memory channel architectures, techniques to tolerate the overheads of refresh and fault tolerance, security attacks and mitigations, and memory scheduling. The memory system will soon be a hub for future innovation. While conventional memory systems focused primarily on high density, other memory system metrics like energy, security, and reliability are grabbing modern research headlines. With processor performance stagnating, it is also time to consider new programming models that move some application computations into the memory system. This, in turn, will lead to feature-rich memory systems with new interfaces. The past decade has seen a number of memory system innovations that point to this future where the memory system will be much more than dense rows of unintelligent bits.

Experimenting with MSI LSI IO and Modular Memory Systems

Experimenting with MSI  LSI  IO  and Modular Memory Systems
Author: Charles W. McKay
Publsiher: Prentice Hall
Total Pages: 272
Release: 1981
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Experimenting with MSI LSI IO and Modular Memory Systems Book Excerpt:

Dual process Theories in Social Psychology

Dual process Theories in Social Psychology
Author: Shelly Chaiken,Yaacov Trope
Publsiher: Guilford Press
Total Pages: 657
Release: 1999-02-19
ISBN: 9781572304215
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dual process Theories in Social Psychology Book Excerpt:

This informative volume presents the first comprehensive review of research and theory on dual-process models of social information processing. These models distinguish between qualitatively different modes of information processing in making decisions and solving problems (e.g., associative versus rule-based, controlled versus uncontrolled, and affective versus cognitive modes). Leading contributors review the basic assumptions of these approaches and review the ways they have been applied and tested in such areas as attitudes, stereotyping, person perception, memory, and judgment. Also examined are the relationships between different sets of processing modes, the factors that determine their utilization, and how they work in combination to affect responses to social information.

Understanding Autobiographical Memory

Understanding Autobiographical Memory
Author: Dorthe Berntsen,David C. Rubin
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2012-09-27
ISBN: 1139576755
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Understanding Autobiographical Memory Book Excerpt:

The field of autobiographical memory has made dramatic advances since the first collection of papers in the area was published in 1986. Now, over 25 years on, this book reviews and integrates the many theories, perspectives, and approaches that have evolved over the last decades. A truly eminent collection of editors and contributors appraise the basic neural systems of autobiographical memory; its underlying cognitive structures and retrieval processes; how it develops in infancy and childhood, and then breaks down in aging; its social and cultural aspects; and its relation to personality and the self. Autobiographical memory has demonstrated a strong ability to establish clear empirical generalizations, and has shown its practical relevance by deepening our understanding of several clinical disorders - as well as the induction of false memories in the legal system. It has also become an important topic for brain studies, and helped to enlarge our general understanding of the brain.

Long Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents

Long Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents
Author: Milton J. Dehn
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2010-08-02
ISBN: 0470438312
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Long Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents Book Excerpt:

“This book will be a valuable resource for psychologists and educators who work with children or adolescents who are having difficulties with memory and learning. Translating theory and research into practice is a talent that Dr. Dehn possesses and we will benefit from his professional skills.” — From the Foreword by Daniel C. Miller, PhD, ABPP, ABSNP, NCSP AN INDISPENSABLE GUIDE THAT EXAMINES THE EFFECT OF LONG-TERM MEMORY FUNCTIONS ON CHILDREN’S LEARNING Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents: Assessment, Intervention, and Effective Instruction is the first book of its kind for psychologists, school psychologists, and special education teachers who need an overview of long-term memory as it relates to learning and education. It presents the best practices for assessing long-term memory functions, as well as selecting and using evidence-based instructional practices with memory-impaired students. This useful and timely guide bridges theory and practice to provide professional guidance with coverage of: Risk factors that can lead to long-term memory impairments How long-term memory relates to other types of memory The subcomponents and processes of long-term memory and how they relate to academic achievement What is known about the neuroanatomy of how memories are formed The developmental trajectory of memory and learning Common types of memory dysfunction Memory assessment strategies, interventions for memory problems, and instructional practices that support memory Author Milton Dehn draws on his extensive experience as a trainer and workshop presenter, school psychologist, and educator to present both the theory and research on long-term memory in children and adolescents in this book. Specific, step-by-step guidance and hands-on case studies enable professionals to identify how memory can be assessed as well as the interventions that can be linked to the results of the assessment.

Brain Structure Learning And Memory

Brain Structure  Learning  And Memory
Author: Joel Lance Davis
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 302
Release: 2019-04-23
ISBN: 0429693044
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Brain Structure Learning And Memory Book Excerpt:

In science, a few areas particularly capture the imagination because of a combination of excitement, substantial technical progress, and implicit significance in affecting the nature and quality of life. Perhaps no area of science exhibits these characteristics more abundantly than that dealing with the brain. Once shrouded in the mystical, studies in modem brain science are dramatically enhancing our understanding of brain function and its impact on learning and memory. It is perhaps the union of pragmatic and mystical aspects that makes this such an exciting arena of science. The Office of Naval Research (ONR) began an intensive effort in 1983 on the topic of the neural basis for learning and memory. This effort was aimed at providing the scientific understanding of how learning takes place. It is the expectation that a neurological understanding of learning processes will lead to the formulation of learning strategies that will significantly enhance performance. This is important in a civilian and military population faced with serious manpower problems requiring a few individuals to be more expert with technologically intensive systems. With these motivations in mind, two of us (EJW and RN) formulated a full-day symposium at the AAAS annual meeting held in New York, May 1984.

Hierarchical Methods for Dynamics in Complex Molecular Systems

Hierarchical Methods for Dynamics in Complex Molecular Systems
Author: Johannes Grotendorst
Publsiher: Forschungszentrum Jülich
Total Pages: 540
Release: 2012
ISBN: 3893367683
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hierarchical Methods for Dynamics in Complex Molecular Systems Book Excerpt:

Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation

Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation
Author: Nikolai Axmacher,Björn Rasch
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 417
Release: 2017-02-09
ISBN: 3319450662
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation Book Excerpt:

This edited volume provides an overview the state-of-the-art in the field of cognitive neuroscience of memory consolidation. In a number of sections, the editors collect contributions of leading researchers . The topical focus lies on current issues of interest such as memory consolidation including working and long-term memory. In particular, the role of sleep in relation to memory consolidation will be addressed. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

From Conditioning to Conscious Recollection

From Conditioning to Conscious Recollection
Author: Howard Eichenbaum,Neal J. Cohen
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 600
Release: 2004-11-18
ISBN: 0190292326
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

From Conditioning to Conscious Recollection Book Excerpt:

This cutting-edge book offers a theoretical account of the evolution of multiple memory systems of the brain. The authors conceptualize these memory systems from both behavioral and neurobiological perspectives, guided by three related principles. First, that our understanding of a wide range of memory phenomena can be advanced by breaking down memory into multiple forms with different operating characteristics. Second, that different forms of memory representation are supported by distinct brain pathways with circuitry and neural coding properties. Third, that the contributions of different brain systems can be compared and contrasted by distinguishing between dedicated (or specific) and elaborate (or general) memory systems. A primary goal of this work is to relate the neurobiological properties of dedicated and elaborate systems to their neuropsychological counterparts, and in so doing, account for the phenomenology of memory, from conditioning to conscious recollection.

Principles of Memory

Principles of Memory
Author: Aimée M. Surprenant,Ian Neath
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 188
Release: 2013-03-07
ISBN: 1136950648
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Principles of Memory Book Excerpt:

This monograph proposes 7 principles of human memory. These principles are qualitative statements of empirical regularities that can serve as intermediary explanations and which follow from viewing memory as a function.

Concise Learning and Memory

Concise Learning and Memory
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 888
Release: 2010-05-25
ISBN: 9780080877860
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Concise Learning and Memory Book Excerpt:

The study of learning and memory is a central topic in neuroscience and psychology. Many of the basic research findings are directly applicable in the treatment of diseases and aging phenomena, and have found their way into educational theory and praxis. Concise Learning and Memory represents the best 30 chapters from Learning and Memory: A comprehensive reference (Academic Press March 2008), the most comprehensive source of information about learning and memory ever assembled, selected by one of the most respective scientists in the field, John H. Byrne. This concise version provides a truly authoritative collection of overview articles representing fundamental reviews of our knowledge of this central cognitive function of animal brains. It will be an affordable and accessible reference for scientists and students in all areas of neuroscience and psychology. There is no other single-volume reference with such authority and comprehensive coverage and depth currently available. * Represents an authoritative selection of the fundamental chapters from the most comprehensive source of information about learning and memory ever assembled, Learning and Memory - A comprehensive reference (Academic Press Mar 2008) * Representing outstanding scholarship, each chapter is written by a leader in the field and an expert in the topic area * All topics represent the most up to date research * Full color throughout, heavily illustrated * Priced to provide an affordable reference to individuals and workgroups

Memory Amnesia and the Hippocampal System

Memory  Amnesia  and the Hippocampal System
Author: Neal J. Cohen,Howard Eichenbaum
Publsiher: MIT Press
Total Pages: 330
Release: 1993
ISBN: 0262032031
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Memory Amnesia and the Hippocampal System Book Excerpt:

In this sweeping synthesis, Neal J. Cohen and Howard Eichenbaum bring together converging findings from neuropsychology, neuroscience, and cognitive science that provide the critical clues and constraints for developing a more comprehensive understanding of memory. Specifically, they offer a cognitive neuroscience theory of memory that accounts for the nature of memory impairment exhibited in human amnesia and animal models of amnesia, that specifies the functional role played by the hippocampal system in memory, and that provides further understanding of the componential structure of memory. The authors' central thesis is that the hippocampal system mediates a capacity for declarative memory, the kind of memory that in humans supports conscious recollection and the explicit and flexible expression of memories. They argue that this capacity emerges from a representation of critical relations among items in memory, and that such a relational representation supports the ability to make inferences and generalizations from memory, and to manipulate and flexibly express memory in countless ways. In articulating such a description of the fundamental nature of declarative representation and of the mnemonic capabilities to which it gives rise, the authors' theory constitutes a major extension and elaboration of the earlier procedural-declarative account of memory. Support for this view is taken from a variety of experimental studies of amnesia in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents. Additional support is drawn from observations concerning the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the hippocampal system. The data taken from divergent literatures are shown to converge on the central theme of hippocampal involvement in declarative memory across species and across behavioral paradigms. Neal J. Cohen is Assistant Professor in the Amnesia Research Laboratory at Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, and in the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois. Howard Eichenbaum is Professor of Psychology and Neurobiology at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.