Microbial Glycobiology

Microbial Glycobiology
Author: Anthony P Moran
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 1036
Release: 2009-10-01
ISBN: 9780080923246
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microbial Glycobiology Book Excerpt:

This book presents in an easy-to-read format a summary of the important central aspects of microbial glycobiology, i.e. the study of carbohydrates as related to the biology of microorganisms. Microbial glycobiology represents a multidisciplinary and emerging area with implications for a range of basic and applied research fields, as well as having industrial, medical and biotechnological implications. Individual chapters provided by leading international scientists in the field yield insightful, concise and stimulating reviews Provides researchers with an overview and synthesis of the latest research Each chapter begins with a brief 200 word Summary/Abstract detailing the topic and focus of the chapter, as well as the concepts to be addressed Allows researchers to see at a glance what each chapter will cover Each chapter includes a Research Focus Box Identifies important problems that still need to be solved and areas that require further investigation

Marine Glycobiology

Marine Glycobiology
Author: Se-Kwon Kim
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 520
Release: 2016-10-14
ISBN: 1498709621
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Marine Glycobiology Book Excerpt:

Marine glycobiology is an emerging and exciting area in the field of science and medicine. Glycobiology, the study of the structure and function of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing molecules, is fundamental to all biological systems and represents a developing field of science that has made huge advances in the last half-century. This book revolutionizes the concept of marine glycobiology, focusing on the latest principles and applications of marine glycobiology and their relationships.

Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides

Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides
Author: Yuriy A. Knirel,Miguel A. Valvano
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2011-07-13
ISBN: 3709107334
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides Book Excerpt:

The bacterial lipopolysaccharide also known as endotoxin is exhaustively covered in the present work. Central emphasis is placed upon the fine chemical structure of the lipopolysaccharide and its significance for understanding their activity and function. In particular, the role it plays in the interaction of bacteria with other biological systems is examined. New aspects of their physicochemical biology are introduced and updates to the current knowledge concerning the lipopolysaccharide are provided. This important class of biomolecules has recently attracted the attention of many investigators, in particular for understanding its involvement in innate immunity, toll-like receptor recognition and intracellular signaling.

Microbial Biofilms in Bioremediation and Wastewater Treatment

Microbial Biofilms in Bioremediation and Wastewater Treatment
Author: Y.V. Nancharaiah,Vayalam P. Venugopalan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 290
Release: 2019-10-18
ISBN: 1351857320
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microbial Biofilms in Bioremediation and Wastewater Treatment Book Excerpt:

Biofilms represent the natural living style of microbial communities and play a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycles and natural attenuation. Biofilms can be engineered for biodegradation and biotransformation of organic and inorganic contaminants, for both in situ bioremediation and ex situ treatment in bioreactors. This book focuses on microbial biofilms and their potential technological applications for sustainable development. It covers recent advances in biofilm technologies for contaminant remediation coupled to recovery of resources and serves as a complete reference on the science and technology behind biofilm mediated bioremediation and wastewater treatment.

Handbook of Research on Microbial Tools for Environmental Waste Management

Handbook of Research on Microbial Tools for Environmental Waste Management
Author: Pathak, Vinay Mohan,Navneet,
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2018-04-27
ISBN: 1522535411
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Research on Microbial Tools for Environmental Waste Management Book Excerpt:

The remediation of environmental pollutants has become a relevant topic within the field of waste management. Advances in biological approaches are a potential tool for contamination and pollution control. The Handbook of Research on Microbial Tools for Environmental Waste Management is a critical scholarly resource that explores the advanced biological approaches that are used as remediation for pollution cleanup processes. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics such as biodegradation, microbial dehalogenation, and pollution controlling treatments, this book is geared towards environmental scientists, biologists, policy makers, graduate students, and scholars seeking current research on environmental engineering and green technologies.

Microbial Cyclic Di Nucleotide Signaling

Microbial Cyclic Di Nucleotide Signaling
Author: Shan-Ho Chou,Nicolas Guiliani,Vincent T. Lee,Ute Römling
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 657
Release: 2020-03-05
ISBN: 3030333086
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microbial Cyclic Di Nucleotide Signaling Book Excerpt:

This book explores the broad and diverse biological and physiological impacts of established and newly discovered cyclic di-nucleotide second messenger signaling systems, while also providing descriptions of the intriguing biochemical characteristics of multiple turnover enzymes and receptors. The respective chapters discuss the commonalities and diversity of cyclic di-GMP, cyclic di-AMP and recently discovered cyclic GMP-AMP signaling systems in manifold Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The global human pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae, the facultative human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, global plant pathogens as exemplified by Xanthomonas campestris and Burkholderia spp., and the omnipresent probiotic Lactobacilli, as well as environmentally important photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, the multicellular Myxococcus xanthus, and chemolithotrophic Acidithiobacillus are among the representatives of the microbial kingdom that are described. In turn, the various aspects of bacterial physiology affected by these signaling systems– e.g. biofilm formation and dispersal, the cell cycle, motility, virulence, production of antimicrobials, fundamental metabolism and osmohomeostasis – are discussed in detail in the context of different microorganisms. Dedicated chapters focus on the population diversity of cyclic dinucleotide signaling systems, their tendency to be horizontally transferred, the cyclic di-GMP signaling system in the social amoeba Dictyostelium, honorary cyclic (di)nucleotides, and the development of strategies for interfering with cyclic dinucleotide signaling in order to manipulate microbial behavior. Taken together, the chapters provide an authoritative source of information for a broad readership: beginners and advanced researchers from various disciplines; individuals seeking a broad overview of cyclic di-nucleotide signaling; and those who want to learn more about specific aspects. Also featuring reviews with a forward-looking perspective, the book offers a valuable source of inspiration for future research directions.

Microbial Exopolysaccharides From Genes to Applications

Microbial Exopolysaccharides  From Genes to Applications
Author: Jochen Schmid,Julia Fariña,Bernd Rehm,Volker Sieber
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2016-06-24
ISBN: 288919843X
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microbial Exopolysaccharides From Genes to Applications Book Excerpt:

Microbial polysaccharides represent an attractive alternative to those from plants or macro algae. They can be produced from renewable sources including lignocellulosic waste streams. Their production does not depend on geographical constraints and/or seasonal limitations. Additionally the manipulation of biosynthetic pathways to enhance productivity or to influence the chemical polysaccharide composition is comparatively easy in bacteria. Microbial exopolysaccharides represents a valuable resource of biogenic and biodegradable polymers, suitable to replace petro based polymers in various technical applications. Furthermore, biocompatible exopolysaccharides are very attractive in medical applications, such as drug delivery systems, use as vaccines or nanoparticles. This research topic will depict the status quo, as well as the future needs in the field of EPS and biofilm research. Starting from the unexplored diversity of microbial polysaccharide producers to production processes and possibilities for modifications, to enhance the already high number of functionalities based on the chemical structures. An overview of the recent and future applications will be given, and the necessity in unravelling the biosynthesis of microbial exopolysaccharide producers is depicted, highlighting the future trend of tailor made polymers. Constraints in structure analysis of these highly complex biogenic polymers are described and different approaches to solve the restrictions in imaging and NMR analysis will be given. Therefore; this research topic comprises the whole process from genes to applications.

Glycobiology and Human Diseases

Glycobiology and Human Diseases
Author: Gherman Wiederschain
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 334
Release: 2016-02-22
ISBN: 1498709192
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Glycobiology and Human Diseases Book Excerpt:

This book discusses glycobiology and various forms of human diseases. Topics covered include immunoglobulins, inflammation and glycosylation, the role and therapeutic significance of natural anti-glycan antibodies in malignancies and in normal and aberrant pregnancy, identifying urinary glycans as a possible method for the diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases, glycobiology of human milk (biological roles and diseases) and pectins as biological modulators of human physiological reactions. The book includes analysis of comprehensive data and some productive conclusions and perspectives.

Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides
Author: Inamuddin,Mohd Imran Ahamed,Rajender Boddula,Tariq A. Altalhi
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 784
Release: 2021-06-29
ISBN: 111971138X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polysaccharides Book Excerpt:

This book provides the whole spectrum of polysaccharides from basic concepts to commercial market applications. Chapters cover various types of sources, classification, properties, characterization, processing, rheology and fabrication of polysaccharide-based materials and their composites and gels. The applications of polysaccharides include in cosmetics, food science, drug delivery, biomedicine, biofuel production, marine, packaging, chromatography and environmental remediation. It also reviews the fabrication of inorganic and carbon nanomaterials from polysaccharides. The book incorporates industrial applications and will fill the gap between the exploration works in the laboratory and viable applications in related ventures.

Bacterial Cell Wall Structure and Dynamics

Bacterial Cell Wall Structure and Dynamics
Author: Tobias Dörr,Partick J. Moynihan,Christoph Mayer
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2019-12-27
ISBN: 2889631524
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bacterial Cell Wall Structure and Dynamics Book Excerpt:

Bacterial cells are encased in a cell wall, which is required to maintain cell shape and to confer physical strength to the cell. The cell wall allows bacteria to cope with osmotic and environmental challenges and to secure cell integrity during all stages of bacterial growth and propagation, and thus has to be sufficiently rigid. Moreover, to accommodate growth processes, the cell wall at the same time has to be a highly dynamic structure: During cell enlargement, division, and differentiation, bacteria continuously remodel, degrade, and resynthesize their cell wall, but pivotally need to assure cell integrity during these processes. Finally, the cell wall is also adjusted according to both environmental constraints and metabolic requirements. However, how exactly this is achieved is not fully understood. The major structural component of the bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan (PG), a mesh-like polymer of glycan chains interlinked by short-chain peptides, constituting a net-like macromolecular structure that has historically also termed murein or murein sacculus. Although the basic structure of PG is conserved among bacteria, considerable variations occur regarding cross-bridging, modifications, and attachments. Moreover, different structural arrangements of the cell envelope exist within bacteria: a thin PG layer sandwiched between an inner and outer membrane is present in Gram-negative bacteria, and a thick PG layer decorated with secondary glycopolymers including teichoic acids, is present in Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, even more complex envelope structures exist, such as those found in mycobacteria. Crucially, all bacteria possess a multitude of often redundant lytic enzymes, termed “autolysins”, and other cell wall modifying and synthesizing enzymes, allowing to degrade and rebuild the various structures covering the cells. However, how cell wall turnover and cell wall biosynthesis are coordinated during different stages of bacterial growth is currently unclear. The mechanisms that prevent cell lysis during these processes are also unclear. This Research Topic focuses on the dynamics of the bacterial cell wall, its modifications, and structural rearrangements during cell growth and differentiation. It pays particular attention to the turnover of PG, its breakdown and recycling, as well as the regulation of these processes. Other structures, for example, secondary polymers such as teichoic acids, which are dynamically changed during bacterial growth and differentiation, are also covered. In recent years, our view on the bacterial cell envelope has undergone a dramatic change that challenged old models of cell wall structure, biosynthesis, and turnover. This collection of articles aims to contribute to new understandings of bacterial cell wall structure and dynamics.

Prokaryotic Cell Wall Compounds

Prokaryotic Cell Wall Compounds
Author: Helmut König,Harald Claus,Ajit Varma
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 517
Release: 2010-03-18
ISBN: 364205062X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Prokaryotic Cell Wall Compounds Book Excerpt:

Microbial cell wall structures play a significant role in maintaining cells’ shape, as protecting layers against harmful agents, in cell adhesion and in positive and negative biological activities with host cells. All prokaryotes, whether they are bacteria or archaea, rely on their surface polymers for these multiple functions. Their surfaces serve as the indispensable primary interfaces between the cell and its surroundings, often mediating or catalyzing important interactions. Prokaryotic Cell Wall Compounds summarizes the current state of knowledge on the prokaryotic cell wall. Topics concerning bacterial and archaeal polymeric cell wall structures, biological activities, growth and inhibition, cell wall interactions and the applications of cell wall components, especially in the field of nanobiotechnology, are presented.

Mucoadhesive Materials and Drug Delivery Systems

Mucoadhesive Materials and Drug Delivery Systems
Author: Vitaliy V. Khutoryanskiy
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2014-06-12
ISBN: 1118794397
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mucoadhesive Materials and Drug Delivery Systems Book Excerpt:

Mucoadhesion defined as attachment of synthetic or natural materials to mucosal tissues has been widely exploited in pharmaceutical forms. This multi-author book provides an up-to-date account of current research on mucoadhesive materials and drug delivery systems. The introductory section describes the structure and physiology of various mucosal surfaces (oral, nasal, ocular, gastrointestinal and vaginal mucosa). This is followed by chapters on the various methods used to study mucoadhesion and to characterise mucoadhesive properties of various dosage forms. The final section will summarise information on traditional and novel types of mucoadhesive materials, such as chitosan, thiomers, and liposome-based formulations. This book is unique as there is currently no modern book considering mucoadhesion - all other existing books on the topic are either narrowly focused or more than 10 years old. Furthermore, each contributor offers specialist perspectives from a variety of global locations in both industrial and academic research centres.

The Perfect Slime

The Perfect Slime
Author: Hans-Curt Flemming,Dr Thomas R. Neu,Dr Jost Wingender
Publsiher: IWA Publishing
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2016-09-15
ISBN: 1780407416
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Perfect Slime Book Excerpt:

The Perfect Slime presents the latest state of knowledge and all aspects of the Extracellular Polymeric Substances, (EPS) matrix – from the ecological and health to the antifouling perspectives. The book brings together all the current material in order to expand our understanding of the functions, properties and characteristics of the matrix as well as the possibilities to strengthen or weaken it. The EPS matrix represents the immediate environment in which biofilm organisms live. From their point of view, this matrix has paramount advantages. It allows them to stay together for extended periods and form synergistic microconsortia, it retains extracellular enzymes and turns the matrix into an external digestion system and it is a universal recycling yard, it protects them against desiccation, it allows for intense communication and represents a huge genetic archive. They can remodel their matrix, break free and eventually, they can use it as a nutrient source. The EPS matrix can be considered as one of the emergent properties of biofilms and are a major reason for the success of this form of life. Nevertheless, they have been termed the “black matter of biofilms” for good reasons. First of all: the isolation methods define the results. In most cases, only water soluble EPS components are investigated; insoluble ones such as cellulose or amyloids are much less included. In particular in environmental biofilms with many species, it is difficult to impossible isolate, separate the various EPS molecules they are encased in and to define which species produced which EPS. The regulation and the factors which trigger or inhibit EPS production are still very poorly understood. Furthermore: bacteria are not the only microorganisms to produce EPS. Archaea, Fungi and algae can also form EPS. This book investigates the questions, What is their composition, function, dynamics and regulation? What do they all have in common?

Advances in Chitin Chitosan Characterization and Applications

Advances in Chitin Chitosan Characterization and Applications
Author: Marguerite Rinaudo,Francisco M. Goycoolea
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 414
Release: 2019-04-23
ISBN: 3038978027
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Chitin Chitosan Characterization and Applications Book Excerpt:

Functional advanced biopolymers have received far less attention than renewable biomass (cellulose, rubber, etc.) used for energy production. Among the most advanced biopolymers known is chitosan. The term chitosan refers to a family of polysaccharides obtained by partial de-N-acetylation from chitin, one of the most abundant renewable resources in the biosphere. Chitosan has been firmly established as having unique material properties as well as biological activities. Either in its native form or as a chemical derivative, chitosan is amenable to being processed—typically under mild conditions—into soft materials such as hydrogels, colloidal nanoparticles, or nanofibers. Given its multiple biological properties, including biodegradability, antimicrobial effects, gene transfectability, and metal adsorption—to name but a few—chitosan is regarded as a widely versatile building block in various sectors (e.g., agriculture, food, cosmetics, pharmacy) and for various applications (medical devices, metal adsorption, catalysis, etc.). This Special Issue presents an updated account addressing some of the major applications, including also chemical and enzymatic modifications of oligos and polymers. A better understanding of the properties that underpin the use of chitin and chitosan in different fields is key for boosting their more extensive industrial utilization, as well as to aid regulatory agencies in establishing specifications, guidelines, and standards for the different types of products and applications.

Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

Carbohydrate Active Enzymes
Author: Stefano Benini
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 408
Release: 2020-06-18
ISBN: 3039360906
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Book Excerpt:

Carbohydrate-active enzymes are responsible for both biosynthesis and the breakdown of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. They are involved in many metabolic pathways; in the biosynthesis and degradation of various biomolecules, such as bacterial exopolysaccharides, starch, cellulose and lignin; and in the glycosylation of proteins and lipids. Carbohydrate-active enzymes are classified into glycoside hydrolases, glycosyltransferases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate esterases, and enzymes with auxiliary activities (CAZy database, www.cazy.org). Glycosyltransferases synthesize a huge variety of complex carbohydrates with different degrees of polymerization, moieties and branching. On the other hand, complex carbohydrate breakdown is carried out by glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases. Their interesting reactions have attracted the attention of researchers across scientific fields, ranging from basic research to biotechnology. Interest in carbohydrate-active enzymes is due not only to their ability to build and degrade biopolymers—which is highly relevant in biotechnology—but also because they are involved in bacterial biofilm formation, and in glycosylation of proteins and lipids, with important health implications. This book gathers new research results and reviews to broaden our understanding of carbohydrate-active enzymes, their mutants and their reaction products at the molecular level.

Biofilms in Medicine Industry and Environmental Biotechnology

Biofilms in Medicine  Industry and Environmental Biotechnology
Author: Piet Lens
Publsiher: IWA Publishing
Total Pages: 610
Release: 2003-01-01
ISBN: 1843390191
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biofilms in Medicine Industry and Environmental Biotechnology Book Excerpt:

This timely book will introduce its readers to the

Carbohydrates as Drugs

Carbohydrates as Drugs
Author: Peter H. Seeberger,Christoph Rademacher
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 237
Release: 2014-11-14
ISBN: 3319086758
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Carbohydrates as Drugs Book Excerpt:

Medicinal chemistry is both science and art. The science of medicinal chemistry offers mankind one of its best hopes for improving the quality of life. The art of medicinal chemistry continues to challenge its practitioners with the need for both intuition and experience to discover new drugs. Hence sharing the experience of drug research is uniquely beneficial to the field of medicinal chemistry. Drug research requires interdisciplinary team-work at the interface between chemistry, biology and medicine. Therefore, the topic-related series Topics in Medicinal Chemistry covers all relevant aspects of drug research, e.g. pathobiochemistry of diseases, identification and validation of (emerging) drug targets, structural biology, drugability of targets, drug design approaches, chemogenomics, synthetic chemistry including combinatorial methods, bioorganic chemistry, natural compounds, high-throughput screening, pharmacological in vitro and in vivo investigations, drug-receptor interactions on the molecular level, structure-activity relationships, drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, toxicology and pharmacogenomics. In general, special volumes are edited by well known guest editors.

Bacterial Adhesion

Bacterial Adhesion
Author: Dirk Linke,Adrian Goldman
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 374
Release: 2011-05-10
ISBN: 9400709404
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bacterial Adhesion Book Excerpt:

Over the last few years, bacterial adhesion has become a more and more important and active scientific area, but the field lacks communication and scientific exchange between medical and microbiology researchers who work with the relevant biological systems, and biochemists, structural biologists and physicists, who know and understand the physical methods best suited to investigate the phenomenon at the molecular level. The field consequently would benefit from a cross-disciplinary conference enabling such communication. This book tries to bridge the gap between the disciplines.

Endotoxins Structure Function and Recognition

Endotoxins  Structure  Function and Recognition
Author: Xiaoyuan Wang,Peter J. Quinn
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 415
Release: 2010-06-30
ISBN: 9048190789
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Endotoxins Structure Function and Recognition Book Excerpt:

Endotoxins are potentially toxic compounds produced by Gram-negative bacteria including some pathogens. Unlike exotoxins, which are secreted in soluble form by live bacteria, endotoxins are comprised of structural components of bacteria. Endotoxins can cause a whole-body inflammatory state, sepsis, leading to low blood pressure, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. This book brings together contributions from researchers in the forefront of these subjects. It is divided into two sections. The first deals with how endotoxins are synthesized and end up on the bacterial surface. The second discussed how endotoxins activate TLR4 and, in turn, how TLR4 generates the molecular signals leading to infectious and inflammatory diseases. The way endotoxins interact with the host cells is fundamental to understanding the mechanism of sepsis, and recent research on these aspects of endotoxins has served to illuminate previously undescribed functions of the innate immune system. This volume presents a description of endotoxins according to their genetic constitution, structure, function and mode of interaction with host cells.

Recent Trends in Carbohydrate Chemistry

Recent Trends in Carbohydrate Chemistry
Author: Amelia Pilar Rauter,Bjorn E. Christensen,Laszlo Somsak,Paul Kosma,Roberto Adamo
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 438
Release: 2020-04-29
ISBN: 0128209550
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Recent Trends in Carbohydrate Chemistry Book Excerpt:

Recent Trends in Carbohydrate Chemistry: Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of Glycans and Glycoconjugates covers biomedically relevant bacterial cell wall carbohydrates including recent findings on biosynthetic aspects, advances in the chemical assembly of bacterial lipopolysaccharide fragments and teichoic acids, and modern NMR approaches to unravel structural details. The first part introduces and provides the relevant background for synthetic glycoconjugate vaccines. The second section focuses on synthetic carbohydrate-based vaccines of therapeutic potential that are licensed or under development. This second volume of Recent Trends in Carbohydrate Chemistry is ideal for researchers working as synthetic organic chemists, as well as those interested in glycoconjugation, protein chemists, immunologists, and microbiologists, in academia as well as in industry. Highlights important features of bacterial glycoproteins Illustrates modern chemical synthesis and structural analysis of bacterial glycans Demonstrates the importance of carbohydrate chemistry for the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides and teichoic acid Covers recent findings on glycan ligation Gives an overview of the most recent developments on carbohydrate-based vaccines