Memory Systems

Memory Systems
Author: Bruce Jacob,Spencer Ng,David Wang
Publsiher: Morgan Kaufmann
Total Pages: 900
Release: 2010-07-28
ISBN: 9780080553849
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Memory Systems Book Excerpt:

Is your memory hierarchy stopping your microprocessor from performing at the high level it should be? Memory Systems: Cache, DRAM, Disk shows you how to resolve this problem. The book tells you everything you need to know about the logical design and operation, physical design and operation, performance characteristics and resulting design trade-offs, and the energy consumption of modern memory hierarchies. You learn how to to tackle the challenging optimization problems that result from the side-effects that can appear at any point in the entire hierarchy. As a result you will be able to design and emulate the entire memory hierarchy. Understand all levels of the system hierarchy -Xcache, DRAM, and disk. Evaluate the system-level effects of all design choices. Model performance and energy consumption for each component in the memory hierarchy.

The Evolution of Memory Systems

The Evolution of Memory Systems
Author: Elisabeth A. Murray,Steven P. Wise,Kim S. Graham
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 529
Release: 2017
ISBN: 0199686432
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Evolution of Memory Systems Book Excerpt:

Current theories about human memory have been shaped by clinical observations and animal experiments. This doctrine holds that the medial temporal lobe subserves one memory system for explicit or declarative memories, while the basal ganglia subserves a separate memory system for implicit or procedural memories, including habits. Cortical areas outside the medial temporal lobe are said to function in perception, motor control, attention, or other aspects of executive function, but not in memory. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' advances dramatically different ideas on all counts. It proposes that several memory systems arose during evolution and that they did so for the same general reason: to transcend problems and exploit opportunities encountered by specific ancestors at particular times and places in the distant past. Instead of classifying cortical areas in terms of mutually exclusive perception, executive, or memory functions, the authors show that all cortical areas contribute to memory and that they do so in their own ways-using specialized neural representations. The book also presents a proposal on the evolution of explicit memory. According to this idea, explicit (declarative) memory depends on interactions between a phylogenetically ancient navigation system and a representational system that evolved in humans to represent one's self and others. As a result, people embed representations of themselves into the events they experience and the facts they learn, which leads to the perception of participating in events and knowing facts. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' is an important new work for students and researchers in neuroscience, psychology, and biology.

Intelligent Memory Systems

Intelligent Memory Systems
Author: Frederic T. Chong,Christoforos Kozyrakis,Mark Oskin
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2003-06-29
ISBN: 3540445706
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Intelligent Memory Systems Book Excerpt:

We are pleased to present this collection of papers from the Second Workshop on Intelligent Memory Systems. Increasing die densities and inter chip communication costs continue to fuel interest in intelligent memory systems. Since the First Workshop on Mixing Logic and DRAM in 1997, technologies and systems for computation in memory have developed quickly. The focus of this workshop was to bring together researchers from academia and industry to discuss recent progress and future goals. The program committee selected 8 papers and 6 poster session abstracts from 29 submissions for inclusion in the workshop. Four to five members of the program committee reviewed each submission and their reviews were used to numerically rank them and guide the selection process. We believe that the resulting program is of the highest quality and interest possible. The selected papers cover a wide range of research topics such as circuit technology, processor and memory system architecture, compilers, operating systems, and applications. They also present a mix of mature projects, work in progress, and new research ideas. The workshop also included two invited talks. Dr. Subramanian Iyer (IBM Microelectronics) provided an overview of embedded memory technology and its potential. Dr. Mark Snir (IBM Research) presented the Blue Gene, an aggressive supercomputer system based on intelligent memory technology.

High Performance Memory Systems

High Performance Memory Systems
Author: Haldun Hadimioglu,David Kaeli,Jeffrey Kuskin,Ashwini Nanda,Josep Torrellas
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 297
Release: 2011-06-27
ISBN: 1441989870
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

High Performance Memory Systems Book Excerpt:

The State of Memory Technology Over the past decade there has been rapid growth in the speed of micropro cessors. CPU speeds are approximately doubling every eighteen months, while main memory speed doubles about every ten years. The International Tech nology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) study suggests that memory will remain on its current growth path. The ITRS short-and long-term targets indicate continued scaling improvements at about the current rate by 2016. This translates to bit densities increasing at two times every two years until the introduction of 8 gigabit dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips, after which densities will increase four times every five years. A similar growth pattern is forecast for other high-density chip areas and high-performance logic (e.g., microprocessors and application specific inte grated circuits (ASICs)). In the future, molecular devices, 64 gigabit DRAMs and 28 GHz clock signals are targeted. Although densities continue to grow, we still do not see significant advances that will improve memory speed. These trends have created a problem that has been labeled the Memory Wall or Memory Gap.

Memory Systems of the Addicted Brain The Underestimated Role of Drug Induced Cognitive Biases in Addiction and Its Treatment

Memory Systems of the Addicted Brain  The Underestimated Role of Drug Induced Cognitive Biases in Addiction and Its Treatment
Author: Vincent David,Daniel Béracochéa,Mark E. Walton
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 163
Release: 2018-06-08
ISBN: 2889454878
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Memory Systems of the Addicted Brain The Underestimated Role of Drug Induced Cognitive Biases in Addiction and Its Treatment Book Excerpt:

Drug addiction may be viewed as a form of learning during which strong associations linking actions to drug-seeking are expressed as persistent stimulus–response habits, thereby maintaining a vulnerability to relapse. Disrupting cue–drug memory could be an efficient strategy to reduce the strength of cues in motivating drug-taking behavior. Upon reactivation, these memories undergo a reconsolidation process that can be blocked pharmacologically, providing an opportunity to prevent the powerful control of drug cues on behavior. This conceptually elegant approach still calls for more experimental data. However, an increasing body of evidence suggests that drug taking not only accelerates habit forming, but has long-lasting effects on interactions between memory systems eventually leading to a functional imbalance. The dorsal part of the striatum plays a critical role in habit/procedural learning, whereas the hippocampal memory system encodes relationships between events and their later flexible use. Both humans and rodents studies support the view that the hippocampus and the dorsal striatum interact in either a cooperative or competitive manner during learning, the prefrontal cortex being involved in the selection of an appropriate learning strategy. Chronic drug consumption biases normal interactions between these memory systems. For instance, drug-experienced rodents tend to use preferentially striatum-dependent learning strategies in navigational tasks. These persistent effects seem to occur at cellular, neurophysiological and behavioral levels to promote specific, striatal-dependent forms of learning, to the detriment of spatial/declarative, hippocampal-dependent and more flexible types of memory. Whether cue sensitive and response learners, in contrast to spatial learners, could be prone to drug addiction is an intriguing hypothesis which clearly deserves to be further explored. A loss of flexibility may be uncovered also by imposing changing rules on the subject, such as requiring an attentional shift between different perceptual features of a complex stimulus, as in the attentional set shifting task which was recently adapted to rodents. Working memory is at risk during transition phases, although it remains to be determined whether withdrawal-induced alterations are observed also during protracted abstinence. Drug-induced cognitive biases thus lead to cognitive rigidity which could play a critical, yet overlooked role in different phases of addiction (acquisition, extinction/withdrawal and relapse). They are also likely to preclude the clinical efficiency of treatments. Therefore, the aim of this research topic is to provide an overview of the current work investigating the long-term impact of drug use on learning and memory processes, how multiple memory systems modulate drug-seeking behavior, as well as how drug-induced cognitive biases could contribute to the persistence of addictive behaviors.

Information processing Capabilities as a Transactive Memory System

Information processing Capabilities as a Transactive Memory System
Author: Natalia Kitaygorodskaya
Publsiher: University of Vaasa
Total Pages: 166
Release: 2008
ISBN: 9524762404
Category: Memory
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Information processing Capabilities as a Transactive Memory System Book Excerpt:

Informaationkäsittely transaktiivisena muistijärjestelmänä : kahden hajautetun tuotekehitystiimin vertailututkimus.

The Memory System

The Memory System
Author: Bruce Jacob
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 69
Release: 2022-05-31
ISBN: 3031017242
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Memory System Book Excerpt:

Today, computer-system optimization, at both the hardware and software levels, must consider the details of the memory system in its analysis; failing to do so yields systems that are increasingly inefficient as those systems become more complex. This lecture seeks to introduce the reader to the most important details of the memory system; it targets both computer scientists and computer engineers in industry and in academia. Roughly speaking, computer scientists are the users of the memory system and computer engineers are the designers of the memory system. Both can benefit tremendously from a basic understanding of how the memory system really works: the computer scientist will be better equipped to create algorithms that perform well and the computer engineer will be better equipped to design systems that approach the optimal, given the resource limitations. Currently, there is consensus among architecture researchers that the memory system is "the bottleneck," and this consensus has held for over a decade. Somewhat inexplicably, most of the research in the field is still directed toward improving the CPU to better tolerate a slow memory system, as opposed to addressing the weaknesses of the memory system directly. This lecture should get the bulk of the computer science and computer engineering population up the steep part of the learning curve. Not every CS/CE researcher/developer needs to do work in the memory system, but, just as a carpenter can do his job more efficiently if he knows a little of architecture, and an architect can do his job more efficiently if he knows a little of carpentry, giving the CS/CE worlds better intuition about the memory system should help them build better systems, both software and hardware. Table of Contents: Primers / It Must Be Modeled Accurately / ...\ and It Will Change Soon

Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation

Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation
Author: Nikolai Axmacher,Björn Rasch
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 417
Release: 2017-02-09
ISBN: 3319450662
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation Book Excerpt:

This edited volume provides an overview the state-of-the-art in the field of cognitive neuroscience of memory consolidation. In a number of sections, the editors collect contributions of leading researchers . The topical focus lies on current issues of interest such as memory consolidation including working and long-term memory. In particular, the role of sleep in relation to memory consolidation will be addressed. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

Dual process Theories in Social Psychology

Dual process Theories in Social Psychology
Author: Shelly Chaiken,Yaacov Trope
Publsiher: Guilford Press
Total Pages: 676
Release: 1999-02-19
ISBN: 9781572304215
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dual process Theories in Social Psychology Book Excerpt:

This informative volume presents the first comprehensive review of research and theory on dual-process models of social information processing. These models distinguish between qualitatively different modes of information processing in making decisions and solving problems (e.g., associative versus rule-based, controlled versus uncontrolled, and affective versus cognitive modes). Leading contributors review the basic assumptions of these approaches and review the ways they have been applied and tested in such areas as attitudes, stereotyping, person perception, memory, and judgment. Also examined are the relationships between different sets of processing modes, the factors that determine their utilization, and how they work in combination to affect responses to social information.

Long Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents

Long Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents
Author: Milton J. Dehn
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 418
Release: 2010-08-02
ISBN: 0470438312
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Long Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents Book Excerpt:

“This book will be a valuable resource for psychologists and educators who work with children or adolescents who are having difficulties with memory and learning. Translating theory and research into practice is a talent that Dr. Dehn possesses and we will benefit from his professional skills.” — From the Foreword by Daniel C. Miller, PhD, ABPP, ABSNP, NCSP AN INDISPENSABLE GUIDE THAT EXAMINES THE EFFECT OF LONG-TERM MEMORY FUNCTIONS ON CHILDREN’S LEARNING Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents: Assessment, Intervention, and Effective Instruction is the first book of its kind for psychologists, school psychologists, and special education teachers who need an overview of long-term memory as it relates to learning and education. It presents the best practices for assessing long-term memory functions, as well as selecting and using evidence-based instructional practices with memory-impaired students. This useful and timely guide bridges theory and practice to provide professional guidance with coverage of: Risk factors that can lead to long-term memory impairments How long-term memory relates to other types of memory The subcomponents and processes of long-term memory and how they relate to academic achievement What is known about the neuroanatomy of how memories are formed The developmental trajectory of memory and learning Common types of memory dysfunction Memory assessment strategies, interventions for memory problems, and instructional practices that support memory Author Milton Dehn draws on his extensive experience as a trainer and workshop presenter, school psychologist, and educator to present both the theory and research on long-term memory in children and adolescents in this book. Specific, step-by-step guidance and hands-on case studies enable professionals to identify how memory can be assessed as well as the interventions that can be linked to the results of the assessment.

Concise Learning and Memory

Concise Learning and Memory
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 888
Release: 2010-05-25
ISBN: 9780080877860
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Concise Learning and Memory Book Excerpt:

The study of learning and memory is a central topic in neuroscience and psychology. Many of the basic research findings are directly applicable in the treatment of diseases and aging phenomena, and have found their way into educational theory and praxis. Concise Learning and Memory represents the best 30 chapters from Learning and Memory: A comprehensive reference (Academic Press March 2008), the most comprehensive source of information about learning and memory ever assembled, selected by one of the most respective scientists in the field, John H. Byrne. This concise version provides a truly authoritative collection of overview articles representing fundamental reviews of our knowledge of this central cognitive function of animal brains. It will be an affordable and accessible reference for scientists and students in all areas of neuroscience and psychology. There is no other single-volume reference with such authority and comprehensive coverage and depth currently available. * Represents an authoritative selection of the fundamental chapters from the most comprehensive source of information about learning and memory ever assembled, Learning and Memory - A comprehensive reference (Academic Press Mar 2008) * Representing outstanding scholarship, each chapter is written by a leader in the field and an expert in the topic area * All topics represent the most up to date research * Full color throughout, heavily illustrated * Priced to provide an affordable reference to individuals and workgroups

Barriers and Biases in Computer Mediated Knowledge Communication

Barriers and Biases in Computer Mediated Knowledge Communication
Author: Rainer Bromme,Friedrich W. Hesse,Hans Spada
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 334
Release: 2006-03-30
ISBN: 0387243194
Category: Education
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Barriers and Biases in Computer Mediated Knowledge Communication Book Excerpt:

What are the barriers in computer-mediated communication for cooperative learning and work? Based on empirical research, the chapters of this book offer different perspectives on the nature and causes of such barriers for students and researchers in the field.

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness
Author: Tim Bayne,Axel Cleeremans,Patrick Wilken
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 701
Release: 2009-06-04
ISBN: 0198569513
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness Book Excerpt:

Consciousness is undoubtedly one of the last remaining scientific mysteries and hence one of the greatest contemporary scientific challenges. How does the brain's activity result in the rich phenomenology that characterizes our waking life? Are animals conscious? Why did consciousness evolve? How does science proceed to answer such questions? Can we define what consciousness is? Can we measure it? Can we use experimental results to further our understanding of disorders of consciousness, such as those seen in schizophrenia, delirium, or altered states of consciousness? These questions are at the heart of contemporary research in the domain. Answering them requires a fundamentally interdisciplinary approach that engages not only philosophers, but also neuroscientists and psychologists in a joint effort to develop novel approaches that reflect both the stunning recent advances in imaging methods as well as the continuing refinement of our concepts of consciousness. In this light, the Oxford Companion to Consciousness is the most complete authoritative survey of contemporary research on consciousness. Five years in the making and including over 250 concise entries written by leaders in the field, the volume covers both fundamental knowledge as well as more recent advances in this rapidly changing domain. Structured as an easy-to-use dictionary and extensively cross-referenced, the Companion offers contributions from philosophy of mind to neuroscience, from experimental psychology to clinical findings, so reflecting the profoundly interdisciplinary nature of the domain. Particular care has been taken to ensure that each of the entries is accessible to the general reader and that the overall volume represents a comprehensive snapshot of the contemporary study of consciousness. The result is a unique compendium that will prove indispensable to anyone interested in consciousness, from beginning students wishing to clarify a concept to professional consciousness researchers looking for the best characterization of a particular phenomenon.

Drafting Technology Patent License Agreements

Drafting Technology Patent License Agreements
Author: Michael J. Lennon
Publsiher: Wolters Kluwer
Total Pages: 3247
Release: 2007-01-01
ISBN: 0735567484
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Drafting Technology Patent License Agreements Book Excerpt:

In todayand’s fast-paced and ultra-competitive high-tech environment, an effectively managed patent licensing program is a must. The Second Editio n of Drafting Technology Patent License Agreements shows you how to achieve one. This valuable resource covers all of the legal and business transactional issues you are likely to encounter during the drafting and negotiation of patent licensing agreements. It guides you step-by-step through the unique aspects of the implementation of a patent licensing program for computers, electronics, telecommunications, and other industries, and it clarifies the issues involved in the enforcement and litigation of these patents. Youand’ll find incisive legal analysis on complex issues including: How to implement an aggressive and well-managed patent licensing program How to evaluate a patent or portfolio for licensing How to identify industry segments and select potential licensees How to discuss terms with industry targets How to formulate an effective licensing strategy How to use databases effectively in patent practice How to organize a licensing team How to file a patent infringement lawsuit And many more critical issues like these. Included with this key resource are 40 time-saving forms on the bonus CD-ROM: Forms for establishing a new technology company using patented technology Confidentiality agreements (for a third-party vendor, third party evaluation, or consultant) A projected royalty stream analysis A semiconductor technology cross-licensing agreement Software technology license agreements Model licensing and patent agreements for the telecommunications industry And many more!

Computer Literature Bibliography 1946 1963

Computer Literature Bibliography  1946 1963
Author: W. W. Youden
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 476
Release: 1965
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computer Literature Bibliography 1946 1963 Book Excerpt:

Hormones Brain and Behavior

Hormones  Brain and Behavior
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 2474
Release: 2016-11-09
ISBN: 0128036087
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hormones Brain and Behavior Book Excerpt:

Hormones, Brain and Behavior, Third Edition offers a state-of-the-art overview of hormonally-mediated behaviors, including an extensive discussion of the effects of hormones on insects, fish, amphibians, birds, rodents, and humans. Entries have been carefully designed to provide a valuable source of information for students and researchers in neuroendocrinology and those working in related areas, such as biology, psychology, psychiatry, and neurology. This third edition has been substantially restructured to include both foundational information and recent developments in the field. Continuing the emphasis on interdisciplinary research and practical applications, the book includes articles aligned in five main subject sections, with new chapters included on genetic and genomic techniques and clinical investigations. This reference provides unique treatment of all major vertebrate and invertebrate model systems with excellent opportunities for relating behavior to molecular genetics. The topics cover an unusual breadth (from molecules to ecophysiology), ranging from basic science to clinical research, making this reference of interest to a broad range of scientists in a variety of fields. Comprehensive and updated coverage of a rapidly growing field of research Unique treatment of all major vertebrate and invertebrate model systems with excellent opportunities for relating behavior to molecular genetics Covers an unusual breadth of topics and subject fields, ranging from molecules to ecophysiology, and from basic science to clinical research Ideal resource for interdisciplinary learning and understanding in the fields of hormones and behavior

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Library of Congress Subject Headings
Author: Library of Congress
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 1816
Release: 2003
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Subject headings, Library of Congress
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Library of Congress Subject Headings Book Excerpt:

Cognitive Neuroscience

Cognitive Neuroscience
Author: Marie T. Banich,Rebecca J. Compton
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 675
Release: 2018-04-05
ISBN: 1107158443
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cognitive Neuroscience Book Excerpt:

Updated thoroughly, this comprehensive text highlights the most important issues in cognitive neuroscience, supported by clinical applications.

Computer Literature Bibliography 1964 1967

Computer Literature Bibliography  1964 1967
Author: W. W. Youden
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 392
Release: 1965
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computer Literature Bibliography 1964 1967 Book Excerpt:

Handbook of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience second edition

Handbook of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience  second edition
Author: Charles A. Nelson,Monica Luciana
Publsiher: MIT Press
Total Pages: 985
Release: 2008-07-11
ISBN: 0262141043
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience second edition Book Excerpt:

The second edition of an essential resource to the evolving field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, completely revised, with expanded emphasis on social neuroscience, clinical disorders, and imaging genomics. The publication of the second edition of this handbook testifies to the rapid evolution of developmental cognitive neuroscience as a distinct field. Brain imaging and recording technologies, along with well-defined behavioral tasks—the essential methodological tools of cognitive neuroscience—are now being used to study development. Technological advances have yielded methods that can be safely used to study structure-function relations and their development in children's brains. These new techniques combined with more refined cognitive models account for the progress and heightened activity in developmental cognitive neuroscience research. The Handbook covers basic aspects of neural development, sensory and sensorimotor systems, language, cognition, emotion, and the implications of lifelong neural plasticity for brain and behavioral development. The second edition reflects the dramatic expansion of the field in the seven years since the publication of the first edition. This new Handbook has grown from forty-one chapters to fifty-four, all original to this edition. It places greater emphasis on affective and social neuroscience—an offshoot of cognitive neuroscience that is now influencing the developmental literature. The second edition also places a greater emphasis on clinical disorders, primarily because such research is inherently translational in nature. Finally, the book's new discussions of recent breakthroughs in imaging genomics include one entire chapter devoted to the subject. The intersection of brain, behavior, and genetics represents an exciting new area of inquiry, and the second edition of this essential reference work will be a valuable resource for researchers interested in the development of brain-behavior relations in the context of both typical and atypical development.